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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2019-01-11 19:35:12 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15185
Metabolite Identification
Common NameNovobiocin
DescriptionNovobiocin is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an antibiotic compound derived from Streptomyces niveus. It has a chemical structure similar to coumarin. Novobiocin binds to DNA gyrase, and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p189) [PubChem]Novobiocin is an aminocoumarin. Aminocoumarins are very potent inhibitors of bacterial DNA gyrase and work by inhibiting the GyrB subunit of the enzyme involved in energy tranduction. Novobiocin as well as the other aminocoumarin antibiotics act as competitive inhibitors of the ATPase reaction catalysed by GyrB.
Antibiotic pa-93HMDB
Crystallinic acidHMDB
Sodium, novobiocinMeSH
Calcium, novobiocinMeSH
Monosodium salt novobiocinMeSH
Novobiocin, monosodium saltMeSH
Novobiocin calciumMeSH
Novobiocin sodiumMeSH
Chemical FormulaC31H36N2O11
Average Molecular Weight612.6243
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight612.231910004
IUPAC Name(3R,4S,5R,6R)-5-hydroxy-6-({4-hydroxy-3-[4-hydroxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)benzamido]-8-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl}oxy)-3-methoxy-2,2-dimethyloxan-4-yl carbamate
Traditional Namenovobiocin
CAS Registry Number303-81-1
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as coumarin glycosides. These are aromatic compounds containing a carbohydrate moiety glycosidically bound to a coumarin moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassCoumarins and derivatives
Sub ClassCoumarin glycosides
Direct ParentCoumarin glycosides
Alternative Parents
  • Coumarin-7-o-glycoside
  • Coumarin o-glycoside
  • Phenolic glycoside
  • 4-hydroxycoumarin
  • Hydroxycoumarin
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Benzopyran
  • 1-benzopyran
  • Benzamide
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzoyl
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Pyranone
  • Pyran
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Carbamic acid ester
  • Carboxamide group
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Lactone
  • Carbonic acid derivative
  • Ether
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Acetal
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors


Biological location:


Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.0097 g/LNot Available
LogP4.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0097 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.96ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count9ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area196.1 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity158.24 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability63.97 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000i-9501040000-ea711ce6f17080b821c2View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000i-9531007000-845ccc25b7b9a4ba819dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-03di-0000009000-b1cde524a6fa9a8469fbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-03di-0000449000-4b6598caa7dcff199d3cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0230-0005904000-5fe18777e8a9abd4250aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0a59-0096200000-4ea433cdc759c03b554dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0a4i-0091000000-912d33bd49e7c2686b5bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-03di-0141009000-46efbf9ab2bd123e3329View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-e321cd21925818d2156aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-6425ec6e8bbb44075cf4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-32fb8ff4ec7fde30b513View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-004f89ab3d920e8c5936View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-000j-0933000000-cd71bb412108d603ba2dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01ot-2319062000-88f8c273adda497b18dbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000j-1619010000-8f36ccee24f46649d2faView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-029i-4902000000-251ff87ab1779a3c93eeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-8092031000-b1e5ad67b96535763fdfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9003030000-1010bbb42c15ce8156a5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9322000000-7884d3b71b2733b2e74fView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01051 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01051 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01051
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00002487
Chemspider ID10226117
KEGG Compound IDC05080
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNovobiocin
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound54675769
ChEBI ID28368
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. DAVID NA, BURGNER PR: Clinical effectiveness and safety of novobiocin. Antibiotic Med Clin Ther (New York). 1956 Apr;2(4):219-29. [PubMed:13303117 ]
  2. CORBIN EE, PRIGOT A: Novobiocin; absorption, diffusion, and excretion studies. Antibiot Annu. 1956-1957:392-5. [PubMed:13425410 ]
  3. Singh G, Jayanarayan KG, Dey CS: Novobiocin induces apoptosis-like cell death in topoisomerase II over-expressing arsenite resistant Leishmania donovani. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2005 May;141(1):57-69. [PubMed:15811527 ]
  4. Burlison JA, Neckers L, Smith AB, Maxwell A, Blagg BS: Novobiocin: redesigning a DNA gyrase inhibitor for selective inhibition of hsp90. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Dec 6;128(48):15529-36. [PubMed:17132020 ]
  5. Vickers AA, Chopra I, O'Neill AJ: Intrinsic novobiocin resistance in Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Dec;51(12):4484-5. Epub 2007 Sep 17. [PubMed:17876001 ]


General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes
Gene Name:
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Molecular weight:
  1. Saito H, Osumi M, Hirano H, Shin W, Nakamura R, Ishikawa T: Technical pitfalls and improvements for high-speed screening and QSAR analysis to predict inhibitors of the human bile salt export pump (ABCB11/BSEP). AAPS J. 2009 Sep;11(3):581-9. doi: 10.1208/s12248-009-9137-9. Epub 2009 Aug 18. [PubMed:19688600 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from the brain. May be involved in brain-to-blood efflux. Appears to play a major role in the multidrug resistance phenotype of several cancer cell lines. When overexpressed, the transfected cells become resistant to mitoxantrone, daunorubicin and doxorubicin, display diminished intracellular accumulation of daunorubicin, and manifest an ATP- dependent increase in the efflux of rhodamine 123
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  1. Gedeon C, Behravan J, Koren G, Piquette-Miller M: Transport of glyburide by placental ABC transporters: implications in fetal drug exposure. Placenta. 2006 Nov-Dec;27(11-12):1096-102. Epub 2006 Feb 3. [PubMed:16460798 ]
  2. Shiozawa K, Oka M, Soda H, Yoshikawa M, Ikegami Y, Tsurutani J, Nakatomi K, Nakamura Y, Doi S, Kitazaki T, Mizuta Y, Murase K, Yoshida H, Ross DD, Kohno S: Reversal of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2)-mediated drug resistance by novobiocin, a coumermycin antibiotic. Int J Cancer. 2004 Jan 1;108(1):146-51. [PubMed:14618629 ]
  3. Elahian F, Kalalinia F, Behravan J: Evaluation of indomethacin and dexamethasone effects on BCRP-mediated drug resistance in MCF-7 parental and resistant cell lines. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2010 Apr;33(2):113-9. doi: 10.3109/01480540903390000. [PubMed:20307139 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds
Gene Name:
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Molecular weight:
  1. Duan P, You G: Novobiocin is a potent inhibitor for human organic anion transporters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jun;37(6):1203-10. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.026880. Epub 2009 Mar 12. [PubMed:19282394 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Duan P, You G: Novobiocin is a potent inhibitor for human organic anion transporters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jun;37(6):1203-10. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.026880. Epub 2009 Mar 12. [PubMed:19282394 ]