Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for L-Glutamic acid (HMDB00148)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2005-11-16 08:48:42 -0700
Update Date 2013-02-08 17:07:58 -0700
HMDB ID HMDB00148
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name L-Glutamic acid
Description Glutamic acid (Glu), also referred to as glutamate (the anion), is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. It is not among the essential amino acids. Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism. In humans, dietary proteins are broken down by digestion into amino acids, which serves as metabolic fuel or other functional roles in the body. Glutamate is the most abundant fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system. At chemical synapses, glutamate is stored in vesicles. Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the pre-synaptic cell. In the opposing post-synaptic cell, glutamate receptors, such as the NMDA receptor, bind glutamate and are activated. Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, it is believed that glutamic acid is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain. Glutamate transporters are found in neuronal and glial membranes. They rapidly remove glutamate from the extracellular space. In brain injury or disease, they can work in reverse and excess glutamate can accumulate outside cells. This process causes calcium ions to enter cells via NMDA receptor channels, leading to neuronal damage and eventual cell death, and is called excitotoxicity. The mechanisms of cell death include: * Damage to mitochondria from excessively high intracellular Ca2+. * Glu/Ca2+-mediated promotion of transcription factors for pro-apoptotic genes, or downregulation of transcription factors for anti-apoptotic genes. Excitotoxicity due to glutamate occurs as part of the ischemic cascade and is associated with stroke and diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lathyrism, and Alzheimer's disease. glutamic acid has been implicated in epileptic seizures. Microinjection of glutamic acid into neurons produces spontaneous depolarization around one second apart, and this firing pattern is similar to what is known as paroxysmal depolarizing shift in epileptic attacks. This change in the resting membrane potential at seizure foci could cause spontaneous opening of voltage activated calcium channels, leading to glutamic acid release and further depolarization. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamic_acid).
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
  2. (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  3. (S)-(+)-Glutamate
  4. (S)-(+)-Glutamic acid
  5. (S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
  6. (S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  7. (S)-Glutamate
  8. (S)-Glutamic acid
  9. 1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylate
  10. 1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
  11. 1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylate
  12. 1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
  13. 2-Aminoglutarate
  14. 2-Aminoglutaric acid
  15. 2-Aminopentanedioate
  16. 2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  17. a-Aminoglutarate
  18. a-Aminoglutaric acid
  19. a-Glutamate
  20. a-Glutamic acid
  21. Aciglut
  22. alpha-Aminoglutarate
  23. alpha-Aminoglutaric acid
  24. alpha-Glutamate
  25. alpha-Glutamic acid
  26. Aminoglutarate
  27. Aminoglutaric acid
  28. E
  29. Glt
  30. Glu
  31. Glusate
  32. Glut
  33. Glutacid
  34. Glutamicol
  35. Glutamidex
  36. Glutaminate
  37. Glutaminic acid
  38. Glutaminol
  39. Glutaton
  40. L-(+)-Glutamate
  41. L-(+)-Glutamic acid
  42. L-a-Aminoglutarate
  43. L-a-Aminoglutaric acid
  44. L-alpha-Aminoglutarate
  45. L-alpha-Aminoglutaric acid
  46. L-Glu
  47. L-Glutamate
  48. L-Glutaminate
  49. L-Glutaminic acid
Chemical Formula C5H9NO4
Average Molecular Weight 147.1293
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 147.053157781
IUPAC Name (2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name L-glutamic acid
CAS Registry Number 56-86-0
SMILES N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
InChI Key WHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Class Amino Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class Alpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • alpha-amino acid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Dicarboxylic Acid Derivative
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
Direct Parent Alpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism
  • Component of Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Component of Aminosugars metabolism
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of Butanoate metabolism
  • Component of Cyanoamino acid metabolism
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Folate biosynthesis
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glutathione metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Lysine biosynthesis
  • Component of Nitrogen metabolism
  • Component of Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Component of Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Component of Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
  • Component of Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Component of Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Component of Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Component of Prostaglandin and leukotriene metabolism
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Component of Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Component of Selenoamino acid metabolism
  • Component of Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
  • Component of Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Component of Vitamin B6 metabolism
  • Component of beta-Alanine metabolism
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point Not Available Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 8.57 mg/mL Not Available
LogP -3.69 HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
Water Solubility 80.6 g/L ALOGPS
LogP -3.54 ALOGPS
LogP -3.2 ChemAxon
LogS -0.26 ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic) 1.88 ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic) 9.54 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 5 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 3 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 100.62 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 4 ChemAxon
Refractivity 31.29 ChemAxon
Polarizability 13.49 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 0 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge -1 ChemAxon
Spectra
Gas-MS Spectrum
1H NMR Spectrum
13C NMR Spectrum
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 10
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 25
