You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 20:51:29 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0014613
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0041865
  • HMDB14613
  • HMDB41865
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTetrahydrocannabinol
DescriptionTetrahydrocannabinol, abbreviated THC, is a cannabinoid identified in cannabis and is its principal psychoactive constituent. First isolated in 1964, in its pure form, it is a glassy solid when cold, and becomes viscous and sticky if warmed. Synthetically prepared THC, officially referred to by its INN, dronabinol, is available by prescription in the U.S. and Canada under the brand name Marinol. The mechanism of action of THC is not completely understood. It is thought that cannabinoid receptors in neural tissues may mediate the effects of cannabinoids. Animal studies suggest that Marinol's antiemetic effects may be due to inhibition of the vomiting control mechanism in the medulla oblongata. A literature review on the subject concluded that "Cannabis use appears to be neither a sufficient nor a necessary cause for psychosis. It is a component cause, part of a complex constellation of factors leading to psychosis." Likewise, a French review from 2009 came to a conclusion that cannabis use, particularly that before age 15, was a factor in the development of schizophrenic disorders. An aromatic terpenoid, THC has a very low solubility in water, but good solubility in most organic solvents, specifically lipids and alcohols. The presence of these specialized cannabinoid receptors in the brain led researchers to the discovery of endocannabinoids, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glyceride (2-AG). THC targets receptors in a manner far less selective than endocannabinoid molecules released during retrograde signalling, as the drug has a relatively low cannabinoid receptor efficacy and affinity. In populations of low cannabinoid receptor density, THC may act to antagonize endogenous agonists that possess greater receptor efficacy. THC is a lipophilic molecule and may bind non-specifically to a variety of receptors in the brain and body, such as adipose tissue. Dronabinol is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marijuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is considered the most active form, producing the characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound. In the United States, Marinol has been rescheduled from Schedule II to Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act in 1999, reflecting a finding that THC had a potential for abuse less than that of cocaine and heroin. As a Schedule III drug, it is available by prescription and is considered to be non-narcotic and to have a low risk of physical or mental dependence. Marinol has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the treatment of anorexia in AIDS patients, as well as for refractory nausea and vomiting of patients undergoing chemotherapy, which has raised much controversy as to why natural THC is still a Schedule I drug. Efforts to get cannabis rescheduled as analogous to Marinol have not succeeded thus far. In April 2005, Canadian authorities approved the marketing of Sativex, a mouth spray for multiple sclerosis patients, who can use it to alleviate neuropathic pain and spasticity. Sativex contains tetrahydrocannabinol together with cannabidiol and is a preparation of whole cannabis rather than individual cannabinoids. It is marketed in Canada by GW Pharmaceuticals, being the first cannabis-based prescription drug in the world (in modern times). In addition, Sativex received European regulatory approval in 2010. An analog of dronabinol, nabilone, is available commercially in Canada under the trade name Cesamet, manufactured by Valeant Pharmaceuticals. Cesamet has also received FDA approval and began marketing in the U.S. in 2006. It is a Schedule II drug.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-delta9-trans-TetrahydrocannabinolChEBI
1-trans-delta-9-TetrahydrocannabinolChEBI
3-Pentyl-6,6,9-trimethyl-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6H-dibenzo(b,D)pyran-1-olChEBI
6,6,9-Trimethyl-3-pentyl-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromen-1-olChEBI
Delta(1)-TetrahydrocannabinolChEBI
delta9-TetrahydrocannabinolChEBI
Delta(9)-THCChEBI
DronabinolumChEBI
SyndrosChEBI
TetrahydrocannabinolChEBI
THCKegg
MarinolKegg
DELTA-9-THCChEMBL
DELTA-9-TETRAHYDROCANNABINOLChEMBL
(-)-Δ9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinolGenerator
1-trans-Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinolGenerator
Δ(1)-tetrahydrocannabinolGenerator
Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolGenerator
Δ(9)-THCGenerator
Δ-9-THCGenerator
Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinolGenerator
Tetrahydrocannabinol, (6a-trans)-isomerHMDB
9-Ene-tetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
Tetrahydrocannabinol, (6ar-cis)-isomerHMDB
Tetrahydrocannabinol, (6as-cis)-isomerHMDB
Tetrahydrocannabinol, trans isomerHMDB
delta(9)-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
delta(1)-THCHMDB
9 Ene tetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
Solvay brand OF tetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
Tetrahydrocannabinol, trans-(+-)-isomerHMDB
Tetrahydrocannabinol, trans-isomerHMDB
DronabinolChEBI
delta 1-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
(-)- delta 9-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
(-)-delta 1-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
(-)-delta 9-THCHMDB
(-)-delta 9-trans-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
(-)-trans-delta 1-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
(-)-trans-delta 9-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
(-)-trans-delta 9-THCHMDB
(L)-delta 1-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
1-trans-delta 9-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
14C-delta 1-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
delta 1-THCHMDB
delta 9-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
delta 9-THCHMDB
delta 9-trans-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
Exocyclic delta (9)(11)-tetrahydrocannabiolHMDB
L-delta 1-trans-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
L-trans-delta 9-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
PrimolutHMDB
trans-delta (-)-9-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
trans-delta 9-TetrahydrocannabinolHMDB
Chemical FormulaC21H30O2
Average Molecular Weight314.4617
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight314.224580204
