Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:07:58 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00148
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Glutamic acid
DescriptionGlutamic acid (Glu), also referred to as glutamate (the anion), is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. It is not among the essential amino acids. Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism. In humans, dietary proteins are broken down by digestion into amino acids, which serves as metabolic fuel or other functional roles in the body. Glutamate is the most abundant fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system. At chemical synapses, glutamate is stored in vesicles. Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the pre-synaptic cell. In the opposing post-synaptic cell, glutamate receptors, such as the NMDA receptor, bind glutamate and are activated. Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, it is believed that glutamic acid is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain. Glutamate transporters are found in neuronal and glial membranes. They rapidly remove glutamate from the extracellular space. In brain injury or disease, they can work in reverse and excess glutamate can accumulate outside cells. This process causes calcium ions to enter cells via NMDA receptor channels, leading to neuronal damage and eventual cell death, and is called excitotoxicity. The mechanisms of cell death include: * Damage to mitochondria from excessively high intracellular Ca2+. * Glu/Ca2+-mediated promotion of transcription factors for pro-apoptotic genes, or downregulation of transcription factors for anti-apoptotic genes. Excitotoxicity due to glutamate occurs as part of the ischemic cascade and is associated with stroke and diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lathyrism, and Alzheimer's disease. glutamic acid has been implicated in epileptic seizures. Microinjection of glutamic acid into neurons produces spontaneous depolarization around one second apart, and this firing pattern is similar to what is known as paroxysmal depolarizing shift in epileptic attacks. This change in the resting membrane potential at seizure foci could cause spontaneous opening of voltage activated calcium channels, leading to glutamic acid release and further depolarization. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamic_acid).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
  2. (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  3. (S)-(+)-Glutamate
  4. (S)-(+)-Glutamic acid
  5. (S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
  6. (S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  7. (S)-Glutamate
  8. (S)-Glutamic acid
  9. 1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylate
  10. 1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
  11. 1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylate
  12. 1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
  13. 2-Aminoglutarate
  14. 2-Aminoglutaric acid
  15. 2-Aminopentanedioate
  16. 2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  17. a-Aminoglutarate
  18. a-Aminoglutaric acid
  19. a-Glutamate
  20. a-Glutamic acid
  21. Aciglut
  22. alpha-Aminoglutarate
  23. alpha-Aminoglutaric acid
  24. alpha-Glutamate
  25. alpha-Glutamic acid
  26. Aminoglutarate
  27. Aminoglutaric acid
  28. E
  29. Glt
  30. Glu
  31. Glusate
  32. Glut
  33. Glutacid
  34. Glutamicol
  35. Glutamidex
  36. Glutaminate
  37. Glutaminic acid
  38. Glutaminol
  39. Glutaton
  40. L-(+)-Glutamate
  41. L-(+)-Glutamic acid
  42. L-a-Aminoglutarate
  43. L-a-Aminoglutaric acid
  44. L-alpha-Aminoglutarate
  45. L-alpha-Aminoglutaric acid
  46. L-Glu
  47. L-Glutamate
  48. L-Glutaminate
  49. L-Glutaminic acid
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO4
Average Molecular Weight147.1293
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight147.053157781
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
Traditional IUPAC NameL-glutamic acid
CAS Registry Number56-86-0
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
InChI KeyWHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
ClassAmino Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • alpha-amino acid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Dicarboxylic Acid Derivative
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
Direct ParentAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism
  • Component of Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Component of Aminosugars metabolism
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of Butanoate metabolism
  • Component of Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Folate biosynthesis
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glutathione metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Lysine biosynthesis
  • Component of Nitrogen metabolism
  • Component of Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Component of Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Component of Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Component of Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Component of Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Component of Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Component of Prostaglandin and leukotriene metabolism
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Component of Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Component of Selenoamino acid metabolism
  • Component of Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
  • Component of Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Component of Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • Component of beta-Alanine metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility8.57 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.69HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility80.6 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.26ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)1.88ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)9.54ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count5ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count3ChemAxon
polar surface area100.62ChemAxon
rotatable bond count4ChemAxon
refractivity31.29ChemAxon
polarizability13.49ChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Alanine MetabolismSMP00055map00250
Amino Sugar MetabolismSMP00045map00520
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009map00910
Arginine and Proline MetabolismSMP00020map00330
Cysteine MetabolismSMP00013map00270
Folate MetabolismSMP00053map00670
Glucose-Alanine CycleSMP00127Not Available
Glutamate MetabolismSMP00072map00250
Glutathione MetabolismSMP00015map00480
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Histidine MetabolismSMP00044map00340
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleSMP00129Not Available
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059map00330
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified24.0 (9.0-39.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified145.0 +/- 6.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified97.4 +/- 13.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified65.0 +/- 35.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified35.0 +/- 14.0 uMChildren (1-13 year old)MaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified37.0 +/- 14.0 uMChildren (1-13 year old)FemaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified60.0 +/- 16.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified46.0 +/- 13.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified33.0 +/- 12.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified1400 (1200-1600) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified40 +/- 52 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.8 +/- 0.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.22 (0.14-0.29) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.34 +/- 0.14 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified32.6 +/- 6.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.44 +/- 0.29 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.62 (0.18-1.15) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified1.711 (0.329-3.092) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    UrineDetected and Quantified<4.76-217.61 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Put...
    UrineDetected and Quantified10.0 +/- 3.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Tanaka, T. a...
    UrineDetected and Quantified8.5 (3.3-18.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.5 (0.13-1.0) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scient...
    • West Cadwell...
    • Basel, Switz...
    UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)MaleCommentNormal
    UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)MaleCommentNormal
    UrineDetected and Quantified6.4 (0.6-17.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
    UrineDetected and Quantified1.38 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    UrineDetected and Quantified6.87 +/- 3.51 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
    BloodDetected and Quantified72 +/- 36.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHeart Transplant
    BloodDetected and Quantified32.7 +/- 18.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleSchizophrenia
    BloodDetected and Quantified34.7 +/- 26.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia
    BloodDetected and Quantified29.8 (27.6-32.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentEpilepsy
    BloodDetected and Quantified39.7 (36.5-42.9) uMChildren (1-13 year old)BothCommentEpilepsy
    BloodDetected and Quantified33.18 +/- 11.26 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease
    BloodDetected and Quantified56.6 (44.6-68.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentEpilepsy
    BloodDetected and Quantified172.0 +/- 6.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentHeart failure
    Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified2500 (2100-2900) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAnoxia
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.37 (0.21-0.53) uMChildren (1-13 year old)BothRett syndrome
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified26.8 +/- 5.9 uMChildren (1-13 year old)Not SpecifiedLeukemia
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified23.6 +/- 8.5 uMChildren (1-13 year old)Not SpecifiedCommentLeukemia
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.32 +/- 0.09 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.0064 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothADPKD
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Alzheimer's disease
    • Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed: 17031479
    Anoxia
    • Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834
    Epilepsy
    • Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
    Schizophrenia
    • Alfredsson G, Wiesel FA: Monoamine metabolites and amino acids in serum from schizophrenic patients before and during sulpiride treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989;99(3):322-7. Pubmed: 2480613
    • Do KQ, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Zollinger M, Gutteck-Amsler U, Cuenod M, Holsboer F: gamma-Glutamylglutamine and taurine concentrations are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug-naive patients with schizophrenic disorders. J Neurochem. 1995 Dec;65(6):2652-62. Pubmed: 7595563
    Heart failure
    • Norrelund H, Wiggers H, Halbirk M, Frystyk J, Flyvbjerg A, Botker HE, Schmitz O, Jorgensen JO, Christiansen JS, Moller N: Abnormalities of whole body protein turnover, muscle metabolism and levels of metabolic hormones in patients with chronic heart failure. J Intern Med. 2006 Jul;260(1):11-21. Pubmed: 16789974
    Leukemia
    • Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239
    Rett syndrome
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDDB00142
    DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB012535
    KNApSAcK IDC00001358
    Chemspider ID30572
    KEGG Compound IDC00025
    BioCyc IDGLT
    BiGG ID33561
    Wikipedia LinkE
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00148
    Metagene LinkHMDB00148
    METLIN ID5174
    PubChem Compound33032
    PDB IDGGL
    ChEBI ID16015
    References
    Synthesis Reference Horner, L.; Gross, A. Tertiary phosphines. IV. Use of phosphine imines in causing the introduction of primary amino groups. Ann. (1955), 591 117-34.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
    General References
    1. Molinari F, Raas-Rothschild A, Rio M, Fiermonte G, Encha-Razavi F, Palmieri L, Palmieri F, Ben-Neriah Z, Kadhom N, Vekemans M, Attie-Bitach T, Munnich A, Rustin P, Colleaux L: Impaired mitochondrial glutamate transport in autosomal recessive neonatal myoclonic epilepsy. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Feb;76(2):334-9. Epub 2004 Dec 8. Pubmed: 15592994
    2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
    3. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
    4. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834
    5. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. Pubmed: 6696735
    6. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239
    7. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216
    8. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
    9. Mross K, Maessen P, van der Vijgh WJ, Gall H, Boven E, Pinedo HM: Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of epidoxorubicin and doxorubicin in humans. J Clin Oncol. 1988 Mar;6(3):517-26. Pubmed: 3162516
    10. Noorlander CW, de Graan PN, Nikkels PG, Schrama LH, Visser GH: Distribution of glutamate transporters in the human placenta. Placenta. 2004 Jul;25(6):489-95. Pubmed: 15135231
    11. Grasselli G, Vigano L, Capri G, Locatelli A, Tarenzi E, Spreafico C, Bertuzzi A, Giani A, Materazzo C, Cresta S, Perotti A, Valagussa P, Gianni L: Clinical and pharmacologic study of the epirubicin and paclitaxel combination in women with metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Apr 15;19(8):2222-31. Pubmed: 11304775
    12. Frayn KN, Khan K, Coppack SW, Elia M: Amino acid metabolism in human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo. Clin Sci (Lond). 1991 May;80(5):471-4. Pubmed: 1851687
    13. Alfredsson G, Wiesel FA, Tylec A: Relationships between glutamate and monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry. 1988 Apr 1;23(7):689-97. Pubmed: 2453224
    14. Zoia C, Cogliati T, Tagliabue E, Cavaletti G, Sala G, Galimberti G, Rivolta I, Rossi V, Frattola L, Ferrarese C: Glutamate transporters in platelets: EAAT1 decrease in aging and in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Feb;25(2):149-57. Pubmed: 14749132
    15. Rizzo V, Anesi A, Montalbetti L, Bellantoni G, Trotti R, Melzi d'Eril GV: Reference values of neuroactive amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical and fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr A. 1996 Apr 5;729(1-2):181-8. Pubmed: 9004939
    16. Agnati LF, Ferre S, Lluis C, Franco R, Fuxe K: Molecular mechanisms and therapeutical implications of intramembrane receptor/receptor interactions among heptahelical receptors with examples from the striatopallidal GABA neurons. Pharmacol Rev. 2003 Sep;55(3):509-50. Epub 2003 Jul 17. Pubmed: 12869660
    17. Rutten EP, Engelen MP, Wouters EF, Schols AM, Deutz NE: Metabolic effects of glutamine and glutamate ingestion in healthy subjects and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;83(1):115-23. Pubmed: 16400059
    18. Agarwal A, Tripathi LM, Pandey VC: Status of ammonia, glutamate, lactate and pyruvate during Plasmodium yoelii infection and pyrimethamine treatment in mice. J Commun Dis. 1997 Sep;29(3):235-41. Pubmed: 9465528
    19. Heuschen UA, Allemeyer EH, Hinz U, Langer K, Heuschen G, Decker-Baumann C, Herfarth C, Stern J: Glutamine distribution in patients with ulcerative colitis and in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis coli before and after restorative proctocolectomy. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2002 Jul;17(4):245-52. Epub 2001 Dec 18. Pubmed: 12073073
    20. Olson RC: A proposed role for nerve growth factor in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. Med Hypotheses. 1998 Dec;51(6):493-8. Pubmed: 10052870
    21. Nakamura K, Matsumura K, Kobayashi S, Kaneko T: Sympathetic premotor neurons mediating thermoregulatory functions. Neurosci Res. 2005 Jan;51(1):1-8. Pubmed: 15596234
    22. Corrie JE, DeSantis A, Katayama Y, Khodakhah K, Messenger JB, Ogden DC, Trentham DR: Postsynaptic activation at the squid giant synapse by photolytic release of L-glutamate from a 'caged' L-glutamate. J Physiol. 1993 Jun;465:1-8. Pubmed: 7901400
    23. Reeds PJ, Burrin DG, Stoll B, Jahoor F: Intestinal glutamate metabolism. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):978S-82S. Pubmed: 10736365
    24. Smith QR: Transport of glutamate and other amino acids at the blood-brain barrier. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):1016S-22S. Pubmed: 10736373
    25. Okumoto S, Looger LL, Micheva KD, Reimer RJ, Smith SJ, Frommer WB: Detection of glutamate release from neurons by genetically encoded surface-displayed FRET nanosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 14;102(24):8740-5. Epub 2005 Jun 6. Pubmed: 15939876
    26. Augustin H, Grosjean Y, Chen K, Sheng Q, Featherstone DE: Nonvesicular release of glutamate by glial xCT transporters suppresses glutamate receptor clustering in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 3;27(1):111-23. Pubmed: 17202478

    Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 94 proteins in total.

    Enzymes

    Gene Name:
    ALDH4A1
    Uniprot ID:
    P30038
    Reactions
    1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD(P)(+) + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + NAD(P)Hdetails
    L-Glutamic gamma-semialdehyde + NAD + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NADP + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    Gene Name:
    GFPT2
    Uniprot ID:
    O94808
    Reactions
    L-Glutamine + Fructose 6-phosphate unknown L-Glutamic acid + Glucosamine 6-phosphatedetails
    Gene Name:
    GFPT1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q06210
    Reactions
    L-Glutamine + Fructose 6-phosphate unknown L-Glutamic acid + Glucosamine 6-phosphatedetails
    Gene Name:
    ABAT
    Uniprot ID:
    P80404
    Reactions
    Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    (S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Beta-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Malonic semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    (S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    TAT
    Uniprot ID:
    P17735
    Reactions
    L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Phenylalanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    2-Oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic acid unknown L-Methionine + Oxoglutaric aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    GOT1
    Uniprot ID:
    P17174
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Phenylalanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Cysteic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 3-Sulfopyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    3-Sulfinoalanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown B-Sulfinyl pyruvate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown D-4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    GOT2
    Uniprot ID:
    P00505
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Kynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Phenylalanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Cysteic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 3-Sulfopyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    3-Sulfinoalanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown B-Sulfinyl pyruvate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown D-4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    BCAT1
    Uniprot ID:
    P54687
    Reactions
    L-Leucine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Ketoleucine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Isoleucine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Valine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    PPAT
    Uniprot ID:
    Q06203
    Reactions
    5-Phosphoribosylamine + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic acid unknown L-Glutamine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + Waterdetails
    Gene Name:
    AADAT
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8N5Z0
    Reactions
    L-Kynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Aminoadipic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Oxoadipic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-3-Hydroxykynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-(2-Amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    AGXT2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9BYV1
    Reactions
    Glycine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Glyoxylic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    OAT
    Uniprot ID:
    P04181
    Reactions
    Ornithine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown L-Glutamic gamma-semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    CCBL1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q16773
    Reactions
    L-Kynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-3-Hydroxykynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-(2-Amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    GCLC
    Uniprot ID:
    P48506
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Cysteine unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Gamma-Glutamylcysteinedetails
    Gene Name:
    NAGS
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8N159
    Reactions
    Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamic acid unknown Coenzyme A + N-Acetylglutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    BCAT2
    Uniprot ID:
    O15382
    Reactions
    L-Leucine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Ketoleucine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Isoleucine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-Valine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    EPRS
    Uniprot ID:
    P07814
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + tRNA(Glu) unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)details
    tRNA(Glu) + L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate unknown L-Glutamyl-tRNA(Glu) + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphatedetails
    Gene Name:
    ASNS
    Uniprot ID:
    P08243
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    GMPS
    Uniprot ID:
    P49915
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + L-Glutamine + Water unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    6-Thioxanthine 5'-monophosphate + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water unknown 6-Thioguanosine monophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    GLUD2
    Uniprot ID:
    P49448
    Reactions
    L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)Hdetails
    L-Glutamic acid + NAD + Water unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    L-Glutamic acid + NADP + Water unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    Gene Name:
    GLUL
    Uniprot ID:
    P15104
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Ammonia unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + L-Glutaminedetails
    L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + CO(2)details
    Gene Name:
    GLS2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UI32
    Reactions
    L-Glutamine + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + Ammoniadetails
    Gene Name:
    CTPS1
    Uniprot ID:
    P17812
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    GLS
    Uniprot ID:
    O94925
    Reactions
    L-Glutamine + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + Ammoniadetails
    Gene Name:
    FTCD
    Uniprot ID:
    O95954
    Reactions
    5-Formiminotetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic acid unknown Tetrahydrofolic acid + Formiminoglutamic aciddetails
    N5-Formyl-THF + L-Glutamic acid unknown Tetrahydrofolic acid + N-Formyl-L-glutamic aciddetails
    5-Formiminotetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic acid unknown Tetrahydrofolic acid + Formiminoglutamic aciddetails
    N5-Formyl-THF + L-Glutamic acid unknown Tetrahydrofolic acid + N-Formyl-L-glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    GLUD1
    Uniprot ID:
    P00367
    Reactions
    L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)Hdetails
    L-Glutamic acid + NAD + Water unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    L-Glutamic acid + NADP + Water unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    Gene Name:
    GAD2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q05329
    Reactions
    L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + CO(2)details
    L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Gene Name:
    GAD1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q99259
    Reactions
    L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + CO(2)details
    L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Gene Name:
    GGT1
    Uniprot ID:
    P19440
    Reactions
    Glutathione + Water unknown Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Leukotriene C(4) + Water unknown leukotriene D(4) + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    R-S-Glutathione + Water unknown R-S-Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-3-Cyanoalanine + L-Glutamic acid unknown gamma-Glutamyl-beta-cyanoalanine + Waterdetails
    Beta-Aminopropionitrile + L-Glutamic acid unknown gamma-Glutamyl-beta-aminopropiononitrile + Waterdetails
    Gene Name:
    GGT7
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UJ14
    Reactions
    Glutathione + Water unknown Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    R-S-Glutathione + Water unknown R-S-Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    L-3-Cyanoalanine + L-Glutamic acid unknown gamma-Glutamyl-beta-cyanoalanine + Waterdetails
    Beta-Aminopropionitrile + L-Glutamic acid unknown gamma-Glutamyl-beta-aminopropiononitrile + Waterdetails
    Gene Name:
    AGXT
    Uniprot ID:
    P21549
    Reactions
    Glycine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Glyoxylic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    GSS
    Uniprot ID:
    P48637
    Gene Name:
    FPGS
    Uniprot ID:
    Q05932
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n) + L-Glutamic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n+1)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + 7,8-Dihydropteroic acid + L-Glutamic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Dihydrofolic aciddetails
    Adenosine triphosphate + + L-Glutamic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + details
    Gene Name:
    GPT
    Uniprot ID:
    P24298
    Reactions
    L-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    PSAT1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9Y617
    Reactions
    Phosphoserine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    AASS
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UDR5
    Reactions
    N(6)-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine + NAD + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NADHdetails
    Saccharopine + NAD + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    Gene Name:
    PFAS
    Uniprot ID:
    O15067
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + L-Glutamine + Water unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + 2-(formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycinamide + L-Glutamine + Water unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Phosphoribosylformylglycineamidine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    ALDH18A1
    Uniprot ID:
    P54886
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid unknown ADP + L-Glutamic acid 5-phosphatedetails
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid unknown ADP + L-Glutamic acid 5-phosphatedetails
    Gene Name:
    OPLAH
    Uniprot ID:
    O14841
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + Pyroglutamic acid + Water unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    GRIN3B
    Uniprot ID:
    O60391

    Transporters

    Gene Name:
    SLC16A1
    Uniprot ID:
    P53985
    Gene Name:
    SLC16A10
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8TF71

    Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 94 proteins in total.