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 40
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Muscle
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Kidney
  • Epidermis
  • Myelin
  • Prostate
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Nerve Cells
  • Platelet
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
Alanine Metabolism SMP00055 map00250 Link_out
Histidine Metabolism SMP00044 map00340 Link_out
Malate-Aspartate Shuttle SMP00129 Not Available
Ammonia Recycling SMP00009 map00910 Link_out
Cysteine Metabolism SMP00013 map00270 Link_out
Glutamate Metabolism SMP00072 map00250 Link_out
Transcription/Translation SMP00019 Not Available
Arginine and Proline Metabolism SMP00020 map00330 Link_out
Urea Cycle SMP00059 map00330 Link_out
Glucose-Alanine Cycle SMP00127 Not Available
Glutathione Metabolism SMP00015 map00480 Link_out
Amino Sugar Metabolism SMP00045 map00520 Link_out
Glycine and Serine Metabolism SMP00004 map00260 Link_out
Folate Metabolism SMP00053 map00670 Link_out
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
24.0 (9.0-39.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
145.0 +/- 6.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
97.4 +/- 13.2 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
65.0 +/- 35.0 uM Newborn (0-30 days old) Not Specified Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
35.0 +/- 14.0 uM Children (1-13 year old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
37.0 +/- 14.0 uM Children (1-13 year old) Female Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
60.0 +/- 16.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
46.0 +/- 13.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
33.0 +/- 12.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cellular Cytoplasm Detected and Quantified
1400 (1200-1600) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
40 +/- 52 uM Not Specified Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
1.8 +/- 0.7 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.22 (0.14-0.29) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.34 +/- 0.14 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
32.6 +/- 6.9 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.44 +/- 0.29 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.62 (0.18-1.15) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Saliva Detected and Quantified
>10 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
1.711 (0.329-3.092) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
<4.76-217.61 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • David F. Put...
Urine Detected and Quantified
10.0 +/- 3.7 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Tanaka, T. a...
Urine Detected and Quantified
8.5 (3.3-18.4) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.5 (0.13-1.0) umol/mmol creatinine Newborn (0-30 days old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Male Comment Normal
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Male Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
6.4 (0.6-17.5) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
1.38 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
6.87 +/- 3.51 umol/mmol creatinine Infant (0-1 year old) Both Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 72 +/- 36.9 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Heart Transplant
Blood Detected and Quantified 32.7 +/- 18.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Schizophrenia
Blood Detected and Quantified 34.7 +/- 26.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Schizophrenia
Blood Detected and Quantified 29.8 (27.6-32.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Epilepsy
Blood Detected and Quantified 39.7 (36.5-42.9) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Comment Epilepsy
Blood Detected and Quantified 33.18 +/- 11.26 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Alzheimer's disease
Blood Detected and Quantified 56.6 (44.6-68.6) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Epilepsy
Blood Detected and Quantified 172.0 +/- 6.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Heart failure
Cellular Cytoplasm Detected and Quantified 2500 (2100-2900) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Anoxia
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 0.37 (0.21-0.53) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Rett syndrome
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 26.8 +/- 5.9 uM Children (1-13 year old) Not Specified Leukemia
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 23.6 +/- 8.5 uM Children (1-13 year old) Not Specified Comment Leukemia
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 0.32 +/- 0.09 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Schizophrenia
Urine Detected and Quantified 0.0064 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both ADPKD
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Anoxia
  • Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834 Link_out
      Epilepsy
      • Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292 Link_out
          Leukemia
          • Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239 Link_out
              Schizophrenia
              • Alfredsson G, Wiesel FA: Monoamine metabolites and amino acids in serum from schizophrenic patients before and during sulpiride treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989;99(3):322-7. Pubmed: 2480613 Link_out
              • Do KQ, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Zollinger M, Gutteck-Amsler U, Cuenod M, Holsboer F: gamma-Glutamylglutamine and taurine concentrations are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug-naive patients with schizophrenic disorders. J Neurochem. 1995 Dec;65(6):2652-62. Pubmed: 7595563 Link_out
                  Alzheimer's disease
                  • Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed: 17031479 Link_out
                      Heart failure
                      • Norrelund H, Wiggers H, Halbirk M, Frystyk J, Flyvbjerg A, Botker HE, Schmitz O, Jorgensen JO, Christiansen JS, Moller N: Abnormalities of whole body protein turnover, muscle metabolism and levels of metabolic hormones in patients with chronic heart failure. J Intern Med. 2006 Jul;260(1):11-21. Pubmed: 16789974 Link_out
                          Rett syndrome
                              Associated OMIM IDs
                              DrugBank ID DB00142 Link_out
                              DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
                              Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
                              Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
                              FoodDB ID FDB012535
                              KNApSAcK ID C00001358 Link_out
                              Chemspider ID 30572 Link_out
