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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:07:58 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00148
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Glutamic acid
DescriptionGlutamic acid (Glu), also referred to as glutamate (the anion), is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. It is not among the essential amino acids. Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism. In humans, dietary proteins are broken down by digestion into amino acids, which serves as metabolic fuel or other functional roles in the body. Glutamate is the most abundant fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system. At chemical synapses, glutamate is stored in vesicles. Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the pre-synaptic cell. In the opposing post-synaptic cell, glutamate receptors, such as the NMDA receptor, bind glutamate and are activated. Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, it is believed that glutamic acid is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain. Glutamate transporters are found in neuronal and glial membranes. They rapidly remove glutamate from the extracellular space. In brain injury or disease, they can work in reverse and excess glutamate can accumulate outside cells. This process causes calcium ions to enter cells via NMDA receptor channels, leading to neuronal damage and eventual cell death, and is called excitotoxicity. The mechanisms of cell death include: * Damage to mitochondria from excessively high intracellular Ca2+. * Glu/Ca2+-mediated promotion of transcription factors for pro-apoptotic genes, or downregulation of transcription factors for anti-apoptotic genes. Excitotoxicity due to glutamate occurs as part of the ischemic cascade and is associated with stroke and diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lathyrism, and Alzheimer's disease. glutamic acid has been implicated in epileptic seizures. Microinjection of glutamic acid into neurons produces spontaneous depolarization around one second apart, and this firing pattern is similar to what is known as paroxysmal depolarizing shift in epileptic attacks. This change in the resting membrane potential at seizure foci could cause spontaneous opening of voltage activated calcium channels, leading to glutamic acid release and further depolarization. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamic_acid).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
  2. (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  3. (S)-(+)-Glutamate
  4. (S)-(+)-Glutamic acid
  5. (S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
  6. (S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  7. (S)-Glutamate
  8. (S)-Glutamic acid
  9. 1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylate
  10. 1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
  11. 1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylate
  12. 1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
  13. 2-Aminoglutarate
  14. 2-Aminoglutaric acid
  15. 2-Aminopentanedioate
  16. 2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  17. a-Aminoglutarate
  18. a-Aminoglutaric acid
  19. a-Glutamate
  20. a-Glutamic acid
  21. Aciglut
  22. alpha-Aminoglutarate
  23. alpha-Aminoglutaric acid
  24. alpha-Glutamate
  25. alpha-Glutamic acid
  26. Aminoglutarate
  27. Aminoglutaric acid
  28. E
  29. Glt
  30. Glu
  31. Glusate
  32. Glut
  33. Glutacid
  34. Glutamicol
  35. Glutamidex
  36. Glutaminate
  37. Glutaminic acid
  38. Glutaminol
  39. Glutaton
  40. L-(+)-Glutamate
  41. L-(+)-Glutamic acid
  42. L-a-Aminoglutarate
  43. L-a-Aminoglutaric acid
  44. L-alpha-Aminoglutarate
  45. L-alpha-Aminoglutaric acid
  46. L-Glu
  47. L-Glutamate
  48. L-Glutaminate
  49. L-Glutaminic acid
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO4
Average Molecular Weight147.1293
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight147.053157781
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
Traditional IUPAC NameL-glutamic acid
CAS Registry Number56-86-0
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
InChI KeyWHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
ClassAmino Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • alpha-amino acid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Dicarboxylic Acid Derivative
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
Direct ParentAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism
  • Component of Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Component of Aminosugars metabolism
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of Butanoate metabolism
  • Component of Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Folate biosynthesis
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glutathione metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Lysine biosynthesis
  • Component of Nitrogen metabolism
  • Component of Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Component of Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Component of Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Component of Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Component of Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Component of Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Component of Prostaglandin and leukotriene metabolism
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Component of Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Component of Selenoamino acid metabolism
  • Component of Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
  • Component of Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Component of Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • Component of beta-Alanine metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility8.57 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.69HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility80.6 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.26ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)1.88ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)9.54ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count5ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count3ChemAxon
polar surface area100.62ChemAxon
rotatable bond count4ChemAxon
refractivity31.29ChemAxon
polarizability13.49ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Alanine MetabolismSMP00055map00250
Amino Sugar MetabolismSMP00045map00520
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009map00910
Arginine and Proline MetabolismSMP00020map00330
Cysteine MetabolismSMP00013map00270
Folate MetabolismSMP00053map00670
Glucose-Alanine CycleSMP00127Not Available
Glutamate MetabolismSMP00072map00250
Glutathione MetabolismSMP00015map00480
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Histidine MetabolismSMP00044map00340
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleSMP00129Not Available
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059map00330
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified24.0 (9.0-39.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified145.0 +/- 6.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified97.4 +/- 13.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified65.0 +/- 35.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified35.0 +/- 14.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified37.0 +/- 14.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified60.0 +/- 16.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified46.0 +/- 13.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified33.0 +/- 12.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified1400 (1200-1600) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified40 +/- 52 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.8 +/- 0.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.22 (0.14-0.29) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.34 +/- 0.14 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified32.6 +/- 6.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.44 +/- 0.29 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.62 (0.18-1.15) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.711 (0.329-3.092) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified<4.76-217.61 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
      • David F. Putnam C...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified10.0 +/- 3.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
      • Tanaka, T. and Na...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified8.5 (3.3-18.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.5 (0.13-1.0) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
      • Geigy Scientific ...
      • West Cadwell, N.J...
