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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2012-05-18 14:04:03 UTC
Update Date2018-06-06 21:06:43 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0013711
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB13711
Metabolite Identification
Common NameLanthanum
DescriptionLanthanum is a chemical element with the symbol La and atomic number 57. Lanthanum is a silvery white metallic element that belongs to group 3 of the periodic table and is the first element of the lanthanide series. It is found in some rare-earth minerals, usually in combination with cerium and other rare earth elements. Lanthanum is a malleable, ductile, and soft metal that oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air. It is produced from the minerals monazite and bastnasite using a complex multistage extraction process. Lanthanum compounds have numerous applications as catalysts, additives in glass, carbon lighting for studio lighting and projection, ignition elements in lighters and torches, electron cathodes, scintillators, and others. Lanthanum carbonate (La2(CO3)3) was approved as a medication against renal failure. Lanthanum is a soft, malleable, silvery white metal which has hexagonal crystal structure at room temperature. At 310 °C, lanthanum changes to a face-centered cubic structure, and at 865 °C into a body-centered cubic structure. Lanthanum easily is oxidized (a centimeter-sized sample will completely oxidize within a year) and is therefore used as in elemental form only for research purposes. For example, single La atoms have been isolated by implanting them into fullerene molecules. If carbon nanotubes are filled with those lanthanum-encapsulated fullerenes and annealed, metallic nanochains of lanthanum are produced inside carbon nanotubes. Lanthanum is most commonly obtained from monazite and bastnasite. The mineral mixtures are crushed and ground. Monazite, because of its magnetic properties, can be separated by repeated electromagnetic separation. After separation, it is treated with hot concentrated sulfuric acid to produce water-soluble sulfates of rare earths. The acidic filtrates are partially neutralized with sodium hydroxide to pH 3-4. Thorium precipitates out of solution as hydroxide and is removed. After that, the solution is treated with ammonium oxalate to convert rare earths to their insoluble oxalates. The oxalates are converted to oxides by annealing. The oxides are dissolved in nitric acid that excludes one of the main components, cerium, whose oxide is insoluble in HNO3. Lanthanum is separated as a double salt with ammonium nitrate by crystallization. This salt is relatively less soluble than other rare earth double salts and therefore stays in the residue. While lanthanum has pharmacological effects on several receptors and ion channels, its specificity for the GABA receptor is unique among divalent cations. Lanthanum acts at the same modulatory site on the GABA receptor as zinc- a known negative allosteric modulator. The Lanthanum cation La3+ is a positive allosteric modulator at native and recombinant GABA receptors, increasing open channel time and decreasing desensitization in a subunit configuration dependent manner.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
57LaChEBI
LaChEBI
LantanoChEBI
LanthanChEBI
LanthaneChEBI
Chemical FormulaLa
Average Molecular Weight138.9055
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight138.90634816
IUPAC Namelanthanum
Traditional Namelanthanum
CAS Registry Number7439-91-0
SMILES
[La]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/La
InChI KeyFZLIPJUXYLNCLC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous lanthanide compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a lanthanide atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous lanthanide compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous lanthanide compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous lanthanide
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAcyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location:

Source:

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-69853e644286ef849a32View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-69853e644286ef849a32View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-69853e644286ef849a32View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-8b2b10a5eaecfd55564bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-8b2b10a5eaecfd55564bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-8b2b10a5eaecfd55564bView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot Available
Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified0.002 +/- 0.001 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
      • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.0002 (0.00003-0.00079) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.00052 ± 0.00039 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    Not Available
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease ReferencesNone
    Associated OMIM IDsNone
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB003776
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID22369
    KEGG Compound IDNot Available
    BioCyc IDNot Available
    BiGG IDNot Available
    Wikipedia LinkLanthanum
    METLIN IDNot Available
    PubChem Compound23926
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID33336
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
    General ReferencesNot Available