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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-10-29 17:55:21 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00131
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlycerol
DescriptionGlycerol is an important component of triglycerides (i.e. fats and oils) and of phospholipids. glycerol is a three-carbon substance that forms the backbone of fatty acids in fats. When the body uses stored fat as a source of energy, glycerol and fatty acids are released into the bloodstream. The glycerol component can be converted to glucose by the liver and provides energy for cellular metabolism.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1,2,3-Trihydroxypropane
  2. Bulbold
  3. Cristal
  4. E 422
  5. Emery 916
  6. Glyceol Opthalgan
  7. Glycerin
  8. Glycerine
  9. Glyceritol
  10. Glycerol
  11. Glycyl alcohol
  12. Glyrol
  13. Glysanin
  14. IFP
  15. Incorporation factor
  16. Mackstat H 66
  17. Osmoglyn
  18. Pricerine 9091
  19. Propanetriol
  20. RG-S
  21. Trihydroxypropane
  22. Tryhydroxypropane
Chemical FormulaC3H8O3
Average Molecular Weight92.0938
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight92.047344122
IUPAC Namepropane-1,2,3-triol
Traditional Nameglycerol
CAS Registry Number56-81-5
SMILES
OCC(O)CO
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H8O3/c4-1-3(6)2-5/h3-6H,1-2H2
InChI KeyPEDCQBHIVMGVHV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassCarbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
ClassSugar Alcohols
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Carbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
  • Glycerols(KEGG)
  • a sugar alcohol(Cyc)
  • carbohydrate(ChEBI)
  • polyol(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • Primary Alcohol
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentSugar Alcohols
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycerophospholipid metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point20 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-1.76HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1170.0ALOGPS
logP-1.9ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area60.69 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity20.52 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.93 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSMS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Galactose MetabolismSMP00043map00052
Glycerolipid MetabolismSMP00039map00561
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified40.0 +/- 19.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified43.0 +/- 9.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified50.0 +/- 16.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified39.0 +/- 9.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified68.0 (33.0 - 139.0) uMElderly (>65 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified145.00 (20.00-270.00) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified53.0 (28.0-102.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified431.6 +/- 100.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified17.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified39 +/- 14 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified13.5 (11.0 - 16.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified167.46 +/- 122.40 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified13 (4-19) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.00 (0.00-40.00) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.0 +/- 43.4 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.5 +/- 138.5 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.9 +/- 16.8 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.1 +/- 8.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified19.6 +/- 34.9 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified18.9 +/- 351.8 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.6 +/- 858 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.4 +/- 21.6 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.2 +/- 56.7 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.7 +/- 9.8 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified133.9 +/- 87.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected and Quantified16.0 +/- 6.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Diabetes
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5050.00 (1800.00-8300.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGlycerol kinase deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified4300.0 (1300.0 +/- 7900.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedGlycerol Kinase Deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified140.00 (90.00-190.00) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothGlycerol kinase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified4000-28000 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)MaleGlycerol Kinase Deficiency details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Diabetes mellitus type 2
  1. Blomqvist G, Alvarsson M, Grill V, Von Heijne G, Ingvar M, Thorell JO, Stone-Elander S, Widen L, Ekberg K: Effect of acute hyperketonemia on the cerebral uptake of ketone bodies in nondiabetic subjects and IDDM patients. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jul;283(1):E20-8. Pubmed: 12067838