                              KEGG Compound ID C00025 Link_out
                              BioCyc ID GLT Link_out
                              BiGG ID 33561 Link_out
                              Wikipedia Link E Link_out
                              NuGOwiki Link HMDB00148 Link_out
                              Metagene Link HMDB00148 Link_out
                              METLIN ID 5174 Link_out
                              PubChem Compound 33032 Link_out
                              PDB ID GGL Link_out
                              ChEBI ID 16015 Link_out
                              References
                              Synthesis Reference Horner, L.; Gross, A. Tertiary phosphines. IV. Use of phosphine imines in causing the introduction of primary amino groups. Ann. (1955), 591 117-34.
                              Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
                              General References
                              1. Mross K, Maessen P, van der Vijgh WJ, Gall H, Boven E, Pinedo HM: Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of epidoxorubicin and doxorubicin in humans. J Clin Oncol. 1988 Mar;6(3):517-26. Pubmed: 3162516 Link_out
                              2. Noorlander CW, de Graan PN, Nikkels PG, Schrama LH, Visser GH: Distribution of glutamate transporters in the human placenta. Placenta. 2004 Jul;25(6):489-95. Pubmed: 15135231 Link_out
                              3. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239 Link_out
                              4. Grasselli G, Vigano L, Capri G, Locatelli A, Tarenzi E, Spreafico C, Bertuzzi A, Giani A, Materazzo C, Cresta S, Perotti A, Valagussa P, Gianni L: Clinical and pharmacologic study of the epirubicin and paclitaxel combination in women with metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Apr 15;19(8):2222-31. Pubmed: 11304775 Link_out
                              5. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216 Link_out
                              6. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292 Link_out
                              7. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834 Link_out
                              8. Molinari F, Raas-Rothschild A, Rio M, Fiermonte G, Encha-Razavi F, Palmieri L, Palmieri F, Ben-Neriah Z, Kadhom N, Vekemans M, Attie-Bitach T, Munnich A, Rustin P, Colleaux L: Impaired mitochondrial glutamate transport in autosomal recessive neonatal myoclonic epilepsy. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Feb;76(2):334-9. Epub 2004 Dec 8. Pubmed: 15592994 Link_out
                              9. Frayn KN, Khan K, Coppack SW, Elia M: Amino acid metabolism in human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo. Clin Sci (Lond). 1991 May;80(5):471-4. Pubmed: 1851687 Link_out
                              10. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436 Link_out
                              11. Alfredsson G, Wiesel FA, Tylec A: Relationships between glutamate and monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry. 1988 Apr 1;23(7):689-97. Pubmed: 2453224 Link_out
                              12. Zoia C, Cogliati T, Tagliabue E, Cavaletti G, Sala G, Galimberti G, Rivolta I, Rossi V, Frattola L, Ferrarese C: Glutamate transporters in platelets: EAAT1 decrease in aging and in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Feb;25(2):149-57. Pubmed: 14749132 Link_out
                              13. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. Pubmed: 6696735 Link_out
                              14. Rizzo V, Anesi A, Montalbetti L, Bellantoni G, Trotti R, Melzi d'Eril GV: Reference values of neuroactive amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical and fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr A. 1996 Apr 5;729(1-2):181-8. Pubmed: 9004939 Link_out
                              15. Agnati LF, Ferre S, Lluis C, Franco R, Fuxe K: Molecular mechanisms and therapeutical implications of intramembrane receptor/receptor interactions among heptahelical receptors with examples from the striatopallidal GABA neurons. Pharmacol Rev. 2003 Sep;55(3):509-50. Epub 2003 Jul 17. Pubmed: 12869660 Link_out
                              16. Rutten EP, Engelen MP, Wouters EF, Schols AM, Deutz NE: Metabolic effects of glutamine and glutamate ingestion in healthy subjects and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;83(1):115-23. Pubmed: 16400059 Link_out
                              17. Agarwal A, Tripathi LM, Pandey VC: Status of ammonia, glutamate, lactate and pyruvate during Plasmodium yoelii infection and pyrimethamine treatment in mice. J Commun Dis. 1997 Sep;29(3):235-41. Pubmed: 9465528 Link_out
                              18. Heuschen UA, Allemeyer EH, Hinz U, Langer K, Heuschen G, Decker-Baumann C, Herfarth C, Stern J: Glutamine distribution in patients with ulcerative colitis and in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis coli before and after restorative proctocolectomy. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2002 Jul;17(4):245-52. Epub 2001 Dec 18. Pubmed: 12073073 Link_out
                              19. Olson RC: A proposed role for nerve growth factor in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. Med Hypotheses. 1998 Dec;51(6):493-8. Pubmed: 10052870 Link_out
                              20. Nakamura K, Matsumura K, Kobayashi S, Kaneko T: Sympathetic premotor neurons mediating thermoregulatory functions. Neurosci Res. 2005 Jan;51(1):1-8. Pubmed: 15596234 Link_out
                              21. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411 Link_out
                              22. Corrie JE, DeSantis A, Katayama Y, Khodakhah K, Messenger JB, Ogden DC, Trentham DR: Postsynaptic activation at the squid giant synapse by photolytic release of L-glutamate from a 'caged' L-glutamate. J Physiol. 1993 Jun;465:1-8. Pubmed: 7901400 Link_out
                              23. Reeds PJ, Burrin DG, Stoll B, Jahoor F: Intestinal glutamate metabolism. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):978S-82S. Pubmed: 10736365 Link_out
                              24. Smith QR: Transport of glutamate and other amino acids at the blood-brain barrier. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):1016S-22S. Pubmed: 10736373 Link_out
                              25. Okumoto S, Looger LL, Micheva KD, Reimer RJ, Smith SJ, Frommer WB: Detection of glutamate release from neurons by genetically encoded surface-displayed FRET nanosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 14;102(24):8740-5. Epub 2005 Jun 6. Pubmed: 15939876 Link_out
                              26. Augustin H, Grosjean Y, Chen K, Sheng Q, Featherstone DE: Nonvesicular release of glutamate by glial xCT transporters suppresses glutamate receptor clustering in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 3;27(1):111-23. Pubmed: 17202478 Link_out

