You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:02:05 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00138
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlycocholic acid
DescriptionGlycocholic acid is an acyl glycine and a bile acid-glycine conjugate. It is a secondary bile acid produced by the action of enzymes existing in the microbial flora of the colonic environment. In hepatocytes, both primary and secondary bile acids undergo amino acid conjugation at the C-24 carboxylic acid on the side chain, and almost all bile acids in the bile duct therefore exist in a glycine conjugated form (PMID:16949895 ). More specifically, glycocholic acid or cholylglycine, is a crystalline bile acid involved in the emulsification of fats. It occurs as a sodium salt in the bile of mammals. Its anion is called glycocholate. As the glycine conjugate of cholic acid, this compound acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. (PubChem). Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, depends only on presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The unique detergent properties of bile acids are essential for the digestion and intestinal absorption of hydrophobic nutrients. Bile acids have potent toxic properties (e.g., membrane disruption) and there are a plethora of mechanisms to limit their accumulation in blood and tissues. (PMID: 11316487 , 16037564 , 12576301 , 11907135 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3a,7a,12a-Trihydroxy-5b-cholan-24-oylglycineHMDB
3a,7a,12a-Trihydroxy-5b-cholanic acid-24-glycineHMDB
3a,7a,12a-Trihydroxy-N-(carboxymethyl)-5b-cholan-24-amideHMDB
CholylglycineHMDB
Glycine cholateHMDB
GlycocholateHMDB
Glycoreductodehydrocholic acidHMDB
GlycylcholateHMDB
Glycylcholic acidHMDB
N-(Carboxymethyl)-3a,7a,12a-trihydroxy-5b-cholan-24-amideHMDB
N-Choloyl-glycineHMDB
N-CholoylglycineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC26H43NO6
Average Molecular Weight465.6227
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight465.309038113
IUPAC Name2-[(4R)-4-[(1S,2S,5R,9R,10R,11S,14R,15R,16S)-5,9,16-trihydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadecan-14-yl]pentanamido]acetic acid
Traditional Name[(4R)-4-[(1S,2S,5R,9R,10R,11S,14R,15R,16S)-5,9,16-trihydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadecan-14-yl]pentanamido]acetic acid
CAS Registry Number475-31-0
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@H]([C@H](C)CCC(=O)NCC(O)=O)[C@@]1(C)[C@@H](O)C[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])[C@H](O)CC2C[C@H](O)CC[C@]12C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C26H43NO6/c1-14(4-7-22(31)27-13-23(32)33)17-5-6-18-24-19(12-21(30)26(17,18)3)25(2)9-8-16(28)10-15(25)11-20(24)29/h14-21,24,28-30H,4-13H2,1-3H3,(H,27,31)(H,32,33)/t14-,15?,16-,17-,18+,19+,20-,21+,24+,25+,26-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=RFDAIACWWDREDC-MZMBZMQMSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glycinated bile acids and derivatives. These are compounds with a structure characterized by the presence of a glycine linked to a bile acid skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassBile acids, alcohols and derivatives
Direct ParentGlycinated bile acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glycinated bile acid
  • Glycinated bile acid skeleton
  • Trihydroxy bile acid, alcohol, or derivatives
  • Hydroxy bile acid, alcohol, or derivatives
  • 7-hydroxysteroid
  • 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 12-hydroxysteroid
  • 3-hydroxysteroid
  • N-acyl-aliphatic-alpha amino acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • N-substituted-alpha-amino acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Fatty amide
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
  • Microbial
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point170 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.0033 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.65RODA,A ET AL. (1990)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.025 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.7ALOGPS
logP1.38ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.77ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.04ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area127.09 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity123.59 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability53.03 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-03di-0000900000-52e93813a9681b93b67cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-03k9-4000900000-79dfcaf6e620e89a8f51View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-0153bf31bdc096136252View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Fibroblasts
  • Liver
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
27-Hydroxylase DeficiencySMP00720Not Available
Bile Acid BiosynthesisSMP00035map00120
Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX)SMP00315Not Available
Congenital Bile Acid Synthesis Defect Type IISMP00314Not Available
