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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 20:09:40 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0014703
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14703
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMethotrexate
DescriptionMethotrexate is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA. [PubChem]Methotrexate anti-tumor activity is a result of the inhibition of folic acid reductase, leading to inhibition of DNA synthesis and inhibition of cellular replication. The mechanism involved in its activity against rheumatoid arthritis is not known.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
4-amino-10-Methylfolic acidChEBI
4-amino-N(10)-Methylpteroylglutamic acidChEBI
EmtexateChEBI
LedertrexateChEBI
MethotrexatumChEBI
MetotrexatoChEBI
MTXChEBI
N-[4-[[(2,4-diamino-6-Pteridinyl)methyl]methylamino]benzoyl]-L-glutamic acidChEBI
RheumatrexChEBI
TrexallChEBI
4-amino-10-MethylfolateGenerator
Methotrexic acidGenerator
4-amino-N(10)-MethylpteroylglutamateGenerator
Emtexic acidGenerator
Ledertrexic acidGenerator
N-[4-[[(2,4-diamino-6-Pteridinyl)methyl]methylamino]benzoyl]-L-glutamateGenerator
AmethopterinHMDB
AmethopterineHMDB
HDMTXHMDB
L-AmethopterinHMDB
MethopterinHMDB
MethotextrateHMDB
MethotrexatHMDB
MethylaminopterinHMDB
MethylaminopterinumHMDB
N-Bismethylpteroylglutamic acidHMDB
Hydrate, methotrexateMeSH
Methotrexate, disodium saltMeSH
Methotrexate, sodium saltMeSH
Methotrexate, (DL)-isomerMeSH
Sodium, methotrexateMeSH
Dicesium salt methotrexateMeSH
Methotrexate hydrateMeSH
Methotrexate, dicesium saltMeSH
MexateMeSH
Methotrexate sodiumMeSH
Methotrexate, (D)-isomerMeSH
Chemical FormulaC20H22N8O5
Average Molecular Weight454.4393
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight454.171315854
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-[(4-{[(2,4-diaminopteridin-6-yl)methyl](methyl)amino}phenyl)formamido]pentanedioic acid
Traditional Namemethotrexate
CAS Registry Number59-05-2
SMILES
CN(CC1=CN=C2N=C(N)N=C(N)C2=N1)C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C20H22N8O5/c1-28(9-11-8-23-17-15(24-11)16(21)26-20(22)27-17)12-4-2-10(3-5-12)18(31)25-13(19(32)33)6-7-14(29)30/h2-5,8,13H,6-7,9H2,1H3,(H,25,31)(H,29,30)(H,32,33)(H4,21,22,23,26,27)/t13-/m0/s1
InChI KeyFBOZXECLQNJBKD-ZDUSSCGKSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glutamic acid and derivatives. These are compounds containing glutamic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of glutamic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentGlutamic acid and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glutamic acid or derivatives
  • Hippuric acid or derivatives
  • Hippuric acid
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Aminobenzamide
  • Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Pteridine
  • Benzamide
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzoyl
  • Aniline or substituted anilines
  • Tertiary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyrimidine
  • Pyrazine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point195 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.17 g/LNot Available
LogP-2.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.17 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.91ALOGPS
logP-0.5ChemAxon
logS-3.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.41ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.81ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area210.54 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity119.21 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability44.54 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-2224900000-2f01d2daa7d3813c673aView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-3122290000-fa019cd3d12beee4e641View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-004i-0950000000-ca28d8dfdf780c201716View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0a4i-1819500000-3159955c0d961d305b13View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0a4i-0619400000-9a6d686008b68ac436baView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-004i-2902000000-526ede2e4de609cb3d44View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0213900000-1fa0d7d6d64dbadf542dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-056r-0937400000-de89bffee2deae003f47View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-056r-0921000000-3abec3045f5ab5af7a2aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0001900000-a87855dc4c7855304f61View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0pc0-0355900000-b18b5db2a15dc639aa07View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-6932000000-10efc16714372e5c2251View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0fai-6900000000-25b0e287457fb3845ef4View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00563 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00563 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00563
