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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2019-01-11 19:34:05 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0014679
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14679
Metabolite Identification
Common NameToremifene
DescriptionToremifene is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a first generation nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is structurally related to tamoxifen. Like tamoxifen, it is an estrogen agonist for bone tissue and cholesterol metabolism but is antagonistic on mammary and uterine tissue. [PubChem]Toremifene is a nonsteroidal triphenylethylene derivative. Toremifene binds to estrogen receptors and may exert estrogenic, antiestrogenic, or both activities, depending upon the duration of treatment, animal species, gender, target organ, or endpoint selected. The antitumor effect of toremifene in breast cancer is believed to be mainly due to its antiestrogenic effects, in other words, its ability to compete with estrogen for binding sites in the cancer, blocking the growth-stimulating effects of estrogen in the tumor. Toremifene may also inhibit tumor growth through other mechanisms, such as induction of apoptosis, regulation of oncogene expression, and growth factors.
Structure
Data?1547235245
Synonyms
ValueSource
ToremifenoChEBI
ToremifenumChEBI
FarestonMeSH
Toremifene citrate (1:1)MeSH
Toremifene, (e)-isomerMeSH
Citrate, toremifeneMeSH
Toremifene citrateMeSH
Chemical FormulaC26H28ClNO
Average Molecular Weight405.96
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight405.18594223
IUPAC Name(2-{4-[(1Z)-4-chloro-1,2-diphenylbut-1-en-1-yl]phenoxy}ethyl)dimethylamine
Traditional Nametoremifene
CAS Registry Number89778-26-7
SMILES
CN(C)CCOC1=CC=C(C=C1)C(=C(\CCCl)C1=CC=CC=C1)\C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C26H28ClNO/c1-28(2)19-20-29-24-15-13-23(14-16-24)26(22-11-7-4-8-12-22)25(17-18-27)21-9-5-3-6-10-21/h3-16H,17-20H2,1-2H3/b26-25-
InChI KeyXFCLJVABOIYOMF-QPLCGJKRSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as stilbenes. These are organic compounds containing a 1,2-diphenylethylene moiety. Stilbenes (C6-C2-C6 ) are derived from the common phenylpropene (C6-C3) skeleton building block. The introduction of one or more hydroxyl groups to a phenyl ring lead to stilbenoids.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassStilbenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentStilbenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Stilbene
  • Diphenylmethane
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Phenol ether
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Tertiary amine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point108 - 110 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.00041 g/LNot Available
LogP6.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00041 g/LALOGPS
logP5.65ALOGPS
logP6.27ChemAxon
logS-6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.76ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area12.47 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity133.41 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability46.49 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9123000000-e8ca7915f080abef6c64JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0a4i-0010900000-f55f03796d8b627e24e1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-2336900000-2e971ee90e59a5120d04JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9335100000-10319dabbd76e118d141JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-6191000000-b6988a63b5bdf3bd0d81JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1004900000-25e7558863d6df07b3f9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0f89-1039300000-a248ed46fb935057a8cfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001j-4196000000-03eaf6c4478f21e63114JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00539 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00539 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00539
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2275722
KEGG Compound IDC08166
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkToremifene
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound3005573
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID9635
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Ariazi EA, Ariazi JL, Cordera F, Jordan VC: Estrogen receptors as therapeutic targets in breast cancer. Curr Top Med Chem. 2006;6(3):181-202. [PubMed:16515478 ]
  2. Taneja SS, Smith MR, Dalton JT, Raghow S, Barnette G, Steiner M, Veverka KA: Toremifene--a promising therapy for the prevention of prostate cancer and complications of androgen deprivation therapy. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Mar;15(3):293-305. [PubMed:16503765 ]
  3. Price N, Sartor O, Hutson T, Mariani S: Role of 5a-reductase inhibitors and selective estrogen receptor modulators as potential chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Clin Prostate Cancer. 2005 Mar;3(4):211-4. [PubMed:15882476 ]
  4. Musa MA, Khan MO, Cooperwood JS: Medicinal chemistry and emerging strategies applied to the development of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(11):1249-61. [PubMed:17504144 ]
  5. Thompson IM: Chemoprevention of prostate cancer: agents and study designs. J Urol. 2007 Sep;178(3 Pt 2):S9-S13. Epub 2007 Jul 20. [PubMed:17644117 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Taneja SS, Smith MR, Dalton JT, Raghow S, Barnette G, Steiner M, Veverka KA: Toremifene--a promising therapy for the prevention of prostate cancer and complications of androgen deprivation therapy. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Mar;15(3):293-305. [PubMed:16503765 ]
  2. Kivisto KT, Villikka K, Nyman L, Anttila M, Neuvonen PJ: Tamoxifen and toremifene concentrations in plasma are greatly decreased by rifampin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Dec;64(6):648-54. [PubMed:9871429 ]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular weight:
58164.815
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular weight:
66215.4
References
  1. Locci P, Bellocchio S, Lilli C, Marinucci L, Cagini L, Baroni T, Giustozzi G, Balducci C, Becchetti E: Synthesis and secretion of transforming growth factor-beta1 by human desmoid fibroblast cell line and its modulation by toremifene. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2001 Nov;21(11):961-70. [PubMed:11747628 ]
  2. Liu X, Pisha E, Tonetti DA, Yao D, Li Y, Yao J, Burdette JE, Bolton JL: Antiestrogenic and DNA damaging effects induced by tamoxifen and toremifene metabolites. Chem Res Toxicol. 2003 Jul;16(7):832-7. [PubMed:12870885 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  4. Jones KL, Buzdar AU: A review of adjuvant hormonal therapy in breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2004 Sep;11(3):391-406. [PubMed:15369444 ]
  5. Shelly W, Draper MW, Krishnan V, Wong M, Jaffe RB: Selective estrogen receptor modulators: an update on recent clinical findings. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2008 Mar;63(3):163-81. doi: 10.1097/OGX.0b013e31816400d7. [PubMed:18279543 ]
  6. Gennari L, Merlotti D, Valleggi F, Martini G, Nuti R: Selective estrogen receptor modulators for postmenopausal osteoporosis: current state of development. Drugs Aging. 2007;24(5):361-79. [PubMed:17503894 ]
  7. Lewis-Wambi JS, Jordan VC: Treatment of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer with Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs). Breast Dis. 2005-2006;24:93-105. [PubMed:16917142 ]
  8. Ariazi EA, Ariazi JL, Cordera F, Jordan VC: Estrogen receptors as therapeutic targets in breast cancer. Curr Top Med Chem. 2006;6(3):181-202. [PubMed:16515478 ]
  9. Taneja SS, Smith MR, Dalton JT, Raghow S, Barnette G, Steiner M, Veverka KA: Toremifene--a promising therapy for the prevention of prostate cancer and complications of androgen deprivation therapy. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Mar;15(3):293-305. [PubMed:16503765 ]
  10. Goldstein LJ: Controversies in adjuvant endocrine treatment of premenopausal women. Clin Breast Cancer. 2006 Feb;6 Suppl 2:S36-40. [PubMed:16595024 ]
  11. Smith MR: Treatment-related osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Oct 15;12(20 Pt 2):6315s-6319s. [PubMed:17062721 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Rao US, Fine RL, Scarborough GA: Antiestrogens and steroid hormones: substrates of the human P-glycoprotein. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 Jul 19;48(2):287-92. [PubMed:7914405 ]