Congenital Bile Acid Synthesis Defect Type IIISMP00318Not Available
Familial Hypercholanemia (FHCA)SMP00317Not Available
Zellweger SyndromeSMP00316Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.06 +/- 0.04 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.88 +/- 0.26 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified10.15 +/- 7.51 nmol/g of fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.42 +/- 0.36 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.7 +/- 0.13 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCeliac Disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified44.0 +/- 29.1 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedExtrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA) details
BloodDetected and Quantified8.4 +/- 8.7 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedCholecohal cyst details
BloodDetected and Quantified91.8 +/- 54.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedIntrahepatic biliary hypoplasia details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.8 +/- 3.1 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Idiopathic neonatal hepatitis
details
BloodDetected and Quantified25.9 +/- 24.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedAlpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified9.8 +/- 14.7 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedCystic fibrosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.9 +/- 2.4 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedGalactosemia details
BloodDetected and Quantified14.5 +/- 16.1 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedChronic active hepatitis details
BloodDetected and Quantified8.6 +/- 7.9 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedGlycogen storage disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.5 +/- 1.2 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Fulminant hepatic failure
details
BloodDetected and Quantified10.5 +/- 13.1 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedPortal vein obstruction details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.1 +/- 6.9 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedWilson's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified43.6 +/- 11.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHepatobiliary Disease details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
  1. Matsui A, Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Portmann B, Murphy GM: Radioimmunoassay of serum glycocholic acid, standard laboratory tests of liver function and liver biopsy findings: comparative study of children with liver disease. J Clin Pathol. 1982 Sep;35(9):1011-7. [7119120 ]
Biliary atresia
  1. Matsui A, Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Portmann B, Murphy GM: Radioimmunoassay of serum glycocholic acid, standard laboratory tests of liver function and liver biopsy findings: comparative study of children with liver disease. J Clin Pathol. 1982 Sep;35(9):1011-7. [7119120 ]
Celiac disease
  1. Spiller RC, Frost PF, Stewart JS, Bloom SR, Silk DB: Delayed postprandial plasma bile acid response in coeliac patients with slow mouth-caecum transit. Clin Sci (Lond). 1987 Feb;72(2):217-23. [3816078 ]
Choledochal cysts
  1. Matsui A, Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Portmann B, Murphy GM: Radioimmunoassay of serum glycocholic acid, standard laboratory tests of liver function and liver biopsy findings: comparative study of children with liver disease. J Clin Pathol. 1982 Sep;35(9):1011-7. [7119120 ]
Chronic active hepatitis
  1. Matsui A, Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Portmann B, Murphy GM: Radioimmunoassay of serum glycocholic acid, standard laboratory tests of liver function and liver biopsy findings: comparative study of children with liver disease. J Clin Pathol. 1982 Sep;35(9):1011-7. [7119120 ]
Cystic fibrosis
  1. Matsui A, Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Portmann B, Murphy GM: Radioimmunoassay of serum glycocholic acid, standard laboratory tests of liver function and liver biopsy findings: comparative study of children with liver disease. J Clin Pathol. 1982 Sep;35(9):1011-7. [7119120 ]
Acute liver failure
  1. Matsui A, Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Portmann B, Murphy GM: Radioimmunoassay of serum glycocholic acid, standard laboratory tests of liver function and liver biopsy findings: comparative study of children with liver disease. J Clin Pathol. 1982 Sep;35(9):1011-7. [7119120 ]
Galactosemia type 1
  1. Matsui A, Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Portmann B, Murphy GM: Radioimmunoassay of serum glycocholic acid, standard laboratory tests of liver function and liver biopsy findings: comparative study of children with liver disease. J Clin Pathol. 1982 Sep;35(9):1011-7. [7119120 ]
Glycogen storage disease
  1. Matsui A, Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Portmann B, Murphy GM: Radioimmunoassay of serum glycocholic acid, standard laboratory tests of liver function and liver biopsy findings: comparative study of children with liver disease. J Clin Pathol. 1982 Sep;35(9):1011-7. [7119120 ]
Hepatobiliary diseases
  1. Rifai K, Ockenga J, Manns MP, Bischoff SC: Repeated administration of a vitamin preparation containing glycocholic acid in patients with hepatobiliary disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 May 1;23(9):1337-45. [16629939 ]
Intrahepatic biliary hypoplasia
  1. Matsui A, Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Portmann B, Murphy GM: Radioimmunoassay of serum glycocholic acid, standard laboratory tests of liver function and liver biopsy findings: comparative study of children with liver disease. J Clin Pathol. 1982 Sep;35(9):1011-7. [7119120 ]
Portal vein obstruction
  1. Matsui A, Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Portmann B, Murphy GM: Radioimmunoassay of serum glycocholic acid, standard laboratory tests of liver function and liver biopsy findings: comparative study of children with liver disease. J Clin Pathol. 1982 Sep;35(9):1011-7. [7119120 ]
Neonatal hepatitis
  1. Matsui A, Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Portmann B, Murphy GM: Radioimmunoassay of serum glycocholic acid, standard laboratory tests of liver function and liver biopsy findings: comparative study of children with liver disease. J Clin Pathol. 1982 Sep;35(9):1011-7. [7119120 ]
Wilson's disease
  1. Matsui A, Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Portmann B, Murphy GM: Radioimmunoassay of serum glycocholic acid, standard laboratory tests of liver function and liver biopsy findings: comparative study of children with liver disease. J Clin Pathol. 1982 Sep;35(9):1011-7. [7119120 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012346
KNApSAcK IDC00030410
Chemspider ID24747221
KEGG Compound IDC01921
BioCyc IDGLYCOCHOLIC_ACID
BiGG ID38691
Wikipedia LinkGlycocholic acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00138
Metagene LinkHMDB00138
METLIN ID5169
PubChem Compound23617285
PDB ID1EIO
ChEBI ID29746
References
Synthesis ReferenceCortese, Frank; Bauman, Louis. A synthesis of conjugated bile acids. I. Glycocholic acid. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1935), 57 1393-5.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Rius M, Nies AT, Hummel-Eisenbeiss J, Jedlitschky G, Keppler D: Cotransport of reduced glutathione with bile salts by MRP4 (ABCC4) localized to the basolateral hepatocyte membrane. Hepatology. 2003 Aug;38(2):374-84. [12883481 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  3. Spiller RC, Frost PF, Stewart JS, Bloom SR, Silk DB: Delayed postprandial plasma bile acid response in coeliac patients with slow mouth-caecum transit. Clin Sci (Lond). 1987 Feb;72(2):217-23. [3816078 ]
  4. Matsui A, Psacharopoulos HT, Mowat AP, Portmann B, Murphy GM: Radioimmunoassay of serum glycocholic acid, standard laboratory tests of liver function and liver biopsy findings: comparative study of children with liver disease. J Clin Pathol. 1982 Sep;35(9):1011-7. [7119120 ]
  5. Marigold JH, Gilmore IT, Thompson RP: Effects of a meal on plasma clearance of [14C]glycocholic acid and indocyanine green in man. Clin Sci (Lond). 1981 Sep;61(3):325-30. [7261553 ]
  6. Xia S, Chen Z, Li L: [Relationship of vascular endothelial growth factor with bile acid in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2002 Nov;37(11):669-71. [12487922 ]
  7. Li GY, Wang T, Huggins EM Jr, Shams NK, Davis JF, Calkins JH, Hornung CA, Altekruse JM, Sigel MM: Cholylglycine measured in serum by RIA and interleukin-1 beta determined by ELISA in differentiating viral hepatitis from chemical liver injury. J Occup Med. 1992 Sep;34(9):930-3. [1447600 ]
  8. de Franchis R, Vecchi M, Primignani M, Bonato C, Parravicini A, Cambieri R, Ciaci D, Annoni G: Diagnostic value of serum cholylglycine radioimmunoassay in chronic asymptomatic HBsAg carriers. Ric Clin Lab. 1983 Jul-Sep;13(3):301-5. [6648236 ]
  9. Xuan B, McClellan DA, Moore R, Chiou GC: Alternative delivery of insulin via eye drops. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2005 Oct;7(5):695-8. [16241870 ]
  10. Liss GM, Greenberg RA, Tamburro CH: Use of serum bile acids in the identification of vinyl chloride hepatotoxicity. Am J Med. 1985 Jan;78(1):68-76. [3966491 ]
  11. Rifai K, Ockenga J, Manns MP, Bischoff SC: Repeated administration of a vitamin preparation containing glycocholic acid in patients with hepatobiliary disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 May 1;23(9):1337-45. [16629939 ]
  12. Klapdor R: On the kinetics of glycocholate uptake and excretion by the normal and diseased liver in man. Hepatogastroenterology. 1981 Aug;28(4):189-91. [7274980 ]
  13. Friman S, Radberg G, Bosaeus I, Svanvik J: Hepatobiliary compensation for the loss of gallbladder function after cholecystectomy. An experimental study in the cat. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1990 Mar;25(3):307-14. [2108486 ]