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID112728
KEGG Compound IDC01937
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMethotrexate
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound126941
PDB IDMTX
ChEBI ID44185
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Klareskog L, van der Heijde D, de Jager JP, Gough A, Kalden J, Malaise M, Martin Mola E, Pavelka K, Sany J, Settas L, Wajdula J, Pedersen R, Fatenejad S, Sanda M: Therapeutic effect of the combination of etanercept and methotrexate compared with each treatment alone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: double-blind randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004 Feb 28;363(9410):675-81. [PubMed:15001324 ]
  2. Johnston A, Gudjonsson JE, Sigmundsdottir H, Ludviksson BR, Valdimarsson H: The anti-inflammatory action of methotrexate is not mediated by lymphocyte apoptosis, but by the suppression of activation and adhesion molecules. Clin Immunol. 2005 Feb;114(2):154-63. [PubMed:15639649 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 25 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q06278
Molecular weight:
147916.735
References
  1. Zientek M, Jiang Y, Youdim K, Obach RS: In vitro-in vivo correlation for intrinsic clearance for drugs metabolized by human aldehyde oxidase. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Aug;38(8):1322-7. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.033555. Epub 2010 May 5. [PubMed:20444863 ]
  2. Baggott JE, Morgan SL: Methotrexate catabolism to 7-hydroxymethotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis alters drug efficacy and retention and is reduced by folic acid supplementation. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Aug;60(8):2257-61. doi: 10.1002/art.24685. [PubMed:19644884 ]
  3. Jordan CG, Rashidi MR, Laljee H, Clarke SE, Brown JE, Beedham C: Aldehyde oxidase-catalysed oxidation of methotrexate in the liver of guinea-pig, rabbit and man. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Apr;51(4):411-8. [PubMed:10385213 ]
General function:
Involved in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH) activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine.
Gene Name:
MTHFR
Uniprot ID:
P42898
Molecular weight:
74595.895
References
  1. Hider SL, Bruce IN, Thomson W: The pharmacogenetics of methotrexate. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Oct;46(10):1520-4. Epub 2007 Jun 24. [PubMed:17586865 ]
  2. Kremer JM: Methotrexate pharmacogenomics. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006 Sep;65(9):1121-3. [PubMed:16905578 ]
General function:
Involved in dihydrofolate reductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, and for DNA precursor synthesis. Binds its own mRNA and that of DHFRL1.
Gene Name:
DHFR
Uniprot ID:
P00374
Molecular weight:
21452.61
References
  1. Al-Rashood ST, Aboldahab IA, Nagi MN, Abouzeid LA, Abdel-Aziz AA, Abdel-Hamide SG, Youssef KM, Al-Obaid AM, El-Subbagh HI: Synthesis, dihydrofolate reductase inhibition, antitumor testing, and molecular modeling study of some new 4(3H)-quinazolinone analogs. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Dec 15;14(24):8608-21. Epub 2006 Sep 12. [PubMed:16971132 ]
  2. Assaraf YG: Molecular basis of antifolate resistance. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2007 Mar;26(1):153-81. [PubMed:17333344 ]
  3. Bennett B, Langan P, Coates L, Mustyakimov M, Schoenborn B, Howell EE, Dealwis C: Neutron diffraction studies of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase complexed with methotrexate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Dec 5;103(49):18493-8. Epub 2006 Nov 27. [PubMed:17130456 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  5. Totani K, Matsuo I, Ihara Y, Ito Y: High-mannose-type glycan modifications of dihydrofolate reductase using glycan-methotrexate conjugates. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Aug 1;14(15):5220-9. Epub 2006 May 2. [PubMed:16647263 ]
  6. Uga H, Kuramori C, Ohta A, Tsuboi Y, Tanaka H, Hatakeyama M, Yamaguchi Y, Takahashi T, Kizaki M, Handa H: A new mechanism of methotrexate action revealed by target screening with affinity beads. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;70(5):1832-9. Epub 2006 Aug 25. [PubMed:16936229 ]
  7. Hider SL, Bruce IN, Thomson W: The pharmacogenetics of methotrexate. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Oct;46(10):1520-4. Epub 2007 Jun 24. [PubMed:17586865 ]
General function:
Involved in tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives allowing concentration of folate compounds in the cell and the intracellular retention of these cofactors, which are important substrates for most of the folate-dependent enzymes that are involved in one-carbon transfer reactions involved in purine, pyrimidine and amino acid synthesis. Unsubstitued reduced folates are the preferred substrates. Metabolizes methotrexate (MTX) to polyglutamates.