Glycerol kinase deficiency
  1. Sjarif DR, Hellerud C, van Amstel JK, Kleijer WJ, Sperl W, Lacombe D, Sass JO, Beemer FA, Duran M, Poll-The BT: Glycerol kinase deficiency: residual activity explained by reduced transcription and enzyme conformation. Eur J Hum Genet. 2004 Jun;12(6):424-32. Pubmed: 15026783
  2. MetaGene
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB04077
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000756
KNApSAcK IDC00001163
Chemspider ID733
KEGG Compound IDC00116
BioCyc IDGLYCEROL
BiGG ID33915
Wikipedia LinkGlycerol
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00131
Metagene LinkHMDB00131
METLIN ID105
PubChem Compound753
PDB IDGOL
ChEBI ID17522
References
Synthesis ReferenceYang, Yifang. Purification of glycerol. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2007), 3pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sweatman BC, Farrant RD, Holmes E, Ghauri FY, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC: 600 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of human cerebrospinal fluid: effects of sample manipulation and assignment of resonances. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1993 Aug;11(8):651-64. Pubmed: 8257730
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  3. Boulat O, Gradwohl M, Matos V, Guignard JP, Bachmann C: Organic acids in the second morning urine in a healthy Swiss paediatric population. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Dec;41(12):1642-58. Pubmed: 14708889
  4. de Araujo Burgos MG, Bion FM, Campos F: [Lactation and alcohol: clinical and nutritional effects] Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2004 Mar;54(1):25-35. Pubmed: 15332353
  5. Olbermann M, Grunert A, Bassler KH: [Biokinetic characterization of human glycerin utilization] Infusionsther Klin Ernahr. 1977 Apr;4(2):68-70. Pubmed: 558160
  6. Titov VN, Lisitsyn DM, Ameliushkina VA, Lupanov VP, Staroverov II, Osipov SG, Kukharchuk VV: [Double bonds of fatty acids, alcohols glycerol, cholesterol and nonpolar serum lipids. Diagnostic value of hypercholesterolemia] Klin Lab Diagn. 2002 May;(5):3-8. Pubmed: 12085703
  7. Konig K, Rickels E, Heissler HE, Zumkeller M, Samii M: Artificial elevation of brain tissue glycerol by administration of a glycerol-containing agent. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2001 Apr;94(4):621-3. Pubmed: 11302662
  8. Fluhr JW, Mao-Qiang M, Brown BE, Wertz PW, Crumrine D, Sundberg JP, Feingold KR, Elias PM: Glycerol regulates stratum corneum hydration in sebaceous gland deficient (asebia) mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 May;120(5):728-37. Pubmed: 12713573
  9. Sjostrand M, Gudbjornsdottir S, Holmang A, Strindberg L, Ekberg K, Lonnroth P: Measurements of interstitial muscle glycerol in normal and insulin-resistant subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;87(5):2206-11. Pubmed: 11994365
  10. Sjarif DR, Hellerud C, van Amstel JK, Kleijer WJ, Sperl W, Lacombe D, Sass JO, Beemer FA, Duran M, Poll-The BT: Glycerol kinase deficiency: residual activity explained by reduced transcription and enzyme conformation. Eur J Hum Genet. 2004 Jun;12(6):424-32. Pubmed: 15026783
  11. De Haene H, Taes Y, Christophe A, Delanghe J: Comparison of triglyceride concentration with lipemic index in disorders of triglyceride and glycerol metabolism. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(2):220-2. Pubmed: 16475911
  12. Eriksson A, Lindstedt S, Ransnas L, von Wendt L: Deficiency of glycerol kinase (EC 2.7.1.30). Clin Chem. 1983 Apr;29(4):718-22. Pubmed: 6299616
  13. Quisth V, Enoksson S, Blaak E, Hagstrom-Toft E, Arner P, Bolinder J: Major differences in noradrenaline action on lipolysis and blood flow rates in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in vivo. Diabetologia. 2005 May;48(5):946-53. Epub 2005 Mar 19. Pubmed: 15778861
  14. Pecora P, Suraci C, Antonelli M, De Maria S, Marrocco W: Blood glycerol meaning in obese patients. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1981 Dec 15;57(23):2389-93. Pubmed: 7337752
  15. Berger C, Sakowitz OW, Kiening KL, Schwab S: Neurochemical monitoring of glycerol therapy in patients with ischemic brain edema. Stroke. 2005 Feb;36(2):e4-6. Epub 2004 Dec 23. Pubmed: 15618446
  16. Bulow J, Gjeraa K, Enevoldsen LH, Simonsen L: Lipid mobilization from human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue is independent of sex during steady-state exercise. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2006 Jul;26(4):205-11. Pubmed: 16836692
  17. Yaqoob M, Nabi A: Flow injection chemiluminescent assays for glycerol and triglycerides using a co-immobilized enzyme reactor. Luminescence. 2003 Mar-Apr;18(2):67-71. Pubmed: 12687625
  18. Coppack SW, Chinkes DL, Miles JM, Patterson BW, Klein S: A multicompartmental model of in vivo adipose tissue glycerol kinetics and capillary permeability in lean and obese humans. Diabetes. 2005 Jul;54(7):1934-41. Pubmed: 15983192
  19. Ross SE, Erickson RL, Gerin I, DeRose PM, Bajnok L, Longo KA, Misek DE, Kuick R, Hanash SM, Atkins KB, Andresen SM, Nebb HI, Madsen L, Kristiansen K, MacDougald OA: Microarray analyses during adipogenesis: understanding the effects of Wnt signaling on adipogenesis and the roles of liver X receptor alpha in adipocyte metabolism. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Aug;22(16):5989-99. Pubmed: 12138207
  20. Foster KJ, Alberti KG, Hinks L, Lloyd B, Postle A, Smythe P, Turnell DC, Walton R: Blood intermediary metabolite and insulin concentrations after an overnight fast: reference ranges for adults, and interrelations. Clin Chem. 1978 Sep;24(9):1568-72. Pubmed: 688619
  21. Ekberg NR, Wisniewski N, Brismar K, Ungerstedt U: Measurement of glucose and metabolites in subcutaneous adipose tissue during hyperglycemia with microdialysis at various perfusion flow rates. Clin Chim Acta. 2005 Sep;359(1-2):53-64. Pubmed: 15939412

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Has a preference for arachidonic-containing phospholipids.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2E
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZK7
Molecular weight:
15988.525
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed: 10592235
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
Gene Name:
AKR1B1
Uniprot ID:
P15121
Molecular weight:
35853.125
Reactions
Glycerol + NAD(P)(+) → Glyceraldehyde + NAD(P)Hdetails
Glycerol + NAD → Glyceraldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glycerol + NADP → Glyceraldehyde + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CPT1B
Uniprot ID:
Q92523
Molecular weight:
83890.705
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of the acyl group of long-chain fatty acid-CoA conjugates onto carnitine, an essential step for the mitochondrial uptake of long-chain fatty acids and their subsequent beta-oxidation in the mitochondrion. Plays an important role in triglyceride metabolism.
Gene Name:
CPT1A
Uniprot ID:
P50416
Molecular weight:
86238.415
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The primary function of this lipase is the hydrolysis of triglycerides of circulating chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Binding to heparin sulfate proteogylcans at the cell surface is vital to the function. The apolipoprotein, APOC2, acts as a coactivator of LPL activity in the presence of lipids on the luminal surface of vascular endothelium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
LPL
Uniprot ID:
P06858
Molecular weight:
53162.07
Reactions
Glycerol + Fatty acid → Triacylglyceroldetails
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CPT2
Uniprot ID:
P23786
Molecular weight:
73776.335
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Converts monoacylglycerides to free fatty acids and glycerol. Hydrolyzes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and thereby contributes to the regulation of endocannabinoid signaling, nociperception and perception of pain (By similarity). Regulates the levels of fatty acids that serve as signaling molecules and promote cancer cell migration, invasion and tumor growth.
Gene Name:
MGLL
Uniprot ID:
Q99685
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
1-Acylglycerol + Water → Glycerol + Fatty aciddetails
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Inhibitor of phospholipase A2, also possesses anti- coagulant properties. Also cleaves the cyclic bond of inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate to form inositol 1-phosphate
Gene Name:
ANXA3
Uniprot ID:
P12429
Molecular weight:
36374.8
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme with both ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase activity, which mediates two steps in the sulfate activation pathway. The first step is the transfer of a sulfate group to ATP to yield adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS), and the second step is the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to APS yielding 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate (PAPS: activated sulfate donor used by sulfotransferase). In mammals, PAPS is the sole source of sulfate; APS appears to be only an intermediate in the sulfate-activation pathway. Also involved in the biosynthesis of sulfated L-selectin ligands in endothelial cells.
Gene Name:
PAPSS1
Uniprot ID:
O43252
Molecular weight:
70832.725
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed: 10592235
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Molecular weight:
218584.77
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Removes terminal alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine residues from glycolipids and glycopeptides. Required for the breakdown of glycolipids.
Gene Name:
NAGA
Uniprot ID:
P17050
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed: 10592235
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyde to glycerol. Has broad substrate specificity. In vitro substrates include succinic semialdehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 1,2-naphthoquinone, methylglyoxal, and D-glucuronic acid. Plays a role in the activation of procarcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon trans-dihydrodiols, and in the metabolism of various xenobiotics and drugs, including the anthracyclines doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DAUN).
Gene Name:
AKR1A1
Uniprot ID:
P14550
Molecular weight:
36572.71
Reactions
Glycerol + NADP → Glyceraldehyde + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
In adipose tissue and heart, it primarily hydrolyzes stored triglycerides to free fatty acids, while in steroidogenic tissues, it principally converts cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol for steroid hormone production.
Gene Name:
LIPE
Uniprot ID:
Q05469
Molecular weight:
116596.715
Reactions
Monoacylglycerol + Water → Glycerol + a carboxylatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLA
Uniprot ID:
P06280
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Galactosylglycerol + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + Glyceroldetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular weight:
39723.945
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular weight:
39835.17
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed: 10592235
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the best substrates. Ethanol is not a good substrate but at the high ethanol concentrations reached in the digestive tract, it plays a role in the ethanol oxidation and contributes to the first pass ethanol metabolism.
Gene Name:
ADH7
Uniprot ID:
P40394
Molecular weight:
41480.985
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1A
Uniprot ID:
P07327
Molecular weight:
39858.37
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH6
Uniprot ID:
P28332
Molecular weight:
39072.275
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1C
Uniprot ID:
P00326
Molecular weight:
39867.27
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name:
GSTP1
Uniprot ID:
P09211
Molecular weight:
23355.625
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
General function:
Involved in phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor
Specific function:
Key enzyme in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GK2
Uniprot ID:
Q14410
Molecular weight:
60593.32
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Glycerol → ADP + Glycerol 3-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor
Specific function:
Key enzyme in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism.
Gene Name:
GK
Uniprot ID:
P32189
Molecular weight:
57488.675
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Glycerol → ADP + Glycerol 3-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Cleaves beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues from gangliosides, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans. Isoform 2 has no beta-galactosidase catalytic activity, but plays functional roles in the formation of extracellular elastic fibers (elastogenesis) and in the development of connective tissue. Seems to be identical to the elastin-binding protein (EBP), a major component of the non-integrin cell surface receptor expressed on fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, chondroblasts, leukocytes, and certain cancer cell types. In elastin producing cells, associates with tropoelastin intracellularly and functions as a recycling molecular chaperone which facilitates the secretions of tropoelastin and its assembly into elastic fibers.
Gene Name:
GLB1
Uniprot ID:
P16278
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in receptor signaling protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
On ligand binding, forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD transcriptional regulators. Receptor for TGF-beta
Gene Name:
TGFBR2
Uniprot ID:
P37173
Molecular weight:
64567.1
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme which catalyzes both the conversion of PGH2 to PGD2, a prostaglandin involved in smooth muscle contraction/relaxation and a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation, and the conjugation of glutathione with a wide range of aryl halides and organic isothiocyanates. Also exhibits low glutathione-peroxidase activity towards cumene hydroperoxide.
Gene Name:
HPGDS
Uniprot ID:
O60760
Molecular weight:
23343.65
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
General function:
Involved in GTP binding
Specific function:
GTP-binding protein that functions as an allosteric activator of the cholera toxin catalytic subunit, an ADP- ribosyltransferase. Involved in protein trafficking among different compartments. Modulates vesicle budding and uncoating within the Golgi complex. Deactivation induces the redistribution of the entire Golgi complex to the endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting a crucial role in protein trafficking. In its GTP-bound form, its triggers the association with coat proteins with the Golgi membrane. The hydrolysis of ARF1-bound GTP, which is mediated by ARFGAPs proteins, is required for dissociation of coat proteins from Golgi membranes and vesicles
Gene Name:
ARF1
Uniprot ID:
P84077
Molecular weight:
20696.6
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed: 10592235
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
This protein is a minor sialoglycoprotein in erythrocyte membranes
Gene Name:
GYPB
Uniprot ID:
P06028
Molecular weight:
9795.6
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
This protein is, quantitatively, the main protein synthesized and secreted in the endometrium from mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and during the first semester of pregnancy
Gene Name:
PAEP
Uniprot ID:
P09466
Molecular weight:
20624.0
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed: 10592235
General function:
Involved in calcium channel activity
Specific function:
Intracellular channel that mediates calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum following stimulation by inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate
Gene Name:
ITPR1
Uniprot ID:
Q14643
Molecular weight:
313942.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed: 10592235
General function:
Involved in phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor
Specific function:
Key enzyme in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism.