  14. Bocharova LV, Tsodikov GV, Chernyshova NN, Kataev SS, Burkov SG: [Clinical value of determining serum levels of glycocholic acid in alcoholic lesions of the liver] Klin Med (Mosk). 1992 Jul-Aug;70(7-8):41-4. [1460824 ]
  15. Murphy JL, Badaloo AV, Chambers B, Forrester TE, Wootton SA, Jackson AA: Maldigestion and malabsorption of dietary lipid during severe childhood malnutrition. Arch Dis Child. 2002 Dec;87(6):522-5. [12456554 ]
  16. Bremmelgaard A, Ranek L, Bahnsen M, Andreasen PB, Christensen E: Cholic acid conjugation test and quantitative liver function in acute liver failure. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1983 Sep;18(6):797-802. [6669944 ]
  17. Hepner GW, Demers LM: Dynamics of the enterohepatic circulation of the glycine conjugates of cholic, chenodeoxycholic, deoxycholic, and sulfolithocholic acid in man. Gastroenterology. 1977 Mar;72(3):499-501. [832799 ]
  18. Kasatkin IuN, Vidiukov VI, Mironov SP, Chernyshova NN, Bocharova LV, Kataev SS: [Diagnosis of liver cirrhosis based on scintigraphic data and the level of cholylglycine in the blood serum] Med Radiol (Mosk). 1989 Sep;34(9):8-12. [2796646 ]
  19. Collazos J, Mendarte U, De Miguel J: Clinical value of the determination of fasting glycocholic acid serum levels in patients with liver diseases. A comparison with standard liver tests. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1993;17(2):79-82. [8500713 ]
  20. Nittono H, Obinata K, Nakatsu N, Watanabe T, Niijima S, Sasaki H, Arisaka O, Kato H, Yabuta K, Miyano T: Sulfated and nonsulfated bile acids in urine of patients with biliary atresia: analysis of bile acids by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1986 Jan;5(1):23-9. [3944741 ]
  21. Goto T, Myint KT, Sato K, Wada O, Kakiyama G, Iida T, Hishinuma T, Mano N, Goto J: LC/ESI-tandem mass spectrometric determination of bile acid 3-sulfates in human urine 3beta-Sulfooxy-12alpha-hydroxy-5beta-cholanoic acid is an abundant nonamidated sulfate. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007 Feb 1;846(1-2):69-77. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [16949895 ]
  22. St-Pierre MV, Kullak-Ublick GA, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Transport of bile acids in hepatic and non-hepatic tissues. J Exp Biol. 2001 May;204(Pt 10):1673-86. [11316487 ]
  23. Claudel T, Staels B, Kuipers F: The Farnesoid X receptor: a molecular link between bile acid and lipid and glucose metabolism. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Oct;25(10):2020-30. Epub 2005 Jul 21. [16037564 ]
  24. Chiang JY: Bile acid regulation of hepatic physiology: III. Bile acids and nuclear receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Mar;284(3):G349-56. [12576301 ]
  25. Davis RA, Miyake JH, Hui TY, Spann NJ: Regulation of cholesterol-7alpha-hydroxylase: BAREly missing a SHP. J Lipid Res. 2002 Apr;43(4):533-43. [11907135 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in thiolester hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl-CoA thioester, either in peroxisomes (primary bile acids deriving from the cholesterol pathway), or cytoplasmic at the endoplasmic reticulum (secondary bile acids). May catalyze the conjugation of primary or secondary bile acids, or both. The conjugation increases the detergent properties of bile acids in the intestine, which facilitates lipid and fat-soluble vitamin absorption. In turn, bile acids are deconjugated by bacteria in the intestine and are recycled back to the liver for reconjugation (secondary bile acids). May also act as an acyl-CoA thioesterase that regulates intracellular levels of free fatty acids. In vitro, catalyzes the hydrolysis of long- and very long-chain saturated acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), and conjugates glycine to these acyl-CoAs.
Gene Name:
BAAT
Uniprot ID:
Q14032
Molecular weight:
46298.865
Reactions
Choloyl-CoA + Glycine → Coenzyme A + Glycocholic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate numerous substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines, with a preference for benzoyl-CoA over phenylacetyl-CoA as acyl donors. Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid.
Gene Name:
GLYAT
Uniprot ID:
Q6IB77
Molecular weight:
18506.33
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glutamine. Can use phenylacetyl-CoA as an acyl donor.
Gene Name:
GLYATL1
Uniprot ID:
Q969I3
Molecular weight:
35100.895
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine. Conjugates numerous substrates, such as arachidonoyl-CoA and saturated medium and long-chain acyl-CoAs ranging from chain-length C8:0-CoA to C18:0-CoA, to form a variety of N-acylglycines. Shows a preference for monounsaturated fatty acid oleoyl-CoA (C18:1-CoA) as an acyl donor. Does not exhibit any activity toward C22:6-CoA and chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA, nor toward serine or alanine.
Gene Name:
GLYATL2
Uniprot ID:
Q8WU03
Molecular weight:
34277.055
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N- terminus of glycine
Gene Name:
GLYATL3
Uniprot ID:
Q5SZD4
Molecular weight:
32703.3