Gene Name:
FPGS
Uniprot ID:
Q05932
Molecular weight:
59173.37
References
  1. Hider SL, Bruce IN, Thomson W: The pharmacogenetics of methotrexate. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Oct;46(10):1520-4. Epub 2007 Jun 24. [PubMed:17586865 ]
General function:
Involved in IMP cyclohydrolase activity
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 steps in purine biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
ATIC
Uniprot ID:
P31939
Molecular weight:
64615.255
References
  1. Hider SL, Bruce IN, Thomson W: The pharmacogenetics of methotrexate. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Oct;46(10):1520-4. Epub 2007 Jun 24. [PubMed:17586865 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 6-phosphogluconate to ribulose 5-phosphate and CO(2), with concomitant reduction of NADP to NADPH (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PGD
Uniprot ID:
P52209
Molecular weight:
53139.56
References
  1. Akkemik E, Budak H, Ciftci M: Effects of some drugs on human erythrocyte 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase: an in vitro study. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2010 Aug;25(4):476-9. doi: 10.3109/14756360903257900. [PubMed:20235752 ]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the polyglutamate sidechains of pteroylpolyglutamates. Progressively removes gamma-glutamyl residues from pteroylpoly-gamma-glutamate to yield pteroyl-alpha-glutamate (folic acid) and free glutamate. May play an important role in the bioavailability of dietary pteroylpolyglutamates and in the metabolism of pteroylpolyglutamates and antifolates.
Gene Name:
GGH
Uniprot ID:
Q92820
Molecular weight:
35964.045
References
  1. Hider SL, Bruce IN, Thomson W: The pharmacogenetics of methotrexate. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Oct;46(10):1520-4. Epub 2007 Jun 24. [PubMed:17586865 ]
General function:
Involved in thymidylate synthase activity
Specific function:
Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway.
Gene Name:
TYMS
Uniprot ID:
P04818
Molecular weight:
35715.65
References
  1. Hider SL, Bruce IN, Thomson W: The pharmacogenetics of methotrexate. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Oct;46(10):1520-4. Epub 2007 Jun 24. [PubMed:17586865 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotrexate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP)
Gene Name:
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPD5
Molecular weight:
77402.2
References
  1. Abe T, Unno M, Onogawa T, Tokui T, Kondo TN, Nakagomi R, Adachi H, Fujiwara K, Okabe M, Suzuki T, Nunoki K, Sato E, Kakyo M, Nishio T, Sugita J, Asano N, Tanemoto M, Seki M, Date F, Ono K, Kondo Y, Shiiba K, Suzuki M, Ohtani H, Shimosegawa T, Iinuma K, Nagura H, Ito S, Matsuno S: LST-2, a human liver-specific organic anion transporter, determines methotrexate sensitivity in gastrointestinal cancers. Gastroenterology. 2001 Jun;120(7):1689-99. [PubMed:11375950 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent high affinity transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and rT3. Other potential substrates, such as triiodothyronine (T3), 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone-3-sulfate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP) are transported with much lower efficiency
Gene Name:
SLCO1C1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NYB5
Molecular weight:
78695.6
References
  1. Pizzagalli F, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Klenk U, Folkers G, Meier PJ: Identification of a novel human organic anion transporting polypeptide as a high affinity thyroxine transporter. Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;16(10):2283-96. [PubMed:12351693 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. May play an important role in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular weight:
76448.0
References
  1. Abe T, Unno M, Onogawa T, Tokui T, Kondo TN, Nakagomi R, Adachi H, Fujiwara K, Okabe M, Suzuki T, Nunoki K, Sato E, Kakyo M, Nishio T, Sugita J, Asano N, Tanemoto M, Seki M, Date F, Ono K, Kondo Y, Shiiba K, Suzuki M, Ohtani H, Shimosegawa T, Iinuma K, Nagura H, Ito S, Matsuno S: LST-2, a human liver-specific organic anion transporter, determines methotrexate sensitivity in gastrointestinal cancers. Gastroenterology. 2001 Jun;120(7):1689-99. [PubMed:11375950 ]
