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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 06:00:31 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0014774
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14774
Metabolite Identification
Common NameClofibrate
DescriptionClofibrate is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemia type III and severe hypertriglyceridemia (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p986). Clofibrate increases the activity of extrahepatic lipoprotein lipase (LL), thereby increasing lipoprotein triglyceride lipolysis. Chylomicrons are degraded, VLDLs are converted to LDLs, and LDLs are converted to HDL. This is accompanied by a slight increase in secretion of lipids into the bile and ultimately the intestine. Clofibrate also inhibits the synthesis and increases the clearance of apolipoprotein B, a carrier molecule for VLDL. Also, as a fibrate, clofibrate is an agonist of the PPAR-α receptor[4] in muscle, liver, and other tissues. This agonism ultimately leads to modification in gene expression resulting in increased beta-oxidation, decreased triglyceride secretion, increased HDL, increased lipoprotein lipase activity.
Structure
Data?1563861631
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-(4-Chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropanoic acid ethyl esterChEBI
2-(P-Chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid ethyl esterChEBI
alpha-(P-Chlorophenoxy)isobutyric acid, ethyl esterChEBI
alpha-P-Chlorophenoxyisobutyryl ethyl esterChEBI
Atromid-SChEBI
ClofibratoChEBI
ClofibratumChEBI
ELPIChEBI
EPIBChEBI
Ethyl 2-(P-chlorophenoxy)isobutyrateChEBI
Ethyl chlorophenoxyisobutyrateChEBI
Ethyl clofibrateChEBI
LipofactonChEBI
LiprinChEBI
2-(4-Chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropanoate ethyl esterGenerator
Clofibric acidGenerator
2-(P-Chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionate ethyl esterGenerator
a-(P-Chlorophenoxy)isobutyrate, ethyl esterGenerator
a-(P-Chlorophenoxy)isobutyric acid, ethyl esterGenerator
alpha-(P-Chlorophenoxy)isobutyrate, ethyl esterGenerator
α-(P-chlorophenoxy)isobutyrate, ethyl esterGenerator
α-(P-chlorophenoxy)isobutyric acid, ethyl esterGenerator
a-P-Chlorophenoxyisobutyryl ethyl esterGenerator
α-P-chlorophenoxyisobutyryl ethyl esterGenerator
Ethyl 2-(P-chlorophenoxy)isobutyric acidGenerator
Ethyl chlorophenoxyisobutyric acidGenerator
Ethyl clofibric acidGenerator
ChlorfenisateHMDB
ChlorphenisateHMDB
ClofibateHMDB
CPIBHMDB
Ethyl P-chlorophenoxyisobutyrateHMDB
Ethyl para-chlorophenoxyisobutyrateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC12H15ClO3
Average Molecular Weight242.699
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight242.070972053
IUPAC Nameethyl 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropanoate
Traditional Nameartes
CAS Registry Number637-07-0
SMILES
CCOC(=O)C(C)(C)OC1=CC=C(Cl)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C12H15ClO3/c1-4-15-11(14)12(2,3)16-10-7-5-9(13)6-8-10/h5-8H,4H2,1-3H3
InChI KeyKNHUKKLJHYUCFP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenoxyacetic acid derivatives. These are compounds containing an anisole where the methane group is linked to an acetic acid or a derivative.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenoxyacetic acid derivatives
Direct ParentPhenoxyacetic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenoxyacetate
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Phenol ether
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Halobenzene
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aryl halide
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Ether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organochloride
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point< 25 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.029 g/LNot Available
LogP3.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.029 g/LALOGPS
logP3.99ALOGPS
logP3.4ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area35.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity62.14 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability24.7 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00or-4900000000-b0f27a4473b7e59d68c3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-0390000000-a206c9f16b476083dcdbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-1920000000-cdf7fd63fdcb1f2840cdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-6900000000-bf1eef6ec7349495a9b5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0290000000-f8e44478c85e8deb28e7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004l-1960000000-5686cbdf03cff625cebcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-de1ce5552c1bea344c1eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-004i-3900000000-fc2f01df51d424557e9fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00636 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00636 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00636
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2694
KEGG Compound IDC06916
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkClofibrate
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound2796
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID3750
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate, myristate and palmitate. Has little activity toward prostaglandins A1 and E1. Oxidizes arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE).
Gene Name:
CYP4A11
Uniprot ID:
Q02928
Molecular weight:
59347.31
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTA2
Uniprot ID:
P09210
Molecular weight:
25663.675
References
  1. Foliot A, Touchard D, Mallet L: Inhibition of liver glutathione S-transferase activity in rats by hypolipidemic drugs related or unrelated to clofibrate. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 May 15;35(10):1685-90. [PubMed:3707598 ]
  2. Foliot A, Touchard D, Celier C: Impairment of hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity as a cause of reduced biliary sulfobromophthalein excretion in clofibrate-treated rats. Biochem Pharmacol. 1984 Sep 15;33(18):2829-34. [PubMed:6477642 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular weight:
58164.815
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular weight:
56517.005
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl- 2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the acyl-CoA oxidase gene
Gene Name:
PPARA
Uniprot ID:
Q07869
Molecular weight:
52224.6
References
  1. Barclay TB, Peters JM, Sewer MB, Ferrari L, Gonzalez FJ, Morgan ET: Modulation of cytochrome P-450 gene expression in endotoxemic mice is tissue specific and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha dependent. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1250-7. [PubMed:10454501 ]
  2. Murata M, Kaji H, Takahashi Y, Iida K, Mizuno I, Okimura Y, Abe H, Chihara K: Stimulation by eicosapentaenoic acids of leptin mRNA expression and its secretion in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Apr 13;270(2):343-8. [PubMed:10753628 ]
  3. Hunt MC, Lindquist PJ, Peters JM, Gonzalez FJ, Diczfalusy U, Alexson SE: Involvement of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in regulating long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterases. J Lipid Res. 2000 May;41(5):814-23. [PubMed:10787442 ]
  4. Casas F, Domenjoud L, Rochard P, Hatier R, Rodier A, Daury L, Bianchi A, Kremarik-Bouillaud P, Becuwe P, Keller J, Schohn H, Wrutniak-Cabello C, Cabello G, Dauca M: A 45 kDa protein related to PPARgamma2, induced by peroxisome proliferators, is located in the mitochondrial matrix. FEBS Lett. 2000 Jul 28;478(1-2):4-8. [PubMed:10922459 ]
  5. Komuves LG, Hanley K, Lefebvre AM, Man MQ, Ng DC, Bikle DD, Williams ML, Elias PM, Auwerx J, Feingold KR: Stimulation of PPARalpha promotes epidermal keratinocyte differentiation in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Sep;115(3):353-60. [PubMed:10951268 ]
  6. Gelosa P, Banfi C, Gianella A, Brioschi M, Pignieri A, Nobili E, Castiglioni L, Cimino M, Tremoli E, Sironi L: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} agonism prevents renal damage and the oxidative stress and inflammatory processes affecting the brains of stroke-prone rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Nov;335(2):324-31. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.171090. Epub 2010 Jul 29. [PubMed:20671072 ]
  7. Palkar PS, Anderson CR, Ferry CH, Gonzalez FJ, Peters JM: Effect of prenatal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonism on postnatal development. Toxicology. 2010 Sep 30;276(1):79-84. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2010.07.008. Epub 2010 Jul 15. [PubMed:20637823 ]