IUPAC Name(6aR,10aR)-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H,6aH,7H,8H,10aH-benzo[c]isochromen-1-ol
Traditional NameTHC
CAS Registry Number1972-08-3
SMILES
[H][C@@]12C=C(C)CC[C@@]1([H])C(C)(C)OC1=CC(CCCCC)=CC(O)=C21
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H30O2/c1-5-6-7-8-15-12-18(22)20-16-11-14(2)9-10-17(16)21(3,4)23-19(20)13-15/h11-13,16-17,22H,5-10H2,1-4H3/t16-,17-/m1/s1
InChI KeyCYQFCXCEBYINGO-IAGOWNOFSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 2,2-dimethyl-1-benzopyrans. These are organic compounds containing a 1-benzopyran moiety that carries two methyl groups at the 2-position.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzopyrans
Sub Class1-benzopyrans
Direct Parent2,2-dimethyl-1-benzopyrans
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 2,2-dimethyl-1-benzopyran
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Oxacycle
  • Ether
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Biological location:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point200 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.0026 g/LNot Available
LogP5.648Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0026 g/LALOGPS
logP7.29ALOGPS
logP5.94ChemAxon
logS-5.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.34ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.46 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity96.73 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability38.96 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0597-4090000000-670e40c1592b93325e44View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-6009000000-735bce5abc1be2637810View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-1239000000-dd0a437774bcd5f12cd9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0600-6291000000-48cdeee605af2033e358View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0aou-9140000000-f6fc10c62a978b5bb9b0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0009000000-1a8c2415357935328858View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-0429000000-d0c2b14e825c4f547980View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-01re-3930000000-3f6ef979ec17030832a8View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-01pp-4792000000-06532e533cb7794b7c37View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00470 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00470 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00470
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB031310
KNApSAcK IDC00002675
Chemspider ID15266
KEGG Compound IDC06972
BioCyc IDCPD-7172
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTetrahydrocannabinol
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound16078
PDB IDTCI
ChEBI ID66964
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Gregg JM, Small EW, Moore R, Raft D, Toomey TC: Emotional response to intravenous delta9tetrahydrocannabinol during oral surgery. J Oral Surg. 1976 Apr;34(4):301-13. [PubMed:1062533 ]
  2. Schuel H, Burkman LJ: A tale of two cells: endocannabinoid-signaling regulates functions of neurons and sperm. Biol Reprod. 2005 Dec;73(6):1078-86. Epub 2005 Aug 24. [PubMed:16120829 ]
  3. Zhu W, Friedman H, Klein TW: Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces apoptosis in macrophages and lymphocytes: involvement of Bcl-2 and caspase-1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Aug;286(2):1103-9. [PubMed:9694974 ]
  4. Zangen A, Solinas M, Ikemoto S, Goldberg SR, Wise RA: Two brain sites for cannabinoid reward. J Neurosci. 2006 May 3;26(18):4901-7. [PubMed:16672664 ]
  5. Consroe P, Martin P, Eisenstein D: Anticonvulsant drug antagonism of delta9tetrahydrocannabinol-induced seizures in rabbits. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1977 Jan;16(1):1-13. [PubMed:841172 ]
  6. Concheiro M, de Castro A, Quintela O, Cruz A, Lopez-Rivadulla M: Development and validation of a method for the quantitation of Delta9tetrahydrocannabinol in oral fluid by liquid chromatography electrospray-mass-spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004 Oct 25;810(2):319-24. [PubMed:15380731 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
May play an important role in regulating or promoting cell proliferation in some normal and neoplastically transformed cells.
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular weight:
68685.82
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular weight:
58164.815
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular weight:
56517.005
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Involved in cannabinoid-induced CNS effects. Acts by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Could be a receptor for anandamide. Inhibits L-type Ca(2+) channel current. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 have altered ligand binding
Gene Name:
CNR1
Uniprot ID:
P21554
Molecular weight:
52857.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Pryce G, Giovannoni G, Baker D: Mifepristone or inhibition of 11beta-hydroxylase activity potentiates the sedating effects of the cannabinoid receptor-1 agonist Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2003 May 1;341(2):164-6. [PubMed:12686391 ]
  4. Tsai SJ, Wang YC, Hong CJ: Association study of a cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) polymorphism and schizophrenia. Psychiatr Genet. 2000 Sep;10(3):149-51. [PubMed:11204352 ]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Tournier N, Chevillard L, Megarbane B, Pirnay S, Scherrmann JM, Decleves X: Interaction of drugs of abuse and maintenance treatments with human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2). Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010 Aug;13(7):905-15. doi: 10.1017/S1461145709990848. Epub 2009 Nov 4. [PubMed:19887017 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from the brain. May be involved in brain-to-blood efflux. Appears to play a major role in the multidrug resistance phenotype of several cancer cell lines. When overexpressed, the transfected cells become resistant to mitoxantrone, daunorubicin and doxorubicin, display diminished intracellular accumulation of daunorubicin, and manifest an ATP- dependent increase in the efflux of rhodamine 123
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular weight:
72313.5
References
  1. Tournier N, Chevillard L, Megarbane B, Pirnay S, Scherrmann JM, Decleves X: Interaction of drugs of abuse and maintenance treatments with human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2). Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010 Aug;13(7):905-15. doi: 10.1017/S1461145709990848. Epub 2009 Nov 4. [PubMed:19887017 ]