  2. van de Steeg E, van der Kruijssen CM, Wagenaar E, Burggraaff JE, Mesman E, Kenworthy KE, Schinkel AH: Methotrexate pharmacokinetics in transgenic mice with liver-specific expression of human organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (SLCO1B1). Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Feb;37(2):277-81. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.024315. Epub 2008 Nov 20. [PubMed:19022939 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular weight:
53957.7
References
  1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. [PubMed:10579682 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular weight:
174205.6
References
  1. Han YH, Kato Y, Haramura M, Ohta M, Matsuoka H, Sugiyama Y: Physicochemical parameters responsible for the affinity of methotrexate analogs for rat canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT/MRP2). Pharm Res. 2001 May;18(5):579-86. [PubMed:11465411 ]
  2. Masuda M, I'izuka Y, Yamazaki M, Nishigaki R, Kato Y, Ni'inuma K, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Methotrexate is excreted into the bile by canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter in rats. Cancer Res. 1997 Aug 15;57(16):3506-10. [PubMed:9270020 ]
  3. Hooijberg JH, Broxterman HJ, Kool M, Assaraf YG, Peters GJ, Noordhuis P, Scheper RJ, Borst P, Pinedo HM, Jansen G: Antifolate resistance mediated by the multidrug resistance proteins MRP1 and MRP2. Cancer Res. 1999 Jun 1;59(11):2532-5. [PubMed:10363967 ]
  4. Bakos E, Evers R, Sinko E, Varadi A, Borst P, Sarkadi B: Interactions of the human multidrug resistance proteins MRP1 and MRP2 with organic anions. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Apr;57(4):760-8. [PubMed:10727523 ]
  5. Chen C, Scott D, Hanson E, Franco J, Berryman E, Volberg M, Liu X: Impact of Mrp2 on the biliary excretion and intestinal absorption of furosemide, probenecid, and methotrexate using Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats. Pharm Res. 2003 Jan;20(1):31-7. [PubMed:12608533 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o- glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular weight:
171589.5
References
  1. Heijn M, Hooijberg JH, Scheffer GL, Szabo G, Westerhoff HV, Lankelma J: Anthracyclines modulate multidrug resistance protein (MRP) mediated organic anion transport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 May 22;1326(1):12-22. [PubMed:9188796 ]
  2. Zeng H, Chen ZS, Belinsky MG, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate (MTX) and folates by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 3 and MRP1: effect of polyglutamylation on MTX transport. Cancer Res. 2001 Oct 1;61(19):7225-32. [PubMed:11585759 ]
  3. Paumi CM, Wright M, Townsend AJ, Morrow CS: Multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 1 and MRP3 attenuate cytotoxic and transactivating effects of the cyclopentenone prostaglandin, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)prostaglandin J2 in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Biochemistry. 2003 May 13;42(18):5429-37. [PubMed:12731885 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes
Gene Name:
ABCC3
Uniprot ID:
O15438
Molecular weight:
169341.1
References
  1. Akita H, Suzuki H, Hirohashi T, Takikawa H, Sugiyama Y: Transport activity of human MRP3 expressed in Sf9 cells: comparative studies with rat MRP3. Pharm Res. 2002 Jan;19(1):34-41. [PubMed:11837698 ]
  2. Oleschuk CJ, Deeley RG, Cole SP: Substitution of Trp1242 of TM17 alters substrate specificity of human multidrug resistance protein 3. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Feb;284(2):G280-9. Epub 2002 Oct 9. [PubMed:12388190 ]
  3. Hirohashi T, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Characterization of the transport properties of cloned rat multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3). J Biol Chem. 1999 May 21;274(21):15181-5. [PubMed:10329726 ]
  4. Zeng H, Liu G, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of amphipathic anions by human multidrug resistance protein 3. Cancer Res. 2000 Sep 1;60(17):4779-84. [PubMed:10987286 ]
  5. Zeng H, Chen ZS, Belinsky MG, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate (MTX) and folates by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 3 and MRP1: effect of polyglutamylation on MTX transport. Cancer Res. 2001 Oct 1;61(19):7225-32. [PubMed:11585759 ]
  6. Paumi CM, Wright M, Townsend AJ, Morrow CS: Multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 1 and MRP3 attenuate cytotoxic and transactivating effects of the cyclopentenone prostaglandin, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)prostaglandin J2 in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Biochemistry. 2003 May 13;42(18):5429-37. [PubMed:12731885 ]