      • Basel, Switzerlan...
    details
    UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified6.4 (0.6-17.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified1.38 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified6.87 +/- 3.51 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    BloodDetected and Quantified72 +/- 36.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHeart Transplant details
    BloodDetected and Quantified32.7 +/- 18.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleSchizophrenia details
    BloodDetected and Quantified34.7 +/- 26.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
    BloodDetected and Quantified29.8 (27.6-32.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified39.7 (36.5-42.9) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified33.18 +/- 11.26 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    BloodDetected and Quantified56.6 (44.6-68.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified172.0 +/- 6.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Heart failure
    details
    Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified2500 (2100-2900) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAnoxia details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.37 (0.21-0.53) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothRett syndrome details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified26.8 +/- 5.9 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedLeukemia details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified23.6 +/- 8.5 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
    Leukemia
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.32 +/- 0.09 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.0064 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothADPKD details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Alzheimer's disease
    1. Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed: 17031479
    Anoxia
    1. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834
    Epilepsy
    1. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
    Schizophrenia
    1. Alfredsson G, Wiesel FA: Monoamine metabolites and amino acids in serum from schizophrenic patients before and during sulpiride treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989;99(3):322-7. Pubmed: 2480613
    2. Do KQ, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Zollinger M, Gutteck-Amsler U, Cuenod M, Holsboer F: gamma-Glutamylglutamine and taurine concentrations are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug-naive patients with schizophrenic disorders. J Neurochem. 1995 Dec;65(6):2652-62. Pubmed: 7595563
    Heart failure
    1. Norrelund H, Wiggers H, Halbirk M, Frystyk J, Flyvbjerg A, Botker HE, Schmitz O, Jorgensen JO, Christiansen JS, Moller N: Abnormalities of whole body protein turnover, muscle metabolism and levels of metabolic hormones in patients with chronic heart failure. J Intern Med. 2006 Jul;260(1):11-21. Pubmed: 16789974
    Leukemia
    1. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239
    Rett syndrome
    1. MetaGene
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDDB00142
    DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB012535
    KNApSAcK IDC00001358
    Chemspider ID30572
    KEGG Compound IDC00025
    BioCyc IDGLT
    BiGG ID33561
    Wikipedia LinkE
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00148
    Metagene LinkHMDB00148
    METLIN ID5174
    PubChem Compound33032
    PDB IDGGL
    ChEBI ID16015
    References
    Synthesis Reference Horner, L.; Gross, A. Tertiary phosphines. IV. Use of phosphine imines in causing the introduction of primary amino groups. Ann. (1955), 591 117-34.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Molinari F, Raas-Rothschild A, Rio M, Fiermonte G, Encha-Razavi F, Palmieri L, Palmieri F, Ben-Neriah Z, Kadhom N, Vekemans M, Attie-Bitach T, Munnich A, Rustin P, Colleaux L: Impaired mitochondrial glutamate transport in autosomal recessive neonatal myoclonic epilepsy. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Feb;76(2):334-9. Epub 2004 Dec 8. Pubmed: 15592994
    2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
    3. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
    4. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834
    5. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. Pubmed: 6696735
    6. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239
    7. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216
    8. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
    9. Mross K, Maessen P, van der Vijgh WJ, Gall H, Boven E, Pinedo HM: Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of epidoxorubicin and doxorubicin in humans. J Clin Oncol. 1988 Mar;6(3):517-26. Pubmed: 3162516
    10. Noorlander CW, de Graan PN, Nikkels PG, Schrama LH, Visser GH: Distribution of glutamate transporters in the human placenta. Placenta. 2004 Jul;25(6):489-95. Pubmed: 15135231
    11. Grasselli G, Vigano L, Capri G, Locatelli A, Tarenzi E, Spreafico C, Bertuzzi A, Giani A, Materazzo C, Cresta S, Perotti A, Valagussa P, Gianni L: Clinical and pharmacologic study of the epirubicin and paclitaxel combination in women with metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Apr 15;19(8):2222-31. Pubmed: 11304775
    12. Frayn KN, Khan K, Coppack SW, Elia M: Amino acid metabolism in human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo. Clin Sci (Lond). 1991 May;80(5):471-4. Pubmed: 1851687
    13. Alfredsson G, Wiesel FA, Tylec A: Relationships between glutamate and monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry. 1988 Apr 1;23(7):689-97. Pubmed: 2453224
    14. Zoia C, Cogliati T, Tagliabue E, Cavaletti G, Sala G, Galimberti G, Rivolta I, Rossi V, Frattola L, Ferrarese C: Glutamate transporters in platelets: EAAT1 decrease in aging and in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Feb;25(2):149-57. Pubmed: 14749132
    15. Rizzo V, Anesi A, Montalbetti L, Bellantoni G, Trotti R, Melzi d'Eril GV: Reference values of neuroactive amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical and fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr A. 1996 Apr 5;729(1-2):181-8. Pubmed: 9004939
    16. Agnati LF, Ferre S, Lluis C, Franco R, Fuxe K: Molecular mechanisms and therapeutical implications of intramembrane receptor/receptor interactions among heptahelical receptors with examples from the striatopallidal GABA neurons. Pharmacol Rev. 2003 Sep;55(3):509-50. Epub 2003 Jul 17. Pubmed: 12869660
    17. Rutten EP, Engelen MP, Wouters EF, Schols AM, Deutz NE: Metabolic effects of glutamine and glutamate ingestion in healthy subjects and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;83(1):115-23. Pubmed: 16400059
    18. Agarwal A, Tripathi LM, Pandey VC: Status of ammonia, glutamate, lactate and pyruvate during Plasmodium yoelii infection and pyrimethamine treatment in mice. J Commun Dis. 1997 Sep;29(3):235-41. Pubmed: 9465528
    19. Heuschen UA, Allemeyer EH, Hinz U, Langer K, Heuschen G, Decker-Baumann C, Herfarth C, Stern J: Glutamine distribution in patients with ulcerative colitis and in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis coli before and after restorative proctocolectomy. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2002 Jul;17(4):245-52. Epub 2001 Dec 18. Pubmed: 12073073
    20. Olson RC: A proposed role for nerve growth factor in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. Med Hypotheses. 1998 Dec;51(6):493-8. Pubmed: 10052870
    21. Nakamura K, Matsumura K, Kobayashi S, Kaneko T: Sympathetic premotor neurons mediating thermoregulatory functions. Neurosci Res. 2005 Jan;51(1):1-8. Pubmed: 15596234
    22. Corrie JE, DeSantis A, Katayama Y, Khodakhah K, Messenger JB, Ogden DC, Trentham DR: Postsynaptic activation at the squid giant synapse by photolytic release of L-glutamate from a 'caged' L-glutamate. J Physiol. 1993 Jun;465:1-8. Pubmed: 7901400
    23. Reeds PJ, Burrin DG, Stoll B, Jahoor F: Intestinal glutamate metabolism. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):978S-82S. Pubmed: 10736365
    24. Smith QR: Transport of glutamate and other amino acids at the blood-brain barrier. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):1016S-22S. Pubmed: 10736373
    25. Okumoto S, Looger LL, Micheva KD, Reimer RJ, Smith SJ, Frommer WB: Detection of glutamate release from neurons by genetically encoded surface-displayed FRET nanosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 14;102(24):8740-5. Epub 2005 Jun 6. Pubmed: 15939876
    26. Augustin H, Grosjean Y, Chen K, Sheng Q, Featherstone DE: Nonvesicular release of glutamate by glial xCT transporters suppresses glutamate receptor clustering in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 3;27(1):111-23. Pubmed: 17202478

    Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 94 proteins in total.

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Irreversible conversion of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), derived either from proline or ornithine, to glutamate. This is a necessary step in the pathway interconnecting the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles. The preferred substrate is glutamic gamma-semialdehyde, other substrates include succinic, glutaric and adipic semialdehydes.
    Gene Name:
    ALDH4A1
    Uniprot ID:
    P30038
    Molecular weight:
    55117.24
    Reactions
    1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD(P)(+) + Water → L-Glutamic acid + NAD(P)Hdetails
    L-Glutamic gamma-semialdehyde + NAD + Water → L-Glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD + Water → L-Glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NADP + Water → L-Glutamic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
    Gene Name:
    GSR
    Uniprot ID:
    P00390
    Molecular weight:
    56256.565
    General function:
    Involved in metabolic process
    Specific function:
    Controls the flux of glucose into the hexosamine pathway. Most likely involved in regulating the availability of precursors for N- and O-linked glycosylation of proteins.
    Gene Name:
    GFPT2
    Uniprot ID:
    O94808
    Molecular weight:
    76929.885
    Reactions
    L-Glutamine + Fructose 6-phosphate → L-Glutamic acid + Glucosamine 6-phosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in metabolic process
    Specific function:
    Controls the flux of glucose into the hexosamine pathway. Most likely involved in regulating the availability of precursors for N- and O-linked glycosylation of proteins.
    Gene Name:
    GFPT1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q06210
    Molecular weight:
    78805.81
    Reactions
    L-Glutamine + Fructose 6-phosphate → L-Glutamic acid + Glucosamine 6-phosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine.
    Gene Name:
    ABAT
    Uniprot ID:
    P80404
    Molecular weight:
    56438.405
    Reactions
    Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid → Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    (S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid → 2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Beta-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Malonic semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    (S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid → (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Imai H, Okuno T, Wu JY, Lee TJ: GABAergic innervation in cerebral blood vessels: an immunohistochemical demonstration of L-glutamic acid decarboxylase and GABA transaminase. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1991 Jan;11(1):129-34. Pubmed: 1983997
    4. Happola O, Paivarinta H, Soinila S, Wu JY, Panula P: Localization of L-glutamate decarboxylase and GABA transaminase immunoreactivity in the sympathetic ganglia of the rat. Neuroscience. 1987 Apr;21(1):271-81. Pubmed: 3299141
    5. Far SR, Millimoria FR: Levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), gamma amino butyric acid transaminase (GABA-T), glutamic acid dehydrogenase (GLDH) and proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of certain neurological disorders. Indian J Med Sci. 1996 Apr;50(4):99-102. Pubmed: 8979623
    General function:
    Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
    Specific function:
    Transaminase involved in tyrosine breakdown. Converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Can catalyze the reverse reaction, using glutamic acid, with 2-oxoglutarate as cosubstrate (in vitro). Has much lower affinity and transaminase activity towards phenylalanine.
    Gene Name:
    TAT
    Uniprot ID:
    P17735
    Molecular weight:
    50398.895
    Reactions
    L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Phenylalanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    2-Oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic acid → L-Methionine + Oxoglutaric aciddetails
    References
    1. Ozturk M, Chiu CY, Akdeniz N, Jenq SF, Chang SC, Hsa CY, Jap TS: Two novel mutations in the MEN1 gene in subjects with multiple endocrine neoplasia-1. J Endocrinol Invest. 2006 Jun;29(6):523-7. Pubmed: 16840830
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
    Specific function:
    Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    GOT1
    Uniprot ID:
    P17174
    Molecular weight:
    46247.14
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid → Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Phenylalanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Cysteic acid + Oxoglutaric acid → 3-Sulfopyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    3-Sulfinoalanine + Oxoglutaric acid → B-Sulfinyl pyruvate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + Oxoglutaric acid → D-4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Yudkoff M, Daikhin Y, Melo TM, Nissim I, Sonnewald U, Nissim I: The ketogenic diet and brain metabolism of amino acids: relationship to the anticonvulsant effect. Annu Rev Nutr. 2007;27:415-30. Pubmed: 17444813
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. Important for metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Facilitates cellular uptake of long-chain free fatty acids.
    Gene Name:
    GOT2
    Uniprot ID:
    P00505
    Molecular weight:
    47517.285
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid → Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Kynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Phenylalanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Cysteic acid + Oxoglutaric acid → 3-Sulfopyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    3-Sulfinoalanine + Oxoglutaric acid → B-Sulfinyl pyruvate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + Oxoglutaric acid → D-4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Recasens M, Mandel P: Similarities between cysteinesulphinate transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase. Ciba Found Symp. 1979;(72):259-70. Pubmed: 261660
    4. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed: 10592235
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine.
    Gene Name:
    BCAT1
    Uniprot ID:
    P54687
    Molecular weight:
    38644.77
    Reactions
    L-Leucine + Oxoglutaric acid → Ketoleucine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Isoleucine + Oxoglutaric acid → 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Valine + Oxoglutaric acid → Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Smirnov SV, Samsonova NN, Novikova AE, Matrosov NG, Rushkevich NY, Kodera T, Ogawa J, Yamanaka H, Shimizu S: A novel strategy for enzymatic synthesis of 4-hydroxyisoleucine: identification of an enzyme possessing HMKP (4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-keto-pentanoate) aldolase activity. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007 Aug;273(1):70-7. Epub 2007 Jun 6. Pubmed: 17559390
    General function:
    Involved in amidophosphoribosyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    PPAT
    Uniprot ID:
    Q06203
    Molecular weight:
    57398.52
    Reactions
    5-Phosphoribosylamine + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic acid → L-Glutamine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + Waterdetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
    Specific function:
    Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and glutamate. Shows activity also towards tryptophan, aspartate and hydroxykynurenine. Accepts a variety of oxo-acids as amino-group acceptors, with a preference for 2-oxoglutarate, 2-oxocaproic acid, phenylpyruvate and alpha-oxo-gamma-methiol butyric acid. Can also use glyoxylate as amino-group acceptor (in vitro).
    Gene Name:
    AADAT
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8N5Z0
    Molecular weight:
    47351.17
    Reactions
    L-Kynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Aminoadipic acid + Oxoglutaric acid → Oxoadipic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-3-Hydroxykynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-(2-Amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Kocki T, Luchowski P, Luchowska E, Wielosz M, Turski WA, Urbanska EM: L-cysteine sulphinate, endogenous sulphur-containing amino acid, inhibits rat brain kynurenic acid production via selective interference with kynurenine aminotransferase II. Neurosci Lett. 2003 Jul 31;346(1-2):97-100. Pubmed: 12850557
    General function:
    Involved in transaminase activity
    Specific function:
    Can metabolize asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) via transamination to alpha-keto-delta-(NN-dimethylguanidino) valeric acid (DMGV). ADMA is a potent inhibitor of nitric-oxide (NO) synthase, and this activity provides mechanism through which the kidney regulates blood pressure.
    Gene Name:
    AGXT2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9BYV1
    Molecular weight:
    57155.905
    Reactions
    Glycine + Oxoglutaric acid → Glyoxylic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    General function:
    Involved in transaminase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    OAT
    Uniprot ID:
    P04181
    Molecular weight:
    48534.39
    Reactions
    Ornithine + Oxoglutaric acid → L-Glutamic gamma-semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    General function:
    Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Metabolizes the cysteine conjugates of certain halogenated alkenes and alkanes to form reactive metabolites. Catalyzes the beta-elimination of S-conjugates and Se-conjugates of L-(seleno)cysteine, resulting in the cleavage of the C-S or C-Se bond.
    Gene Name:
    CCBL1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q16773
    Molecular weight:
    47874.765
    Reactions
    L-Kynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-3-Hydroxykynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-(2-Amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    General function:
    Involved in glutamate-cysteine ligase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    GCLC
    Uniprot ID:
    P48506
    Molecular weight:
    68629.42
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Cysteine → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Gamma-Glutamylcysteinedetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    GCLM
    Uniprot ID:
    P48507
    Molecular weight:
    30726.7
    References
    1. Giordano G, White CC, McConnachie LA, Fernandez C, Kavanagh TJ, Costa LG: Neurotoxicity of domoic Acid in cerebellar granule neurons in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;70(6):2116-26. Epub 2006 Sep 25. Pubmed: 17000861
    General function:
    Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Plays a role in the regulation of ureagenesis by producing variable amounts of N-acetylglutamate (NAG), thus modulating carbamoylphosphate synthase I (CPSI) activity.
    Gene Name:
    NAGS
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8N159
    Molecular weight:
    58155.835
    Reactions
    Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamic acid → Coenzyme A + N-Acetylglutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Xu Y, Labedan B, Glansdorff N: Surprising arginine biosynthesis: a reappraisal of the enzymology and evolution of the pathway in microorganisms. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2007 Mar;71(1):36-47. Pubmed: 17347518
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. May also function as a transporter of branched chain alpha-keto acids.
    Gene Name:
    BCAT2
    Uniprot ID:
    O15382
    Molecular weight:
    33776.315
    Reactions
    L-Leucine + Oxoglutaric acid → Ketoleucine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Isoleucine + Oxoglutaric acid → 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Valine + Oxoglutaric acid → Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    General function:
    Involved in nucleotide binding
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the attachment of the cognate amino acid to the corresponding tRNA in a two-step reaction: the amino acid is first activated by ATP to form a covalent intermediate with AMP and is then transferred to the acceptor end of the cognate tRNA. Component of the GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced transcript-selective translation inhibition in inflammation processes. Upon interferon-gamma activation and subsequent phosphorylation dissociates from the multisynthetase complex and assembles into the GAIT complex which binds to stem loop-containing GAIT elements in the 3'-UTR of diverse inflammatory mRNAs (such as ceruplasmin) and suppresses their translation.
    Gene Name:
    EPRS
    Uniprot ID:
    P07814
    Molecular weight:
    170589.705
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + tRNA(Glu) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)details
    tRNA(Glu) + L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate → L-Glutamyl-tRNA(Glu) + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphatedetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Cerini C, Semeriva M, Gratecos D: Evolution of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family and the organization of the Drosophila glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene. Intron/exon structure of the gene, control of expression of the two mRNAs, selective advantage of the multienzyme complex. Eur J Biochem. 1997 Feb 15;244(1):176-85. Pubmed: 9063462
    4. Ting SM, Dignam JD: Post-transcriptional regulation of glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase in rat salivary gland. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 25;269(12):8993-8. Pubmed: 8132637
    General function:
    Involved in asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    ASNS
    Uniprot ID:
    P08243
    Molecular weight:
    62167.855
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Involved in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides which are not only essential for DNA and RNA synthesis, but also provide GTP, which is involved in a number of cellular processes important for cell division.
    Gene Name:
    GMPS
    Uniprot ID:
    P49915
    Molecular weight:
    76714.79
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + L-Glutamine + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    6-Thioxanthine 5'-monophosphate + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water → 6-Thioguanosine monophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Ravasio S, Dossena L, Martin-Figueroa E, Florencio FJ, Mattevi A, Morandi P, Curti B, Vanoni MA: Properties of the recombinant ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase of Synechocystis PCC6803. Comparison with the Azospirillum brasilense NADPH-dependent enzyme and its isolated alpha subunit. Biochemistry. 2002 Jun 25;41(25):8120-33. Pubmed: 12069605
    4. Myers RS, Amaro RE, Luthey-Schulten ZA, Davisson VJ: Reaction coupling through interdomain contacts in imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase. Biochemistry. 2005 Sep 13;44(36):11974-85. Pubmed: 16142895
    5. Boehlein SK, Richards NG, Schuster SM: Glutamine-dependent nitrogen transfer in Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase B. Searching for the catalytic triad. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 11;269(10):7450-7. Pubmed: 7907328
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Important for recycling the chief excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, during neurotransmission.
    Gene Name:
    GLUD2
    Uniprot ID:
    P49448
    Molecular weight:
    61433.465
    Reactions
    L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)Hdetails
    L-Glutamic acid + NAD + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    L-Glutamic acid + NADP + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    General function:
    Involved in glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
    Specific function:
    This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity). Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts.
    Gene Name:
    GLUL
    Uniprot ID:
    P15104
    Molecular weight:
    42064.15
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Ammonia → ADP + Phosphoric acid + L-Glutaminedetails
    L-Glutamic acid → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + CO(2)details
    References
    1. Re DB, Nafia I, Melon C, Shimamoto K, Kerkerian-Le Goff L, Had-Aissouni L: Glutamate leakage from a compartmentalized intracellular metabolic pool and activation of the lipoxygenase pathway mediate oxidative astrocyte death by reversed glutamate transport. Glia. 2006 Jul;54(1):47-57. Pubmed: 16673373
    2. Singh U, Sarkar D: Development of a simple high-throughput screening protocol based on biosynthetic activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase for the identification of novel Inhibitors. J Biomol Screen. 2006 Dec;11(8):1035-42. Epub 2006 Sep 14. Pubmed: 16973920
    3. Yamamoto S, Wakayama M, Tachiki T: Characterization of theanine-forming enzyme from Methylovorus mays no. 9 in respect to utilization of theanine production. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Feb;71(2):545-52. Epub 2007 Feb 7. Pubmed: 17284842
    4. Scaraffia PY, Zhang Q, Wysocki VH, Isoe J, Wells MA: Analysis of whole body ammonia metabolism in Aedes aegypti using [15N]-labeled compounds and mass spectrometry. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Aug;36(8):614-22. Epub 2006 May 19. Pubmed: 16876704
    General function:
    Involved in glutaminase activity
    Specific function:
    Plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine catabolism. Promotes mitochondrial respiration and increases ATP generation in cells by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Increases cellular anti-oxidant function via NADH and glutathione production. May play a role in preventing tumor proliferation.
    Gene Name:
    GLS2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UI32
    Molecular weight:
    66322.225
    Reactions
    L-Glutamine + Water → L-Glutamic acid + Ammoniadetails
    References
    1. Dossena L, Curti B, Vanoni MA: Activation and coupling of the glutaminase and synthase reaction of glutamate synthase is mediated by E1013 of the ferredoxin-dependent enzyme, belonging to loop 4 of the synthase domain. Biochemistry. 2007 Apr 17;46(15):4473-85. Epub 2007 Mar 21. Pubmed: 17373776
    2. Kita K, Suzuki T, Ochi T: Down-regulation of glutaminase C in human hepatocarcinoma cell by diphenylarsinic acid, a degradation product of chemical warfare agents. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 May 1;220(3):262-70. Epub 2007 Jan 24. Pubmed: 17321558
    3. Yoshimune K, Shirakihara Y, Shiratori A, Wakayama M, Chantawannakul P, Moriguchi M: Crystal structure of a major fragment of the salt-tolerant glutaminase from Micrococcus luteus K-3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Aug 11;346(4):1118-24. Epub 2006 Jun 6. Pubmed: 16793004
    General function:
    Involved in CTP synthase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen.
    Gene Name:
    CTPS1
    Uniprot ID:
    P17812
    Molecular weight:
    66689.9
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    General function:
    Involved in glutaminase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity.
    Gene Name:
    GLS
    Uniprot ID:
    O94925
    Molecular weight:
    65459.525
    Reactions
    L-Glutamine + Water → L-Glutamic acid + Ammoniadetails
    References
    1. Karmaker S, Saha TK, Yoshikawa Y, Yasui H, Sakurai H: A novel drug delivery system for type 1 diabetes: insulin-mimetic vanadyl-poly(gamma-glutamic acid) complex. J Inorg Biochem. 2006 Sep;100(9):1535-46. Epub 2006 May 24. Pubmed: 16824605
    2. Shi F, Xu Z, Cen P: Efficient production of poly-gamma-glutamic acid by Bacillus subtilis ZJU-7. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2006 Jun;133(3):271-82. Pubmed: 16720907
    3. Yang XX, Hu ZP, Xu AL, Duan W, Zhu YZ, Huang M, Sheu FS, Zhang Q, Bian JS, Chan E, Li X, Wang JC, Zhou SF: A mechanistic study on reduced toxicity of irinotecan by coadministered thalidomide, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Oct;319(1):82-104. Epub 2006 Jun 30. Pubmed: 16815871
    4. Ashiuchi M, Shimanouchi K, Horiuchi T, Kamei T, Misono H: Genetically engineered poly-gamma-glutamate producer from Bacillus subtilis ISW1214. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Jul;70(7):1794-7. Pubmed: 16861819
    5. Ashiuchi M, Nakamura H, Yamamoto M, Misono H: Novel poly-gamma-glutamate-processing enzyme catalyzing gamma-glutamyl DD-amidohydrolysis. J Biosci Bioeng. 2006 Jul;102(1):60-5. Pubmed: 16952838
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Folate-dependent enzyme, that displays both transferase and deaminase activity. Serves to channel one-carbon units from formiminoglutamate to the folate pool. Binds and promotes bundling of vimentin filaments originating from the Golgi (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    FTCD
    Uniprot ID:
    O95954
    Molecular weight:
    58925.93
    Reactions
    5-Formiminotetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic acid → Tetrahydrofolic acid + Formiminoglutamic aciddetails
    N5-Formyl-THF + L-Glutamic acid → Tetrahydrofolic acid + N-Formyl-L-glutamic aciddetails
    5-Formiminotetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic acid → Tetrahydrofolic acid + Formiminoglutamic aciddetails
    N5-Formyl-THF + L-Glutamic acid → Tetrahydrofolic acid + N-Formyl-L-glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Gao YS, Alvarez C, Nelson DS, Sztul E: Molecular cloning, characterization, and dynamics of rat formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase, a Golgi-associated 58-kDa protein. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 11;273(50):33825-34. Pubmed: 9837973
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    May be involved in learning and memory reactions by increasing the turnover of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    GLUD1
    Uniprot ID:
    P00367
    Molecular weight:
    61397.315
    Reactions
    L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)Hdetails
    L-Glutamic acid + NAD + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    L-Glutamic acid + NADP + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Anagnou NP, Seuanez H, Modi W, O'Brien SJ, Papamatheakis J, Moschonas NK: Chromosomal mapping of two members of the human glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) gene family to chromosomes 10q22.3-q23 and Xq22-q23. Hum Hered. 1993 Nov-Dec;43(6):351-6. Pubmed: 8288265
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the production of GABA.
    Gene Name:
    GAD2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q05329
    Molecular weight:
    65410.77
    Reactions
    L-Glutamic acid → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + CO(2)details
    L-Glutamic acid → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
    References
    1. Wei J, Lin CH, Wu H, Jin Y, Lee YH, Wu JY: Activity-dependent cleavage of brain glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 by calpain. J Neurochem. 2006 Sep;98(5):1688-95. Epub 2006 Jul 31. Pubmed: 16879709
    2. Manto MU, Laute MA, Aguera M, Rogemond V, Pandolfo M, Honnorat J: Effects of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies associated with neurological diseases. Ann Neurol. 2007 Jun;61(6):544-51. Pubmed: 17600364
    3. Pop SM, Wong CP, He Q, Wang Y, Wallet MA, Goudy KS, Tisch R: The type and frequency of immunoregulatory CD4+ T-cells govern the efficacy of antigen-specific immunotherapy in nonobese diabetic mice. Diabetes. 2007 May;56(5):1395-402. Epub 2007 Feb 22. Pubmed: 17317763
    4. Wang FY, Zhu RM, Maemura K, Hirata I, Katsu K, Watanabe M: Expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid decarboxylases in rat descending colon and their relation to epithelial differentiation. Chin J Dig Dis. 2006;7(2):103-8. Pubmed: 16643338
    5. Castelli MP, Piras AP, Melis T, Succu S, Sanna F, Melis MR, Collu S, Ennas MG, Diaz G, Mackie K, Argiolas A: Cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus and central control of penile erection: immunocytochemistry, autoradiography and behavioral studies. Neuroscience. 2007 Jun 15;147(1):197-206. Epub 2007 May 15. Pubmed: 17507169
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the production of GABA.
    Gene Name:
    GAD1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q99259
    Molecular weight:
    66896.065
    Reactions
    L-Glutamic acid → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + CO(2)details
    L-Glutamic acid → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
    References
    1. Akama K, Takaiwa F: C-terminal extension of rice glutamate decarboxylase (OsGAD2) functions as an autoinhibitory domain and overexpression of a truncated mutant results in the accumulation of extremely high levels of GABA in plant cells. J Exp Bot. 2007;58(10):2699-707. Epub 2007 Jun 11. Pubmed: 17562689
    2. Tueting P, Doueiri MS, Guidotti A, Davis JM, Costa E: Reelin down-regulation in mice and psychosis endophenotypes. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30(8):1065-77. Pubmed: 16769115
    3. Manto MU, Laute MA, Aguera M, Rogemond V, Pandolfo M, Honnorat J: Effects of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies associated with neurological diseases. Ann Neurol. 2007 Jun;61(6):544-51. Pubmed: 17600364
    4. Wang FY, Zhu RM, Maemura K, Hirata I, Katsu K, Watanabe M: Expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid decarboxylases in rat descending colon and their relation to epithelial differentiation. Chin J Dig Dis. 2006;7(2):103-8. Pubmed: 16643338
    5. Tronci E, Simola N, Borsini F, Schintu N, Frau L, Carminati P, Morelli M: Characterization of the antiparkinsonian effects of the new adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ST1535: acute and subchronic studies in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 2;566(1-3):94-102. Epub 2007 Mar 24. Pubmed: 17445798
    General function:
    Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Initiates extracellular glutathione (GSH) breakdown, provides cells with a local cysteine supply and contributes to maintain intracellular GSH level. It is part of the cell antioxidant defense mechanism. Catalyzes the transfer of the glutamyl moiety of glutathione to amino acids and dipeptide acceptors. Alternatively, glutathione can be hydrolyzed to give Cys-Gly and gamma glutamate. Isoform 3 seems to be inactive.
    Gene Name:
    GGT1
    Uniprot ID:
    P19440
    Molecular weight:
    61409.67
    Reactions
    Glutathione + Water → Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Leukotriene C(4) + Water → leukotriene D(4) + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    R-S-Glutathione + Water → R-S-Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-3-Cyanoalanine + L-Glutamic acid → gamma-Glutamyl-beta-cyanoalanine + Waterdetails
    Beta-Aminopropionitrile + L-Glutamic acid → gamma-Glutamyl-beta-aminopropiononitrile + Waterdetails
    General function:
    Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Cleaves glutathione conjugates (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    GGT7
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UJ14
    Molecular weight:
    70466.015
    Reactions
    Glutathione + Water → Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    R-S-Glutathione + Water → R-S-Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-3-Cyanoalanine + L-Glutamic acid → gamma-Glutamyl-beta-cyanoalanine + Waterdetails
    Beta-Aminopropionitrile + L-Glutamic acid → gamma-Glutamyl-beta-aminopropiononitrile + Waterdetails
    General function:
    Involved in metabolic process
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    AGXT
    Uniprot ID:
    P21549
    Molecular weight:
    43009.535
    Reactions
    Glycine + Oxoglutaric acid → Glyoxylic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    GSS
    Uniprot ID:
    P48637
    Molecular weight:
    52384.325
    General function:
    Involved in tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate synthase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives allowing concentration of folate compounds in the cell and the intracellular retention of these cofactors, which are important substrates for most of the folate-dependent enzymes that are involved in one-carbon transfer reactions involved in purine, pyrimidine and amino acid synthesis. Unsubstitued reduced folates are the preferred substrates. Metabolizes methotrexate (MTX) to polyglutamates.
    Gene Name:
    FPGS
    Uniprot ID:
    Q05932
    Molecular weight:
    59173.37
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n) + L-Glutamic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n+1)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + 7,8-Dihydropteroic acid + L-Glutamic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Dihydrofolic aciddetails
    Adenosine triphosphate + + L-Glutamic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + details
    References
    1. DeMartino JK, Hwang I, Xu L, Wilson IA, Boger DL: Discovery of a potent, nonpolyglutamatable inhibitor of glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase. J Med Chem. 2006 May 18;49(10):2998-3002. Pubmed: 16686541
    2. Gangjee A, Yang J, McGuire JJ, Kisliuk RL: Synthesis and evaluation of a classical 2,4-diamino-5-substituted-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine and a 2-amino-4-oxo-6-substituted-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine as antifolates. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Dec 15;14(24):8590-8. Epub 2006 Sep 20. Pubmed: 16990006
    General function:
    Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting with precursors transported from skeletal muscles (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    GPT
    Uniprot ID:
    P24298
    Molecular weight:
    54636.415
    Reactions
    L-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Ohgami N, Upadhyay S, Kabata A, Morimoto K, Kusakabe H, Suzuki H: Determination of the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase in a microfluidic system. Biosens Bioelectron. 2007 Feb 15;22(7):1330-6. Epub 2006 Jul 18. Pubmed: 16854580
    General function:
    Involved in metabolic process
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the reversible conversion of 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate to phosphoserine and of 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-phosphonooxybutanoate to phosphohydroxythreonine (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    PSAT1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9Y617
    Molecular weight:
    35188.305
    Reactions
    Phosphoserine + Oxoglutaric acid → Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine + Oxoglutaric acid → 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Hester G, Stark W, Moser M, Kallen J, Markovic-Housley Z, Jansonius JN: Crystal structure of phosphoserine aminotransferase from Escherichia coli at 2.3 A resolution: comparison of the unligated enzyme and a complex with alpha-methyl-l-glutamate. J Mol Biol. 1999 Feb 26;286(3):829-50. Pubmed: 10024454
    4. Katsura Y, Shirouzu M, Yamaguchi H, Ishitani R, Nureki O, Kuramitsu S, Hayashi H, Yokoyama S: Crystal structure of a putative aspartate aminotransferase belonging to subgroup IV. Proteins. 2004 May 15;55(3):487-92. Pubmed: 15103612
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in lysine degradation. The N-terminal and the C-terminal contain lysine-ketoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase activity, respectively.
    Gene Name:
    AASS
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UDR5
    Molecular weight:
    102130.895
    Reactions
    N(6)-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine + NAD + Water → L-Glutamic acid + (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NADHdetails
    Saccharopine + NAD + Water → L-Glutamic acid + (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Gaziola SA, Teixeira CM, Lugli J, Sodek L, Azevedo RA: The enzymology of lysine catabolism in rice seeds--isolation, characterization, and regulatory properties of a lysine 2-oxoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional polypeptide. Eur J Biochem. 1997 Jul 1;247(1):364-71. Pubmed: 9249048
    4. Goncalves-Butruille M, Szajner P, Torigoi E, Leite A, Arruda P: Purification and Characterization of the Bifunctional Enzyme Lysine-Ketoglutarate Reductase-Saccharopine Dehydrogenase from Maize. Plant Physiol. 1996 Mar;110(3):765-771. Pubmed: 12226216
    5. Noda C, Ichihara A: Purification and properties of L-lysine-alpha-ketoglutarate reductase from rat liver mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Aug 7;525(2):307-13. Pubmed: 687635
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    PFAS
    Uniprot ID:
    O15067
    Molecular weight:
    144733.165
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + L-Glutamine + Water → ADP + Phosphoric acid + 2-(formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycinamide + L-Glutamine + Water → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Phosphoribosylformylglycineamidine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Jayaram HN, Lui MS, Plowman J, Pillwein K, Reardon MA, Elliott WL, Weber G: Oncolytic activity and mechanism of action of a novel L-cysteine derivative, L-cysteine, ethyl ester, S-(N-methylcarbamate) monohydrochloride. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1990;26(2):88-92. Pubmed: 2347042
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Bifunctional enzyme that converts glutamate to glutamate 5-semialdehyde, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of proline, ornithine and arginine.
    Gene Name:
    ALDH18A1
    Uniprot ID:
    P54886
    Molecular weight:
    87088.29
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid → ADP + L-Glutamic acid 5-phosphatedetails
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid → ADP + L-Glutamic acid 5-phosphatedetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Morita Y, Nakamori S, Takagi H: L-proline accumulation and freeze tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are caused by a mutation in the PRO1 gene encoding gamma-glutamyl kinase. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Jan;69(1):212-9. Pubmed: 12513997
    4. Krishna RV, Beilstein P, Leisinger T: Biosynthesis of proline in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Properties of gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. Biochem J. 1979 Jul 1;181(1):223-30. Pubmed: 114173
    5. Kamoun P, Aral B, Saudubray JM: [A new inherited metabolic disease: delta1-pyrroline 5-carboxylate synthetase deficiency]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 1998;182(1):131-7; discussion 138-9. Pubmed: 9622938
    General function:
    Involved in hydrolase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the cleavage of 5-oxo-L-proline to form L-glutamate coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate.
    Gene Name:
    OPLAH
    Uniprot ID:
    O14841
    Molecular weight:
    137456.195
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + Pyroglutamic acid + Water → ADP + Phosphoric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Nishimura A, Itoh H, Oyama H, Murao S, Oda K: A simultaneous assay method for L-glutamate and L-pyroglutamate contents in soy sauce using a 5-oxoprolinase (without ATP hydrolyzing activity). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Feb;65(2):477-9. Pubmed: 11302195
    4. Van der Werf P, Stephani RA, Orlowski M, Meister A: Inhibition of 5-oxoprolinase by 2-imidazolidone-4-carboxylic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1973 Mar;70(3):759-61. Pubmed: 4514988
    5. Seddon AP, Li LY, Meister A: Resolution of 5-oxo-L-prolinase into a 5-oxo-L-proline-dependent ATPase and a coupling protein. J Biol Chem. 1984 Jul 10;259(13):8091-4. Pubmed: 6145710
    General function:
    Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
    Specific function:
    NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. It mediates neuronal functions in glutamate neurotransmission. Is involved in the cell surface targeting of NMDA receptors
    Gene Name:
    GRIN1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q05586
    Molecular weight:
    105371.9
    References
    1. Miglio G, Dianzani C, Fallarini S, Fantozzi R, Lombardi G: Stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors modulates Jurkat T cell growth and adhesion to fibronectin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Sep 21;361(2):404-9. Epub 2007 Jul 20. Pubmed: 17662248
    General function:
    Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
    Specific function:
    NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
    Gene Name:
    GRIN3B
    Uniprot ID:
    O60391
    Molecular weight:
    112991.0
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    General function:
    Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
    Specific function:
    NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Activation requires binding of agonist to both types of subunits
    Gene Name:
    GRIN2A
    Uniprot ID:
    Q12879
    Molecular weight:
    165281.2
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Rutter AR, Freeman FM, Stephenson FA: Further characterization of the molecular interaction between PSD-95 and NMDA receptors: the effect of the NR1 splice variant and evidence for modulation of channel gating. J Neurochem. 2002 Jun;81(6):1298-307. Pubmed: 12068077
    4. Rutter AR, Stephenson FA: Coexpression of postsynaptic density-95 protein with NMDA receptors results in enhanced receptor expression together with a decreased sensitivity to L-glutamate. J Neurochem. 2000 Dec;75(6):2501-10. Pubmed: 11080203
    5. Bresink I, Benke TA, Collett VJ, Seal AJ, Parsons CG, Henley JM, Collingridge GL: Effects of memantine on recombinant rat NMDA receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Sep;119(2):195-204. Pubmed: 8886398
    General function:
    Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
    Specific function:
    NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
    Gene Name:
    GRIN2C
    Uniprot ID:
    Q14957
    Molecular weight:
    134531.1
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Kuner T, Schoepfer R, Korpi ER: Ethanol inhibits glutamate-induced currents in heteromeric NMDA receptor subtypes. Neuroreport. 1993 Dec 13;5(3):297-300. Pubmed: 7905294
    4. Olmos G, DeGregorio-Rocasolano N, Paz Regalado M, Gasull T, Assumpcio Boronat M, Trullas R, Villarroel A, Lerma J, Garcia-Sevilla JA: Protection by imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cerebellar granule cells through blockade of NMDA receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;127(6):1317-26. Pubmed: 10455281
    5. Sundstrom E, Whittemore S, Mo LL, Seiger A: Analysis of NMDA receptors in the human spinal cord. Exp Neurol. 1997 Dec;148(2):407-13. Pubmed: 9417820
    General function:
    Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
    Specific function:
    NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
    Gene Name:
    GRIN2B
    Uniprot ID:
    Q13224
    Molecular weight:
    166365.9
    References
    1. Verkhratsky A, Kirchhoff F: NMDA Receptors in glia. Neuroscientist. 2007 Feb;13(1):28-37. Pubmed: 17229973
    2. Miglio G, Dianzani C, Fallarini S, Fantozzi R, Lombardi G: Stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors modulates Jurkat T cell growth and adhesion to fibronectin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Sep 21;361(2):404-9. Epub 2007 Jul 20. Pubmed: 17662248
    General function:
    Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
    Specific function:
    NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
    Gene Name:
    GRIN2D
    Uniprot ID:
    O15399
    Molecular weight:
    143750.7
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Pliss L, Jezova D, Mares V, Balcar VJ, St'astny F: N-Acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate changes functional and structural properties of rat blood-brain barrier. Neurosci Lett. 2002 Jan 11;317(2):85-8. Pubmed: 11755246
    4. Bresink I, Benke TA, Collett VJ, Seal AJ, Parsons CG, Henley JM, Collingridge GL: Effects of memantine on recombinant rat NMDA receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Sep;119(2):195-204. Pubmed: 8886398
    5. Sundstrom E, Whittemore S, Mo LL, Seiger A: Analysis of NMDA receptors in the human spinal cord. Exp Neurol. 1997 Dec;148(2):407-13. Pubmed: 9417820
    General function:
    Involved in gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity
    Specific function:
    Mediates the vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of glutamate residues to calcium-binding gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla) residues with the concomitant conversion of the reduced hydroquinone form of vitamin K to vitamin K epoxide.
    Gene Name:
    GGCX
    Uniprot ID:
    P38435
    Molecular weight:
    87560.065
    References
    1. Zhu A, Sun H, Raymond RM Jr, Furie BC, Furie B, Bronstein M, Kaufman RJ, Westrick R, Ginsburg D: Fatal hemorrhage in mice lacking gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. Blood. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):5270-5. Epub 2007 Feb 27. Pubmed: 17327402
    2. Lal S, Jada SR, Xiang X, Lim WT, Lee EJ, Chowbay B: Pharmacogenetics of target genes across the warfarin pharmacological pathway. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2006;45(12):1189-200. Pubmed: 17112295
    General function:
    Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
    Specific function:
    Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L- glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. May be involved in the transmission of light information from the retina to the hypothalamus
    Gene Name:
    GRIK1
    Uniprot ID:
    P39086
    Molecular weight:
    103979.7
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Sahara Y, Noro N, Iida Y, Soma K, Nakamura Y: Glutamate receptor subunits GluR5 and KA-2 are coexpressed in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. J Neurosci. 1997 Sep 1;17(17):6611-20. Pubmed: 9254673
    4. Valgeirsson J, Christensen JK, Kristensen AS, Pickering DS, Nielsen B, Fischer CH, Brauner-Osborne H, Nielsen EO, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Madsen U: Synthesis and in vitro pharmacology at AMPA and kainate preferring glutamate receptors of 4-heteroarylmethylidene glutamate analogues. Bioorg Med Chem. 2003 Oct 1;11(20):4341-9. Pubmed: 13129570
    5. Stensbol TB, Borre L, Johansen TN, Egebjerg J, Madsen U, Ebert B, Krogsgaard-Larsen P: Resolution, absolute stereochemistry and molecular pharmacology of the enantiomers of ATPA. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 10;380(2-3):153-62. Pubmed: 10513575
    General function:
    Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
    Specific function:
    Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L- glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. May be involved in the transmission of light information from the retina to the hypothalamus. Modulates cell surface expression of NETO2
    Gene Name:
    GRIK2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q13002
    Molecular weight:
    102582.5
    References
    1. Wong AY, MacLean DM, Bowie D: Na+/Cl- dipole couples agonist binding to kainate receptor activation. J Neurosci. 2007 Jun 20;27(25):6800-9. Pubmed: 17581967

    Transporters

    General function:
    Involved in transmembrane transport
    Specific function:
    Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
    Gene Name:
    SLC16A1
    Uniprot ID:
    P53985
    Molecular weight:
    53957.7
    References
    1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. Pubmed: 10579682
    General function:
    Involved in transmembrane transport
    Specific function:
    Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells
    Gene Name:
    SLC16A10
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8TF71
    Molecular weight:
    55492.1
    References
    1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. Pubmed: 11278508
    2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. Pubmed: 11827462

    Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 94 proteins in total.