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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-12-20 20:29:31 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000131
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00131
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlycerol
DescriptionGlycerol is an important component of triglycerides (i.e. fats and oils) and of phospholipids. glycerol is a three-carbon substance that forms the backbone of fatty acids in fats. When the body uses stored fat as a source of energy, glycerol and fatty acids are released into the bloodstream. The glycerol component can be converted to glucose by the liver and provides energy for cellular metabolism. Glycerol is found to be associated with glycerol kinase deficiency, which is an inborn error of metabolism.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1,2,3-PropanetriolChEBI
1,2,3-TrihydroxypropaneChEBI
GlycerinChEBI
GlycerineChEBI
GlyceritolChEBI
GlycerolumChEBI
Glycyl alcoholChEBI
GlyzerinChEBI
GroChEBI
OelsuessChEBI
PropanetriolChEBI
TrihydroxypropaneChEBI
BulboldHMDB
CristalHMDB
e 422HMDB
Emery 916HMDB
Glyceol opthalganHMDB
GlyrolHMDB
GlysaninHMDB
IFPHMDB
Incorporation factorHMDB
Mackstat H 66HMDB
OsmoglynHMDB
Pricerine 9091HMDB
RG-SHMDB
TryhydroxypropaneHMDB
Chemical FormulaC3H8O3
Average Molecular Weight92.0938
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight92.047344122
IUPAC Namepropane-1,2,3-triol
Traditional Nameglycerol
CAS Registry Number56-81-5
SMILES
OCC(O)CO
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H8O3/c4-1-3(6)2-5/h3-6H,1-2H2
InChI KeyPEDCQBHIVMGVHV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar alcohols. These are hydrogenated forms of carbohydrate in which the carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentSugar alcohols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Sugar alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycerophospholipid metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point20 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-1.76HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1170 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.9ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area60.69 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity20.52 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.93 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0fr2-0910000000-6497c0870b71585c6322View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0ktb-0920000000-93408d69acffad6f48afView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-05mk-0940000000-778ba583836705f8fdf4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0920000000-2e4b358941c660851f0aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00dj-6920000000-6828d7b00cb31e84fac1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0le9-0940000000-e0b9bada9be26d720326View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-01ox-9000000000-3fe0c184a891364773a8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0930000000-470b6694b25fde40d80fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0910000000-6497c0870b71585c6322View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ktb-0920000000-93408d69acffad6f48afView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-05mk-0940000000-778ba583836705f8fdf4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0920000000-2e4b358941c660851f0aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dj-6920000000-6828d7b00cb31e84fac1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0le9-0940000000-e0b9bada9be26d720326View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0920000000-085a71f40d38f2729036View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01qc-9000000000-80cdb8c006ea00f55a64View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0q4u-9280000000-1487e8921bcecbde6458View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-d7c139dc01453f61eb99View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4l-9000000000-7d7844b4813b038012daView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-9100000000-16029dbe79f139ab904aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-01ox-9000000000-3fe0c184a891364773a8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-a638e26fe3c3f48563c2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004l-9000000000-d3fd9e9abd911eb0f88eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-ca218dca3a5d86196d81View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-b40367f5ca8d11288fbeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-ba29a0647084e32d8704View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0abc-9000000000-4cd85379d414c16f95c0View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-01ox-9000000000-3706109441e6d3017895View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
D-glyceric aciduraPw000505Pw000505 greyscalePw000505 simpleNot Available
Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiencyPw000506Pw000506 greyscalePw000506 simpleNot Available
Galactose MetabolismPw000159Pw000159 greyscalePw000159 simpleMap00052
GalactosemiaPw000200Pw000200 greyscalePw000200 simpleNot Available
Glycerol Kinase DeficiencyPw000204Pw000204 greyscalePw000204 simpleNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified40.0 +/- 19.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified43.0 +/- 9.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified50.0 +/- 16.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified39.0 +/- 9.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified68.0 (33.0 - 139.0) uMElderly (>65 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified80-230 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified284.6(213.9) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified331.2-532.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified50 +/- 16 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified43 +/- 9 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified53.0 (28.0-102.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified431.6 +/- 100.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified17.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified39 +/- 14 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified13.5 (11.0 - 16.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified167.46 +/- 122.40 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SweatDetected and Quantified3000– 10800 uMAdult (60 years old)Male
Normal
details
SweatDetected and Quantified730 uMAdult (40 years old)Male
Normal
details
SweatDetected but not Quantified Adult BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified13 (4-19) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified<20 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.0 +/- 43.4 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.5 +/- 138.5 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.9 +/- 16.8 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.1 +/- 8.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified19.6 +/- 34.9 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified18.9 +/- 351.8 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.6 +/- 858 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.4 +/- 21.6 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.2 +/- 56.7 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.7 +/- 9.8 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified40.817 +/- 24.266 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified133.9 +/- 87.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected and Quantified281.8 +/- 111.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Pregnancy with fetuses with trisomy 18
details
BloodDetected and Quantified194.3 +/- 157.44 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified166.5 (42.5) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEarly preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified484.2 (341.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified16.0 +/- 6.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Diabetes
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
BloodDetected and Quantified4500-7900 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleGlycerol kinase deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified124.62 (45.58) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy with fetus having congenital heart defect details
BloodDetected and Quantified133.9(34.38) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified800.7 (541.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleLate-onset preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified346.48(169.89) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart failure with preserved ejection fraction details
BloodDetected and Quantified312 (296.8) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified436.26(235.59) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart failure with reduced ejection fraction details
BloodDetected and Quantified4300.0 (1300.0 +/- 7900.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedGlycerol Kinase Deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified205.7 (57.44) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleDown syndrome pregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified203.1 (79.9) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Cryptosporidium infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleMyalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Crohn’s Disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothCrohn's disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified22000-59000 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleGlycerol kinase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified8400-28300 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleGlycerol kinase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified4000-28000 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)MaleGlycerol Kinase Deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified75.585 +/- 55.786 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Diabetes mellitus type 2
  1. Blomqvist G, Alvarsson M, Grill V, Von Heijne G, Ingvar M, Thorell JO, Stone-Elander S, Widen L, Ekberg K: Effect of acute hyperketonemia on the cerebral uptake of ketone bodies in nondiabetic subjects and IDDM patients. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jul;283(1):E20-8. [PubMed:12067838 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Xuan J, Pan G, Qiu Y, Yang L, Su M, Liu Y, Chen J, Feng G, Fang Y, Jia W, Xing Q, He L: Metabolomic profiling to identify potential serum biomarkers for schizophrenia and risperidone action. J Proteome Res. 2011 Dec 2;10(12):5433-43. doi: 10.1021/pr2006796. Epub 2011 Nov 8. [PubMed:22007635 ]
Glycerol kinase deficiency
  1. Ramanjam V, Delport S, Wilmshurst JM: The diagnostic difficulties of complex glycerol kinase deficiency. J Child Neurol. 2010 Oct;25(10):1269-71. doi: 10.1177/0883073809357240. Epub 2010 Jan 28. [PubMed:20110216 ]
  2. Blomquist HK, Dahl N, Gustafsson L, Hellerud C, Holme E, Holmgren G, Matsson L, von Zweigbergk M: Glycerol kinase deficiency in two brothers with and without clinical manifestations. Clin Genet. 1996 Nov;50(5):375-9. [PubMed:9007327 ]
  3. Eriksson A, Lindstedt S, Ransnas L, von Wendt L: Deficiency of glycerol kinase (EC 2.7.1.30). Clin Chem. 1983 Apr;29(4):718-22. [PubMed:6299616 ]
  4. G.Frauendienst-Egger, Friedrich K. Trefz (2017). MetaGene: Metabolic & Genetic Information Center (MIC: http://www.metagene.de). METAGENE consortium.
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB04077
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000756
KNApSAcK IDC00001163
Chemspider ID733
KEGG Compound IDC00116
BioCyc IDGLYCEROL
BiGG ID33915
Wikipedia LinkGlycerol
METLIN ID105
PubChem Compound753
PDB IDGOL
ChEBI ID17754
References
Synthesis ReferenceYang, Yifang. Purification of glycerol. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2007), 3pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sweatman BC, Farrant RD, Holmes E, Ghauri FY, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC: 600 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of human cerebrospinal fluid: effects of sample manipulation and assignment of resonances. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1993 Aug;11(8):651-64. [PubMed:8257730 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  3. Boulat O, Gradwohl M, Matos V, Guignard JP, Bachmann C: Organic acids in the second morning urine in a healthy Swiss paediatric population. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Dec;41(12):1642-58. [PubMed:14708889 ]
  4. de Araujo Burgos MG, Bion FM, Campos F: [Lactation and alcohol: clinical and nutritional effects]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2004 Mar;54(1):25-35. [PubMed:15332353 ]
  5. Olbermann M, Grunert A, Bassler KH: [Biokinetic characterization of human glycerin utilization]. Infusionsther Klin Ernahr. 1977 Apr;4(2):68-70. [PubMed:558160 ]
  6. Titov VN, Lisitsyn DM, Ameliushkina VA, Lupanov VP, Staroverov II, Osipov SG, Kukharchuk VV: [Double bonds of fatty acids, alcohols glycerol, cholesterol and nonpolar serum lipids. Diagnostic value of hypercholesterolemia]. Klin Lab Diagn. 2002 May;(5):3-8. [PubMed:12085703 ]
  7. Konig K, Rickels E, Heissler HE, Zumkeller M, Samii M: Artificial elevation of brain tissue glycerol by administration of a glycerol-containing agent. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2001 Apr;94(4):621-3. [PubMed:11302662 ]
  8. Fluhr JW, Mao-Qiang M, Brown BE, Wertz PW, Crumrine D, Sundberg JP, Feingold KR, Elias PM: Glycerol regulates stratum corneum hydration in sebaceous gland deficient (asebia) mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 May;120(5):728-37. [PubMed:12713573 ]
  9. Sjostrand M, Gudbjornsdottir S, Holmang A, Strindberg L, Ekberg K, Lonnroth P: Measurements of interstitial muscle glycerol in normal and insulin-resistant subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;87(5):2206-11. [PubMed:11994365 ]
  10. Sjarif DR, Hellerud C, van Amstel JK, Kleijer WJ, Sperl W, Lacombe D, Sass JO, Beemer FA, Duran M, Poll-The BT: Glycerol kinase deficiency: residual activity explained by reduced transcription and enzyme conformation. Eur J Hum Genet. 2004 Jun;12(6):424-32. [PubMed:15026783 ]
  11. De Haene H, Taes Y, Christophe A, Delanghe J: Comparison of triglyceride concentration with lipemic index in disorders of triglyceride and glycerol metabolism. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(2):220-2. [PubMed:16475911 ]
  12. Eriksson A, Lindstedt S, Ransnas L, von Wendt L: Deficiency of glycerol kinase (EC 2.7.1.30). Clin Chem. 1983 Apr;29(4):718-22. [PubMed:6299616 ]
  13. Quisth V, Enoksson S, Blaak E, Hagstrom-Toft E, Arner P, Bolinder J: Major differences in noradrenaline action on lipolysis and blood flow rates in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in vivo. Diabetologia. 2005 May;48(5):946-53. Epub 2005 Mar 19. [PubMed:15778861 ]
  14. Pecora P, Suraci C, Antonelli M, De Maria S, Marrocco W: Blood glycerol meaning in obese patients. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1981 Dec 15;57(23):2389-93. [PubMed:7337752 ]
  15. Berger C, Sakowitz OW, Kiening KL, Schwab S: Neurochemical monitoring of glycerol therapy in patients with ischemic brain edema. Stroke. 2005 Feb;36(2):e4-6. Epub 2004 Dec 23. [PubMed:15618446 ]
  16. Bulow J, Gjeraa K, Enevoldsen LH, Simonsen L: Lipid mobilization from human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue is independent of sex during steady-state exercise. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2006 Jul;26(4):205-11. [PubMed:16836692 ]
  17. Yaqoob M, Nabi A: Flow injection chemiluminescent assays for glycerol and triglycerides using a co-immobilized enzyme reactor. Luminescence. 2003 Mar-Apr;18(2):67-71. [PubMed:12687625 ]
  18. Coppack SW, Chinkes DL, Miles JM, Patterson BW, Klein S: A multicompartmental model of in vivo adipose tissue glycerol kinetics and capillary permeability in lean and obese humans. Diabetes. 2005 Jul;54(7):1934-41. [PubMed:15983192 ]
  19. Ross SE, Erickson RL, Gerin I, DeRose PM, Bajnok L, Longo KA, Misek DE, Kuick R, Hanash SM, Atkins KB, Andresen SM, Nebb HI, Madsen L, Kristiansen K, MacDougald OA: Microarray analyses during adipogenesis: understanding the effects of Wnt signaling on adipogenesis and the roles of liver X receptor alpha in adipocyte metabolism. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Aug;22(16):5989-99. [PubMed:12138207 ]
  20. Foster KJ, Alberti KG, Hinks L, Lloyd B, Postle A, Smythe P, Turnell DC, Walton R: Blood intermediary metabolite and insulin concentrations after an overnight fast: reference ranges for adults, and interrelations. Clin Chem. 1978 Sep;24(9):1568-72. [PubMed:688619 ]
  21. Ekberg NR, Wisniewski N, Brismar K, Ungerstedt U: Measurement of glucose and metabolites in subcutaneous adipose tissue during hyperglycemia with microdialysis at various perfusion flow rates. Clin Chim Acta. 2005 Sep;359(1-2):53-64. [PubMed:15939412 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 42 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Has a preference for arachidonic-containing phospholipids.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2E
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZK7
Molecular weight:
15988.525
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
Gene Name:
AKR1B1
Uniprot ID:
P15121
Molecular weight:
35853.125
Reactions
Glycerol + NAD(P)(+) → Glyceraldehyde + NAD(P)Hdetails
Glycerol + NAD → Glyceraldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glycerol + NADP → Glyceraldehyde + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CPT1B
Uniprot ID:
Q92523
Molecular weight:
83890.705
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of the acyl group of long-chain fatty acid-CoA conjugates onto carnitine, an essential step for the mitochondrial uptake of long-chain fatty acids and their subsequent beta-oxidation in the mitochondrion. Plays an important role in triglyceride metabolism.
Gene Name:
CPT1A
Uniprot ID:
P50416
Molecular weight:
86238.415
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The primary function of this lipase is the hydrolysis of triglycerides of circulating chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Binding to heparin sulfate proteogylcans at the cell surface is vital to the function. The apolipoprotein, APOC2, acts as a coactivator of LPL activity in the presence of lipids on the luminal surface of vascular endothelium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
LPL
Uniprot ID:
P06858
Molecular weight:
53162.07
Reactions
Glycerol + Fatty acid → Triacylglyceroldetails
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CPT2
Uniprot ID:
P23786
Molecular weight:
73776.335
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Converts monoacylglycerides to free fatty acids and glycerol. Hydrolyzes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and thereby contributes to the regulation of endocannabinoid signaling, nociperception and perception of pain (By similarity). Regulates the levels of fatty acids that serve as signaling molecules and promote cancer cell migration, invasion and tumor growth.
Gene Name:
MGLL
Uniprot ID:
Q99685
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
1-Acylglycerol + Water → Glycerol + Fatty aciddetails
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Inhibitor of phospholipase A2, also possesses anti- coagulant properties. Also cleaves the cyclic bond of inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate to form inositol 1-phosphate
Gene Name:
ANXA3
Uniprot ID:
P12429
Molecular weight:
36374.8
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme with both ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase activity, which mediates two steps in the sulfate activation pathway. The first step is the transfer of a sulfate group to ATP to yield adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS), and the second step is the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to APS yielding 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate (PAPS: activated sulfate donor used by sulfotransferase). In mammals, PAPS is the sole source of sulfate; APS appears to be only an intermediate in the sulfate-activation pathway. Also involved in the biosynthesis of sulfated L-selectin ligands in endothelial cells.
Gene Name:
PAPSS1
Uniprot ID:
O43252
Molecular weight:
70832.725
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Molecular weight:
218584.77

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Konishi T, Satsu H, Hatsugai Y, Aizawa K, Inakuma T, Nagata S, Sakuda SH, Nagasawa H, Shimizu M: Inhibitory effect of a bitter melon extract on the P-glycoprotein activity in intestinal Caco-2 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Oct;143(3):379-87. Epub 2004 Sep 6. [PubMed:15351776 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 42 proteins in total.