  7. Li T, Ito K, Horie T: Transport of fluorescein methotrexate by multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 in IEC-6 cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Sep;285(3):G602-10. [PubMed:12909565 ]
  8. Zehnpfennig B, Urbatsch IL, Galla HJ: Functional reconstitution of human ABCC3 into proteoliposomes reveals a transport mechanism with positive cooperativity. Biochemistry. 2009 May 26;48(20):4423-30. doi: 10.1021/bi9001908. [PubMed:19334674 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Norris MD, De Graaf D, Haber M, Kavallaris M, Madafiglio J, Gilbert J, Kwan E, Stewart BW, Mechetner EB, Gudkov AV, Roninson IB: Involvement of MDR1 P-glycoprotein in multifactorial resistance to methotrexate. Int J Cancer. 1996 Mar 1;65(5):613-9. [PubMed:8598312 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from the brain. May be involved in brain-to-blood efflux. Appears to play a major role in the multidrug resistance phenotype of several cancer cell lines. When overexpressed, the transfected cells become resistant to mitoxantrone, daunorubicin and doxorubicin, display diminished intracellular accumulation of daunorubicin, and manifest an ATP- dependent increase in the efflux of rhodamine 123
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular weight:
72313.5
References
  1. Suzuki M, Suzuki H, Sugimoto Y, Sugiyama Y: ABCG2 transports sulfated conjugates of steroids and xenobiotics. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 20;278(25):22644-9. Epub 2003 Apr 7. [PubMed:12682043 ]
  2. Breedveld P, Zelcer N, Pluim D, Sonmezer O, Tibben MM, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH, van Tellingen O, Borst P, Schellens JH: Mechanism of the pharmacokinetic interaction between methotrexate and benzimidazoles: potential role for breast cancer resistance protein in clinical drug-drug interactions. Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 15;64(16):5804-11. [PubMed:15313923 ]
  3. Mitomo H, Kato R, Ito A, Kasamatsu S, Ikegami Y, Kii I, Kudo A, Kobatake E, Sumino Y, Ishikawa T: A functional study on polymorphism of the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2: critical role of arginine-482 in methotrexate transport. Biochem J. 2003 Aug 1;373(Pt 3):767-74. [PubMed:12741957 ]
  4. Chen ZS, Robey RW, Belinsky MG, Shchaveleva I, Ren XQ, Sugimoto Y, Ross DD, Bates SE, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate, methotrexate polyglutamates, and 17beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) by ABCG2: effects of acquired mutations at R482 on methotrexate transport. Cancer Res. 2003 Jul 15;63(14):4048-54. [PubMed:12874005 ]
  5. Volk EL, Schneider E: Wild-type breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is a methotrexate polyglutamate transporter. Cancer Res. 2003 Sep 1;63(17):5538-43. [PubMed:14500392 ]
  6. Suzuki K, Doki K, Homma M, Tamaki H, Hori S, Ohtani H, Sawada Y, Kohda Y: Co-administration of proton pump inhibitors delays elimination of plasma methotrexate in high-dose methotrexate therapy. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Jan;67(1):44-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2008.03303.x. Epub 2008 Nov 17. [PubMed:19076159 ]
  7. Hou YX, Li CZ, Palaniyandi K, Magtibay PM, Homolya L, Sarkadi B, Chang XB: Effects of putative catalytic base mutation E211Q on ABCG2-mediated methotrexate transport. Biochemistry. 2009 Sep 29;48(38):9122-31. doi: 10.1021/bi900675v. [PubMed:19691360 ]
  8. Tiwari AK, Sodani K, Wang SR, Kuang YH, Ashby CR Jr, Chen X, Chen ZS: Nilotinib (AMN107, Tasigna) reverses multidrug resistance by inhibiting the activity of the ABCB1/Pgp and ABCG2/BCRP/MXR transporters. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Jul 15;78(2):153-61. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.04.002. Epub 2009 Apr 11. [PubMed:19427995 ]
  9. Dai CL, Liang YJ, Wang YS, Tiwari AK, Yan YY, Wang F, Chen ZS, Tong XZ, Fu LW: Sensitization of ABCG2-overexpressing cells to conventional chemotherapeutic agent by sunitinib was associated with inhibiting the function of ABCG2. Cancer Lett. 2009 Jun 28;279(1):74-83. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2009.01.027. Epub 2009 Feb 18. [PubMed:19232821 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds
Gene Name:
SLC22A11
Uniprot ID:
Q9NSA0
Molecular weight:
59970.9
References
  1. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of methotrexate transport and its drug interactions with human organic anion transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):666-71. [PubMed:12130730 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 25 proteins in total.