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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2009-07-25 00:10:09 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:58:22 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0012935
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB12935
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDynorphin A
DescriptionDynorphin A is an endogenous opioid peptide that produces non-opioid receptor-mediated neural excitation.Dynorphin induces calcium influx via voltage-sensitive calcium channels in sensory neurons by activating bradykinin receptors. This action of dynorphin at bradykinin receptors is distinct from the primary signaling pathway activated by bradykinin and underlies the hyperalgesia produced by pharmacological administration of dynorphin by the spinal route in rats and mice. Blockade of spinal B1 or B2 receptor also reverses persistent neuropathic pain but only when there is sustained elevation of endogenous spinal dynorphin, which is required for maintenance of neuropathic pain. These data reveal a mechanism for endogenous dynorphin to promote pain through its agonist action at bradykinin receptors and suggest new avenues for therapeutic intervention. Dynorphin A is a form of dynorphin.Dynorphins are a class of opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin. When prodynorphin is cleaved during processing by proprotein convertase 2 (PC2), multiple active peptides are released: dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and a/b-neo-endorphin. Depolarization of a neuron containing prodynorphin stimulates PC2 processing, which occurs within synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Occasionally, prodynorphin is not fully processed, leading to the release of "big dynorphin."This 32-amino acid molecule consists of both dynorphin A and dynorphin B.Dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and big dynorphin all contain a high proportion of basic amino acid residues, in particular lysine and arginine (29.4%, 23.1%, and 31.2% basic residues, respectively), as well as many hydrophobic residues (41.2%, 30.8%, and 34.4% hydrophobic residues, respectively). Although dynorphins are found widely distributed in the CNS, they have the highest concentrations in the hypothalamus, medulla, pons, midbrain, and spinal cord. Dynorphins are stored in large (80-120 nm diameter) dense-core vesicles that are considerably larger than vesicles storing neurotransmitters. These large dense-core vesicles differ from small synaptic vesicles in that a more intense and prolonged stimulus is needed to cause the large vesicles to release their contents into the synaptic cleft. Dense-core vesicle storage is characteristic of opioid peptides storage. The first clues to the functionality of dynorphins came from Goldstein et al. in their work with opioid peptides. The group discovered an endogenous opioid peptide in the porcine pituitary that proved difficult to isolate. By sequencing the first 13 amino acids of the peptide, they created a synthetic version of the peptide with a similar potency to the natural peptide. Goldstein et al. applied the synthetic peptide to the guinea ileum longitudinal muscle and found it to be an extraordinarily potent opioid peptide. The peptide was called dynorphin (from the Greek dynamis=power) to describe its potency. Dynorphins exert their effects primarily through the κ-opioid receptor (KOR), a G-protein-coupled receptor. Two subtypes of KORs have been identified: K1 and K2. Although KOR is the primary receptor for all dynorphins, the peptides do have some affinity for the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), d-opioid receptor (DOR), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor. Different dynorphins show different receptor selectivities and potencies at receptors. Big dynorphin and dynorphin A have the same selectivity for human KOR, but dynorphin A is more selective for KOR over MOR and DOR than is big dynorphin. Big dynorphin is more potent at KORs than is dynorphin A. Both big dynorphin and dynorphin A are more potent and more selective than dynorphin B (Wikipedia).
