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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 20:10:40 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0014785
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14785
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePropoxyphene
DescriptionPropoxyphene is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a narcotic analgesic structurally related to methadone. Only the dextro-isomer has an analgesic effect; the levo-isomer appears to exert an antitussive effect. [PubChem]Propoxyphene acts as a weak agonist at OP1, OP2, and OP3 opiate receptors within the central nervous system (CNS). Propoxyphene primarily affects OP3 receptors, which are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as modulators, both positive and negative, of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. Binding of the opiate stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G-protein complex. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine, and noradrenaline is inhibited. Opioids such as propoxyphene also inhibit the release of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin, and glucagon. Opioids close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). This results in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
D-PropoxypheneHMDB
DextropropoxypheneHMDB
Dextropropoxyphene-mHMDB
DextroproxifenoHMDB
Chemical FormulaC22H29NO2
Average Molecular Weight339.4712
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight339.219829177
IUPAC Name(3R)-4-(dimethylamino)-3-methyl-1,2-diphenylbutan-2-yl propanoate
Traditional Namepropoxyphene
CAS Registry Number469-62-5
SMILES
CCC(=O)OC(CC1=CC=CC=C1)([C@H](C)CN(C)C)C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C22H29NO2/c1-5-21(24)25-22(18(2)17-23(3)4,20-14-10-7-11-15-20)16-19-12-8-6-9-13-19/h6-15,18H,5,16-17H2,1-4H3/t18-,22?/m1/s1
InChI KeyXLMALTXPSGQGBX-ZZWBGTBQSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as stilbenes. These are organic compounds containing a 1,2-diphenylethylene moiety. Stilbenes (C6-C2-C6 ) are derived from the common phenylpropene (C6-C3) skeleton building block. The introduction of one or more hydroxyl groups to a phenyl ring lead to stilbenoids.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassStilbenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentStilbenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Stilbene
  • Phenylbutylamine
  • Benzyloxycarbonyl
  • Phenylpropane
  • Aralkylamine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point75 - 76 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.0042 g/LNot Available
LogP4.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0042 g/LALOGPS
logP4.06ALOGPS
logP4.9ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.52ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.54 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity102.88 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability38.4 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4l-9210000000-b4cc812189db38dadd77View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-6098000000-704ebb9b1783a27eff9eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0aor-8391000000-9cf8484b11cd472d9823View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052u-9540000000-39f644ae0683b7dc91efView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-2039000000-8a2486c48a91f5a38c25View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0540-5093000000-87165f11aa8ee69eb2abView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0pi0-9280000000-1f876d1c41c65e6da6b6View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00647 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00647 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID21864756
KEGG Compound IDC07406
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDextropropoxyphene
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound25137868
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID8497
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Coda BA, Rudy AC, Archer SM, Wermeling DP: Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of single-dose intranasal hydromorphone hydrochloride in healthy volunteers. Anesth Analg. 2003 Jul;97(1):117-23, table of contents. [PubMed:12818953 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Highly stereoselective. receptor for enkephalins
Gene Name:
OPRD1
Uniprot ID:
P41143
Molecular weight:
40412.3
References
  1. Neil A: Affinities of some common opioid analgesics towards four binding sites in mouse brain. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1984 Nov;328(1):24-9. [PubMed:6151117 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Receptor for beta-endorphin
Gene Name:
OPRM1
Uniprot ID:
P35372
Molecular weight:
44778.9
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Ulens C, Daenens P, Tytgat J: Norpropoxyphene-induced cardiotoxicity is associated with changes in ion-selectivity and gating of HERG currents. Cardiovasc Res. 1999 Dec;44(3):568-78. [PubMed:10690289 ]
  3. Tyers MB: A classification of opiate receptors that mediate antinociception in animals. Br J Pharmacol. 1980 Jul;69(3):503-12. [PubMed:6249436 ]
  4. Picker MJ: Discriminative stimulus effects of the mixed-opioid agonist/antagonist dezocine: cross-substitution by mu and delta opioid agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Dec;283(3):1009-17. [PubMed:9399970 ]
  5. Codd EE, Shank RP, Schupsky JJ, Raffa RB: Serotonin and norepinephrine uptake inhibiting activity of centrally acting analgesics: structural determinants and role in antinociception. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Sep;274(3):1263-70. [PubMed:7562497 ]
  6. Bannwarth B, Richez C: The dextropropoxyphene controversy. Joint Bone Spine. 2009 Oct;76(5):449-51. doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2009.04.004. Epub 2009 Jul 14. [PubMed:19604717 ]
  7. Walker EA, Tiano MJ, Benyas SI, Dykstra LA, Picker MJ: Naltrexone and beta-funaltrexamine antagonism of the antinociceptive and response rate-decreasing effects of morphine, dezocine, and d-propoxyphene. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 May;144(1):45-53. [PubMed:10379623 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Receptor for dynorphins. May play a role in arousal and regulation of autonomic and neuroendocrine functions
Gene Name:
OPRK1
Uniprot ID:
P41145
Molecular weight:
42644.7
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Neil A: Affinities of some common opioid analgesics towards four binding sites in mouse brain. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1984 Nov;328(1):24-9. [PubMed:6151117 ]