                              Enzymes

                              Show all enzymes and transporters Important Only showing the first 50 enzymes. There are 92 enzymes in total.

                              Name: Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
                              Reactions:
                              1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD(P)(+) + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + NAD(P)H details
                              L-Glutamic gamma-semialdehyde + NAD + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
                              1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
                              1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NADP + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
                              Gene Name: ALDH4A1
                              Uniprot ID: P30038 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: GSR
                              Uniprot ID: P00390 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [isomerizing] 2
                              Reactions:
                              L-Glutamine + Fructose 6-phosphate unknown L-Glutamic acid + Glucosamine 6-phosphate details
                              Gene Name: GFPT2
                              Uniprot ID: O94808 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [isomerizing] 1
                              Reactions:
                              L-Glutamine + Fructose 6-phosphate unknown L-Glutamic acid + Glucosamine 6-phosphate details
                              Gene Name: GFPT1
                              Uniprot ID: Q06210 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
                              Reactions:
                              Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamic acid details
                              (S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Beta-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Malonic semialdehyde + L-Glutamic acid details
                              (S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: ABAT
                              Uniprot ID: P80404 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Tyrosine aminotransferase
                              Reactions:
                              L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              L-Phenylalanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              2-Oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic acid unknown L-Methionine + Oxoglutaric acid details
                              Gene Name: TAT
                              Uniprot ID: P17735 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic
                              Reactions:
                              L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              L-Phenylalanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Cysteic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 3-Sulfopyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              3-Sulfinoalanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown B-Sulfinyl pyruvate + L-Glutamic acid details
                              4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown D-4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: GOT1
                              Uniprot ID: P17174 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
                              Reactions:
                              L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              L-Kynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              L-Phenylalanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Cysteic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 3-Sulfopyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              3-Sulfinoalanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown B-Sulfinyl pyruvate + L-Glutamic acid details
                              4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown D-4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: GOT2
                              Uniprot ID: P00505 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolic
                              Reactions:
                              L-Leucine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Ketoleucine + L-Glutamic acid details
                              L-Isoleucine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              L-Valine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: BCAT1
                              Uniprot ID: P54687 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Amidophosphoribosyltransferase
                              Reactions:
                              5-Phosphoribosylamine + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic acid unknown L-Glutamine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + Water details
                              Gene Name: PPAT
                              Uniprot ID: Q06203 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
                              Reactions:
                              L-Kynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Aminoadipic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Oxoadipic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              L-3-Hydroxykynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-(2-Amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: AADAT
                              Uniprot ID: Q8N5Z0 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial
                              Reactions:
                              Glycine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Glyoxylic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: AGXT2
                              Uniprot ID: Q9BYV1 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Ornithine aminotransferase, mitochondrial
                              Reactions:
                              Ornithine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown L-Glutamic gamma-semialdehyde + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: OAT
                              Uniprot ID: P04181 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 1
                              Reactions:
                              L-Kynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              L-3-Hydroxykynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 4-(2-Amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: CCBL1
                              Uniprot ID: Q16773 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunit
                              Reactions:
                              Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Cysteine unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Gamma-Glutamylcysteine details
                              Gene Name: GCLC
                              Uniprot ID: P48506 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate--cysteine ligase regulatory subunit
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: GCLM
                              Uniprot ID: P48507 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: N-acetylglutamate synthase, mitochondrial
                              Reactions:
                              Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamic acid unknown Coenzyme A + N-Acetylglutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: NAGS
                              Uniprot ID: Q8N159 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrial
                              Reactions:
                              L-Leucine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Ketoleucine + L-Glutamic acid details
                              L-Isoleucine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              L-Valine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: BCAT2
                              Uniprot ID: O15382 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Bifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligase
                              Reactions:
                              Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + tRNA(Glu) unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu) details
                              tRNA(Glu) + L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate unknown L-Glutamyl-tRNA(Glu) + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate details
                              Gene Name: EPRS
                              Uniprot ID: P07814 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Asparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]
                              Reactions:
                              Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: ASNS
                              Uniprot ID: P08243 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: GMP synthase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]
                              Reactions:
                              Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + L-Glutamine + Water unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamic acid details
                              6-Thioxanthine 5'-monophosphate + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water unknown 6-Thioguanosine monophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: GMPS
                              Uniprot ID: P49915 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial
                              Reactions:
                              L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)H details
                              L-Glutamic acid + NAD + Water unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
                              L-Glutamic acid + NADP + Water unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
                              Gene Name: GLUD2
                              Uniprot ID: P49448 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamine synthetase
                              Reactions:
                              Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Ammonia unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + L-Glutamine details
                              L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + CO(2) details
                              Gene Name: GLUL
                              Uniprot ID: P15104 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutaminase liver isoform, mitochondrial
                              Reactions:
                              L-Glutamine + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + Ammonia details
                              Gene Name: GLS2
                              Uniprot ID: Q9UI32 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: CTP synthase 1
                              Reactions:
                              Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: CTPS1
                              Uniprot ID: P17812 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial
                              Reactions:
                              L-Glutamine + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + Ammonia details
                              Gene Name: GLS
                              Uniprot ID: O94925 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminase
                              Reactions:
                              5-Formiminotetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic acid unknown Tetrahydrofolic acid + Formiminoglutamic acid details
                              N5-Formyl-THF + L-Glutamic acid unknown Tetrahydrofolic acid + N-Formyl-L-glutamic acid details
                              5-Formiminotetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic acid unknown Tetrahydrofolic acid + Formiminoglutamic acid details
                              N5-Formyl-THF + L-Glutamic acid unknown Tetrahydrofolic acid + N-Formyl-L-glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: FTCD
                              Uniprot ID: O95954 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
                              Reactions:
                              L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)H details
                              L-Glutamic acid + NAD + Water unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
                              L-Glutamic acid + NADP + Water unknown Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
                              Gene Name: GLUD1
                              Uniprot ID: P00367 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate decarboxylase 2
                              Reactions:
                              L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + CO(2) details
                              L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide details
                              Gene Name: GAD2
                              Uniprot ID: Q05329 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate decarboxylase 1
                              Reactions:
                              L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + CO(2) details
                              L-Glutamic acid unknown Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide details
                              Gene Name: GAD1
                              Uniprot ID: Q99259 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 1
                              Reactions:
                              Glutathione + Water unknown Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Leukotriene C(4) + Water unknown leukotriene D(4) + L-Glutamic acid details