Gene Name:
GK3P
Uniprot ID:
Q14409
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Glycerol → ADP + Glycerol 3-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Specifically methylates cytosine 38 in the anticodon loop of tRNA(Asp).
Gene Name:
TRDMT1
Uniprot ID:
O14717
Molecular weight:
44596.17
General function:
Involved in phosphotransferase activity, for other substituted phosphate groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible phosphatidyl group transfer from one phosphatidylglycerol molecule to another to form cardiolipin (CL) (diphosphatidylglycerol) and glycerol.
Gene Name:
CRLS1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UJA2
Molecular weight:
22583.205
Reactions
Phosphatidylglycerol → diphosphatidylglycerol + Glyceroldetails
General function:
Involved in inositol-3-phosphate synthase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in myo-inositol biosynthesis pathway that catalyzes the conversion of glucose 6-phosphate to 1-myo-inositol 1-phosphate in a NAD-dependent manner. Rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of all inositol-containing compounds.
Gene Name:
ISYNA1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPH2
Molecular weight:
55135.445
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed: 10592235
General function:
Involved in phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GK5
Uniprot ID:
Q6ZS86
Molecular weight:
59155.64
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Glycerol → ADP + Glycerol 3-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Choline-specific glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase. The preferred substrate may be lysosphingomyelin (By similarity). Hydrolyzes lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to form monoacylglycerol and phosphorylcholine but not lysophosphatidic acid, showing it has a lysophospholipase C activity. Has a preference for LPC with short (12:0 and 14:0) or polyunsaturated (18:2 and 20:4) fatty acids. Also hydrolyzes glycerophosphorylcholine and sphingosylphosphorylcholine efficiently. Hydrolyzes the classical substrate for phospholipase C, p-nitrophenyl phosphorylcholine in vitro, while it does not hydrolyze the classical nucleotide phosphodiesterase substrate, p-nitrophenyl thymidine 5'-monophosphate. Does not hydrolyze diacyl phospholipids such as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid.
Gene Name:
ENPP6
Uniprot ID:
Q6UWR7
Molecular weight:
50240.625
Reactions
Glycerophosphocholine + Water → Glycerol + Phosphorylcholinedetails
General function:
Involved in glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase activity
Specific function:
Has glycerophosphoinositol inositolphosphodiesterase activity and specifically hydrolyzes glycerophosphoinositol, with no activity for other substrates such as glycerophosphoinositol 4-phosphate, glycerophosphocholine, glycerophosphoethanolamine, and glycerophosphoserine. Accelerates the program of osteoblast differentiation and growth. May play a role in remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GDPD2
Uniprot ID:
Q9HCC8
Molecular weight:
52185.905
Reactions
1-(sn-Glycero-3-phospho)-1D-myo-inositol + Water → Glycerol + Inositol phosphatedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Has 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolase activity (By similarity). May be a regulator of endocannabinoid signaling pathways (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ABHD12
Uniprot ID:
Q8N2K0
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
2-Acylglycerol + Water → Glycerol + Fatty aciddetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Has 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolase activity (By similarity). May be a regulator of endocannabinoid signaling pathways (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ABHD6
Uniprot ID:
Q9BV23
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
2-Acylglycerol + Water → Glycerol + Fatty aciddetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Acts as all-trans-retinaldehyde reductase. Can efficiently reduce aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, and is less active on hexoses (in vitro). May be responsible for detoxification of reactive aldehydes in the digested food before the nutrients are passed on to other organs.
Gene Name:
AKR1B10
Uniprot ID:
O60218
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Glycerol + NAD → Glyceraldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glycerol + NADP → Glyceraldehyde + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Konishi T, Satsu H, Hatsugai Y, Aizawa K, Inakuma T, Nagata S, Sakuda SH, Nagasawa H, Shimizu M: Inhibitory effect of a bitter melon extract on the P-glycoprotein activity in intestinal Caco-2 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Oct;143(3):379-87. Epub 2004 Sep 6. Pubmed: 15351776