Structure
Data?1563861502
Synonyms
ValueSource
Dynorphin a 1-17HMDB
Tyr-gly-gly-phe-leu-arg-arg-ile-arg-pro-lys-leu-lys-TRP-asp-asn-GLNHMDB
Chemical FormulaC69H116N23O13
Average Molecular Weight1475.8056
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1474.912295913
IUPAC Name(2S)-6-amino-2-{[(2S)-1-[(2R)-2-[(2S)-2-[(2R)-2-[(2R)-2-[(2R)-2-[(2R)-2-(2-{2-[(2R)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanamido]acetamido}acetamido)-3-phenylpropanamido]-4-methylpentanamido]-5-carbamimidamidopentanamido]-5-carbamimidamidopentanamido]-3-methylpentanamido]-5-[(azaniumylmethanimidoyl)amino]pentanoyl]pyrrolidin-2-yl]formamido}-N-[(1S)-1-carbamoyl-3-methylbutyl]hexanamide
Traditional Name(2S)-6-amino-2-{[(2S)-1-[(2R)-2-[(2S)-2-[(2R)-2-[(2R)-2-[(2R)-2-[(2R)-2-(2-{2-[(2R)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanamido]acetamido}acetamido)-3-phenylpropanamido]-4-methylpentanamido]-5-carbamimidamidopentanamido]-5-carbamimidamidopentanamido]-3-methylpentanamido]-5-[(ammoniomethanimidoyl)amino]pentanoyl]pyrrolidin-2-yl]formamido}-N-[(1S)-1-carbamoyl-3-methylbutyl]hexanamide
CAS Registry Number80448-90-4
SMILES
CCC(C)[C@H](NC(=O)[C@@H](CCCNC(N)=N)NC(=O)[C@@H](CCCNC(N)=N)NC(=O)[C@@H](CC(C)C)NC(=O)[C@@H](CC1=CC=CC=C1)NC(=O)CNC(=O)CNC(=O)[C@H](N)CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(=O)N[C@H](CCCNC([NH3+])=N)C(=O)N1CCC[C@H]1C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(N)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C69H115N23O13/c1-7-41(6)56(65(104)88-49(22-15-31-81-69(77)78)66(105)92-32-16-23-53(92)64(103)87-46(19-11-12-28-70)60(99)89-50(57(72)96)33-39(2)3)91-61(100)48(21-14-30-80-68(75)76)85-59(98)47(20-13-29-79-67(73)74)86-62(101)51(34-40(4)5)90-63(102)52(36-42-17-9-8-10-18-42)84-55(95)38-82-54(94)37-83-58(97)45(71)35-43-24-26-44(93)27-25-43/h8-10,17-18,24-27,39-41,45-53,56,93H,7,11-16,19-23,28-38,70-71H2,1-6H3,(H2,72,96)(H,82,94)(H,83,97)(H,84,95)(H,85,98)(H,86,101)(H,87,103)(H,88,104)(H,89,99)(H,90,102)(H,91,100)(H4,73,74,79)(H4,75,76,80)(H4,77,78,81)/p+1/t41?,45-,46+,47-,48-,49-,50+,51-,52-,53+,56+/m1/s1
InChI KeyZIHYAUCIMOSJIH-QGLXRRFISA-O
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as polypeptides. These are peptides containing ten or more amino acid residues.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic Polymers
ClassPolypeptides
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentPolypeptides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Polypeptide
  • Alpha peptide
  • Tyrosine or derivatives
  • Phenylalanine or derivatives
  • Isoleucine or derivatives
  • Leucine or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Proline or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid amide
  • N-substituted-alpha-amino acid
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • N-acylpyrrolidine
  • Pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Phenol
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Fatty amide
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Guanidine
  • Carboximidamide
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location:

Source:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.017 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.62ALOGPS
logP-4.9ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.43ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.37ChemAxon
Physiological Charge5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count23ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count23ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area613.99 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count48ChemAxon
Refractivity432.34 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability159.34 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0gvx-1941311001-421d595c2f8c57563a65JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000l-4940211101-64ca770c84306903bd64JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000l-2920000000-aa4002169b5b6cb0d2b3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.00002790 +/- 0.000009766 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0000143 +/- 0.0000009 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specifiedfibromyalgia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.00001674 +/- 0.000006976 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedAlzheimer's disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Fibromyalgia
  1. Vaeroy H, Nyberg F, Terenius L: No evidence for endorphin deficiency in fibromyalgia following investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynorphin A and Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7. Pain. 1991 Aug;46(2):139-43. [PubMed:1684241 ]
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Sunderland T, Berrettini WH, Molchan SE, Lawlor BA, Martinez RA, Vitiello B, Tariot PN, Cohen RM: Reduced cerebrospinal fluid dynorphin A1-8 in Alzheimer's disease. Biol Psychiatry. 1991 Jul 1;30(1):81-7. [PubMed:1716470 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB029215
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound53481554
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID4727
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available