                              R-S-Glutathione + Water unknown R-S-Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic acid details
                              L-3-Cyanoalanine + L-Glutamic acid unknown gamma-Glutamyl-beta-cyanoalanine + Water details
                              Beta-Aminopropionitrile + L-Glutamic acid unknown gamma-Glutamyl-beta-aminopropiononitrile + Water details
                              Gene Name: GGT1
                              Uniprot ID: P19440 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Gamma-glutamyltransferase 7
                              Reactions:
                              Glutathione + Water unknown Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic acid details
                              R-S-Glutathione + Water unknown R-S-Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic acid details
                              L-3-Cyanoalanine + L-Glutamic acid unknown gamma-Glutamyl-beta-cyanoalanine + Water details
                              Beta-Aminopropionitrile + L-Glutamic acid unknown gamma-Glutamyl-beta-aminopropiononitrile + Water details
                              Gene Name: GGT7
                              Uniprot ID: Q9UJ14 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase
                              Reactions:
                              Glycine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Glyoxylic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: AGXT
                              Uniprot ID: P21549 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutathione synthetase
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: GSS
                              Uniprot ID: P48637 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Folylpolyglutamate synthase, mitochondrial
                              Reactions:
                              Adenosine triphosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n) + L-Glutamic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n+1) details
                              Adenosine triphosphate + Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2) details
                              Adenosine triphosphate + 7,8-Dihydropteroic acid + L-Glutamic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Dihydrofolic acid details
                              Adenosine triphosphate + + L-Glutamic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + details
                              Gene Name: FPGS
                              Uniprot ID: Q05932 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Alanine aminotransferase 1
                              Reactions:
                              L-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: GPT
                              Uniprot ID: P24298 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Phosphoserine aminotransferase
                              Reactions:
                              Phosphoserine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: PSAT1
                              Uniprot ID: Q9Y617 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrial
                              Reactions:
                              N(6)-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine + NAD + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NADH details
                              Saccharopine + NAD + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
                              Gene Name: AASS
                              Uniprot ID: Q9UDR5 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase
                              Reactions:
                              Adenosine triphosphate + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + L-Glutamine + Water unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + 2-(formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycinamide + L-Glutamine + Water unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Phosphoribosylformylglycineamidine + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: PFAS
                              Uniprot ID: O15067 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase
                              Reactions:
                              Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid unknown ADP + L-Glutamic acid 5-phosphate details
                              Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid unknown ADP + L-Glutamic acid 5-phosphate details
                              Gene Name: ALDH18A1
                              Uniprot ID: P54886 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: 5-oxoprolinase
                              Reactions:
                              Adenosine triphosphate + Pyroglutamic acid + Water unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                              Gene Name: OPLAH
                              Uniprot ID: O14841 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit zeta-1
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: GRIN1
                              Uniprot ID: Q05586 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit 3B
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: GRIN3B
                              Uniprot ID: O60391 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-1
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: GRIN2A
                              Uniprot ID: Q12879 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-3
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: GRIN2C
                              Uniprot ID: Q14957 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-2
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: GRIN2B
                              Uniprot ID: Q13224 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-4
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: GRIN2D
                              Uniprot ID: O15399 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: GGCX
                              Uniprot ID: P38435 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 1
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: GRIK1
                              Uniprot ID: P39086 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 2
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: GRIK2
                              Uniprot ID: Q13002 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Transporters
                              Name: Monocarboxylate transporter 1
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: SLC16A1
                              Uniprot ID: P53985 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Monocarboxylate transporter 10
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: SLC16A10
                              Uniprot ID: Q8TF71 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA