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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:02:06 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00143
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB05762
Metabolite Identification
Common NameD-Galactose
DescriptionD-Galactose is an aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. D-Galactose is an energy-providing nutrient and also a necessary basic substrate for the biosynthesis of many macromolecules in the body. Metabolic pathways for D-Galactose are important not only for the provision of these pathways but also for the prevention of D-Galactose and D-Galactose metabolite accumulation. The main source of D-Galactose is lactose in the milk of mammals, but it can also be found in some fruits and vegetables. Utilization of D-Galactose in all living cells is initiated by the phosphorylation of the hexose by the enzyme galactokinase (E.C. 2.7.1.6) (GALK) to form D-Galactose-1-phosphate. In the presence of D-Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (E.C. 2.7.7.12) (GALT) D-Galactose-1-phosphate is exchanged with glucose-1-phosphate in UDP-glucose to form UDP-galactose. Glucose-1-phosphate will then enter the glycolytic pathway for energy production. Deficiency of the enzyme GALT in galactosemic patients leads to the accumulation of D-Galactose-1-phosphate. Classic galactosemia-a term that denotes the presence of D-Galactose in the blood is the rare inborn error of D-Galactose metabolism, diagnosed by the deficiency of the second enzyme of the D-Galactose assimilation pathway, GALT, which, in turn, is caused by mutations at the GALT gene. (PMID: 15256214 , 11020650 , 10408771 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
ALPHA D-GALACTOSEChEBI
alpha-D-GalChEBI
Gal-alphaChEBI
a D-GALACTOSEGenerator
α D-galactoseGenerator
a-D-GalGenerator
α-D-galGenerator
Gal-aGenerator
Gal-αGenerator
(+)-GalactoseHMDB
5AbpHMDB
8AbpHMDB
alpha-D-GalactopyranoseHMDB
alpha-D-GalactoseHMDB
D-(+)-GalactoseHMDB
D-HexoseHMDB
GALHMDB
GalactoseHMDB
Galactose (NF)HMDB
GLAHMDB
GLCHMDB
HexoseHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
Average Molecular Weight180.1559
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.063388116
IUPAC Name(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional Namegalactose
CAS Registry Number59-23-4
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3+,4+,5-,6+/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=WQZGKKKJIJFFOK-PHYPRBDBSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as monosaccharides. These are compounds containing one carbohydrate unit not glycosidically linked to another such unit, and no set of two or more glycosidically linked carbohydrate units. Monosaccharides have the general formula CnH2nOn.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Sub ClassMonosaccharides
Direct ParentMonosaccharides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Oxane
  • Monosaccharide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Hemiacetal
  • 1,2-diol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Galactose metabolism
  • Component of Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycosphingolipid metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point170 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility683.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility782.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.13 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0f6t-0900000000-70d3989fddd34b894c77View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00ri-9700000000-d454170b4e3ed18ed2d9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-007a-9300000000-81f5f12f84924a34e2c0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Liver
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Fabry diseaseSMP00525Not Available
Galactose MetabolismSMP00043map00052
GalactosemiaSMP00182Not Available
Galactosemia II (GALK)SMP00495Not Available
Galactosemia IIISMP00496Not Available
Gaucher DiseaseSMP00349Not Available
Globoid Cell LeukodystrophySMP00348Not Available
Krabbe diseaseSMP00526Not Available
Lactose DegradationSMP00457Not Available
Lactose IntoleranceSMP00458Not Available
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD)SMP00347Not Available
Nucleotide Sugars MetabolismSMP00010map00520
Sphingolipid MetabolismSMP00034map00500
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.52 (0.12-1.25) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified210.0 +/- 92.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified88.3 +/- 34.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified39.0 +/- 12.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.0 (0.0-5.0) uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified92.3 +/- 49.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified4.6 (0.0-9.2) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified166.0 +/- 99.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified746.576 +/- 394.103 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified83.46 +/- 31.16 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.3 (1.3-8.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified262.58 +/- 881.72 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.9 (5.4-25.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.0 (0.0-19.0) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.8 (0.0-11.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.0 (0.0-33.0) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.4 (0.0-31.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.034 +/- 12.935 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified2.72 (0.58-3.98) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothGalactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency (galactosemia) details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified1496.5 (921.0 - 2070) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGalactosemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.219 +/- 17.901 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency
  1. Ning C, Segal S: Plasma galactose and galactitol concentration in patients with galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency galactosemia: determination by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Metabolism. 2000 Nov;49(11):1460-6. [11092512 ]
Galactosemia type 1
  1. Chen J, Yager C, Reynolds R, Palmieri M, Segal S: Erythrocyte galactose 1-phosphate quantified by isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2002;48(4):604-12. [11901058 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 230400 (Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency)
  • 230400 (Galactosemia type 1)
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012703
KNApSAcK IDC00019681
Chemspider ID388480
KEGG Compound IDC00984
BioCyc IDGALACTOSE
BiGG ID33945
Wikipedia LinkHexose
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00143
Metagene LinkHMDB00143
METLIN ID134
PubChem Compound439357
PDB IDGLA
ChEBI ID28061
References
Synthesis Reference Avigad, Gad. Synthesis of D-galactose-6-t and D-galactosides-6-t. Carbohydrate Research (1967), 3(4), 430-4.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Tyfield L, Reichardt J, Fridovich-Keil J, Croke DT, Elsas LJ 2nd, Strobl W, Kozak L, Coskun T, Novelli G, Okano Y, Zekanowski C, Shin Y, Boleda MD: Classical galactosemia and mutations at the galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) gene. Hum Mutat. 1999;13(6):417-30. [10408771 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  3. Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. [2026685 ]
  4. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  5. Ning C, Segal S: Plasma galactose and galactitol concentration in patients with galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency galactosemia: determination by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Metabolism. 2000 Nov;49(11):1460-6. [11092512 ]
  6. Ning C, Reynolds R, Chen J, Yager C, Berry GT, McNamara PD, Leslie N, Segal S: Galactose metabolism by the mouse with galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency. Pediatr Res. 2000 Aug;48(2):211-7. [10926297 ]
  7. Rapoport EM, Nekrasov MV, Khaidukov SV, Svirshchevskaya EV, Zhigis LS, Kozlov LV, Batalova TN, Zubov VP, Bovin NV: Cellular localization of the galactose-binding lectin from human serum. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000 Nov;65(11):1316-20. [11112850 ]
  8. Xu J, Ma M, Purcell WM: Optimizing the enzymatic determination of galactose in the culture medium of rat liver and HepG2 cell spheroids. Anal Biochem. 2002 Dec 15;311(2):179-81. [12470678 ]
  9. Seiler CA, Renner EL, Czerniak A, Didonna D, Buchler MW, Reichen J: Early acute cellular rejection: no effect on late hepatic allograft function in man. Transpl Int. 1999;12(3):195-201. [10429957 ]
  10. Schadewaldt P, Hammen HW, Loganathan K, Bodner-Leidecker A, Wendel U: Analysis of concentration and (13)C enrichment of D-galactose in human plasma. Clin Chem. 2000 May;46(5):612-9. [10794741 ]
  11. Fenn PT, Ning C, Segal S, Blair IA: Determination of [(13)C]galactose enrichment in human plasma by gas chromatography/positive chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2000 Feb;35(2):218-23. [10679984 ]
  12. van den Nieuwenhof IM, Renardel de Lavalette C, Diaz N, van Die I, van den Berg TK: Differential galactosylation of neuronal and haematopoietic signal regulatory protein-alpha determines its cellular binding-specificity. J Cell Sci. 2001 Apr;114(Pt 7):1321-9. [11256998 ]
  13. Hernandez DE, Cohen A, Fisher D, Correnti M, Harner R: Antibody levels against galactosyl (alpha1 --> 3) galactose epitopes in cervical mucus from patients with human papillomavirus infection. Gynecol Oncol. 2002 Mar;84(3):374-7. [11855872 ]
  14. Ono H, Mawatari H, Mizoguchi N, Eguchi T, Sakura N, Hamakawa M: Transient galactosemia detected by neonatal mass screening. Pediatr Int. 1999 Jun;41(3):281-4. [10365579 ]
  15. Tamamori A, Fujimoto A, Okano Y, Kobayashi K, Saheki T, Tagami Y, Takei H, Shigematsu Y, Hata I, Ozaki H, Tokuhara D, Nishimura Y, Yorifuji T, Igarashi N, Ohura T, Shimizu T, Inui K, Sakai N, Abukawa D, Miyakawa T, Matsumori M, Ban K, Kaneko H, Yamano T: Effects of citrin deficiency in the perinatal period: feasibility of newborn mass screening for citrin deficiency. Pediatr Res. 2004 Oct;56(4):608-14. Epub 2004 Aug 4. [15295082 ]
  16. Wang ZJ, Berry GT, Dreha SF, Zhao H, Segal S, Zimmerman RA: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of brain metabolites in galactosemia. Ann Neurol. 2001 Aug;50(2):266-9. [11506413 ]
  17. Niebroj-Dobosz I, Janik P, Jamrozik Z, Kwiecinski H: Immunochemical quantification of glycoconjugates in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Eur J Neurol. 1999 May;6(3):335-40. [10210915 ]
  18. Schmidt LE, Ott P, Tygstrup N: Galactose elimination capacity as a prognostic marker in patients with severe acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity: 10 years' experience. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 May;2(5):418-24. [15118981 ]
  19. Vironen J, Kellokumpu S, Andersson LC, Kellokumpu I: Comparison of a peanut agglutinin test and an immunochemical faecal occult blood test in detecting colorectal neoplasia in symptomatic patients. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2004 Apr;64(2):140-5. [15115252 ]
  20. Yago H, Kohgo Y, Kato J, Watanabe N, Sakamaki S, Niitsu Y: Detection and quantification of soluble asialoglycoprotein receptor in human serum. Hepatology. 1995 Feb;21(2):383-8. [7843709 ]
  21. Chen J, Yager C, Reynolds R, Palmieri M, Segal S: Erythrocyte galactose 1-phosphate quantified by isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2002;48(4):604-12. [11901058 ]
  22. Mizoguchi N, Ono H, Eguchi T, Sakura N: Galactose metabolites in blood from neonates with and without hypergalactosaemia detected by mass screening. Eur J Pediatr. 2000 Nov;159(11):851-3. [11079200 ]
  23. Cavalli C, Teng C, Battaglia FC, Bevilacqua G: Free sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations in human breast milk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006 Feb;42(2):215-21. [16456418 ]
  24. Shamsuddin AM, Tyner GT, Yang GY: Common expression of the tumor marker D-galactose-beta-[1-->3]-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine by different adenocarcinomas: evidence of field effect phenomenon. Cancer Res. 1995 Jan 1;55(1):149-52. [7805025 ]
  25. Wan CC, Muldrey JE, Li SC, Li YT: beta-Mannosidase from the mushroom Polyporus sulfureus. J Biol Chem. 1976 Jul 25;251(14):4384-8. [6478 ]
  26. Redaelli CA, Dufour JF, Wagner M, Schilling M, Husler J, Krahenbuhl L, Buchler MW, Reichen J: Preoperative galactose elimination capacity predicts complications and survival after hepatic resection. Ann Surg. 2002 Jan;235(1):77-85. [11753045 ]
  27. Rudzeviciene O, Narkeviciute I, Eidukevicius R: Lactose malabsorption in young Lithuanian children with atopic dermatitis. Acta Paediatr. 2004 Apr;93(4):482-6. [15188975 ]
  28. Lai K, Klapa MI: Alternative pathways of galactose assimilation: could inverse metabolic engineering provide an alternative to galactosemic patients? Metab Eng. 2004 Jul;6(3):239-44. [15256214 ]
  29. Liu G, Hale GE, Hughes CL: Galactose metabolism and ovarian toxicity. Reprod Toxicol. 2000 Sep-Oct;14(5):377-84. [11020650 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
Gene Name:
AKR1B1
Uniprot ID:
P15121
Molecular weight:
35853.125
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK3
Uniprot ID:
P52790
Molecular weight:
99024.56
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Galactose → ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK2
Uniprot ID:
P52789
Molecular weight:
102379.06
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Galactose → ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK1
Uniprot ID:
P19367
Molecular weight:
102485.1
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Galactose → ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in galactosylceramidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the galactose ester bonds of galactosylceramide, galactosylsphingosine, lactosylceramide, and monogalactosyldiglyceride. Enzyme with very low activity responsible for the lysosomal catabolism of galactosylceramide, a major lipid in myelin, kidney and epithelial cells of small intestine and colon.
Gene Name:
GALC
Uniprot ID:
P54803
Molecular weight:
77062.86
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Molecular weight:
218584.77
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLA
Uniprot ID:
P06280
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Cleaves beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues from gangliosides, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans. Isoform 2 has no beta-galactosidase catalytic activity, but plays functional roles in the formation of extracellular elastic fibers (elastogenesis) and in the development of connective tissue. Seems to be identical to the elastin-binding protein (EBP), a major component of the non-integrin cell surface receptor expressed on fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, chondroblasts, leukocytes, and certain cancer cell types. In elastin producing cells, associates with tropoelastin intracellularly and functions as a recycling molecular chaperone which facilitates the secretions of tropoelastin and its assembly into elastic fibers.
Gene Name:
GLB1
Uniprot ID:
P16278
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in galactokinase activity
Specific function:
Acts on GalNAc. Also acts as a galactokinase when galactose is present at high concentrations. May be involved in a salvage pathway for the reutilization of free GalNAc derived from the degradation of complex carbohydrates.
Gene Name:
GALK2
Uniprot ID:
Q01415
Molecular weight:
49234.57
General function:
Involved in galactokinase activity
Specific function:
Major enzyme for galactose metabolism.
Gene Name:
GALK1
Uniprot ID:
P51570
Molecular weight:
42271.805
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GALNS
Uniprot ID:
P34059
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
May serve as an alternate pathway for starch digestion when luminal alpha-amylase activity is reduced because of immaturity or malnutrition. May play a unique role in the digestion of malted dietary oligosaccharides used in food manufacturing.
Gene Name:
MGAM
Uniprot ID:
O43451
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has alpha-glucosidase activity.
Gene Name:
GANC
Uniprot ID:
Q8TET4
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in sugar binding
Specific function:
Scavenger receptor that displays several functions associated with host defense. Promotes binding and phagocytosis of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeast. Mediates the recognition, internalization and degradation of oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) by vascular endothelial cells. Binds to several carbohydrates including Gal-type ligands, D-galactose, L- and D-fucose, GalNAc, T and Tn antigens in a calcium-dependent manner and internalizes specifically GalNAc in nurse-like cells. Binds also to sialyl Lewis X or a trisaccharide and asialo-orosomucoid (ASOR). May also play a role in the clearance of amyloid beta in Alzheimer disease
Gene Name:
COLEC12
Uniprot ID:
Q5KU26
Molecular weight:
81514.7
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HKDC1
Uniprot ID:
Q2TB90
Molecular weight:
102513.88
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Galactose → ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails