You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 20:16:18 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015242
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15242
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMiconazole
DescriptionMiconazole is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion. [PubChem]Miconazole interacts with 14-α demethylase, a cytochrome P-450 enzyme necessary to convert lanosterol to ergosterol. As ergosterol is an essential component of the fungal cell membrane, inhibition of its synthesis results in increased cellular permeability causing leakage of cellular contents. Miconazole may also inhibit endogenous respiration, interact with membrane phospholipids, inhibit the transformation of yeasts to mycelial forms, inhibit purine uptake, and impair triglyceride and/or phospholipid biosynthesis.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
MonistatKegg
MCZHMDB
DactarinMeSH
Esteve brand OF miconazoleMeSH
Janssen-cilag brand OF miconazoleMeSH
Miconazole nitrateMeSH
Johnston and johnston brand OF miconazole nitrateMeSH
Miconazole esteve brandMeSH
Janssen cilag brand OF miconazoleMeSH
BrentanMeSH
Miconasil nitrateMeSH
Miconazole janssen-cilag brandMeSH
Nitrate, miconasilMeSH
Nitrate, miconazoleMeSH
Chemical FormulaC18H14Cl4N2O
Average Molecular Weight416.129
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight413.986023908
IUPAC Name1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-[(2,4-dichlorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-1H-imidazole
Traditional Namemiconazole
CAS Registry Number22916-47-8
SMILES
ClC1=CC(Cl)=C(COC(CN2C=CN=C2)C2=C(Cl)C=C(Cl)C=C2)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C18H14Cl4N2O/c19-13-2-1-12(16(21)7-13)10-25-18(9-24-6-5-23-11-24)15-4-3-14(20)8-17(15)22/h1-8,11,18H,9-10H2
InChI KeyBYBLEWFAAKGYCD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzylethers. These are aromatic ethers with the general formula ROCR' (R = alkyl, aryl; R'=benzene).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzylethers
Direct ParentBenzylethers
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzylether
  • 1,3-dichlorobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Halobenzene
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aryl halide
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Ether
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point159 - 163 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.00076 g/LNot Available
LogP6.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00076 g/LALOGPS
logP5.86ALOGPS
logP5.96ChemAxon
logS-5.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.77ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area27.05 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity103.07 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability39.54 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-9233000000-cf671d00eb6cf2e83a70View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-02t9-0501900000-40f5928152d84e02deefView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-015c-4900000000-628ede89a2ff3a714388View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-02t9-0501900000-40f5928152d84e02deefView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0bt9-2900000000-1921b08c2de7bbf0624dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0bt9-0900500000-1a5805da9606edbe7e9aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0010900000-fdb45193fda5b55b51fbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-029i-8196600000-0688ca27d69a2b799e4eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-9231000000-36d36a480a365220e479View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-1001900000-6bf34660d27cb9682f77View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-9001100000-646beb070226cf30103fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-014l-9200000000-cddc446725179619915fView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0bt9-4900000000-3f143064c2acde7e15a4View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01110 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01110 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01110
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4044
KEGG Compound IDC08070
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMiconazole
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound4189
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID82892
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General ReferencesNot Available

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 25 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochrome P450 XIB.
Gene Name:
CYP11B1
Uniprot ID:
P15538
Molecular weight:
57572.44
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions. Also has nitrosylase activity and mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of cytoplasmic target proteins such COX2.
Gene Name:
NOS2
Uniprot ID:
P35228
Molecular weight:
131116.3
References
  1. Wolff DJ, Datto GA, Samatovicz RA: The dual mode of inhibition of calmodulin-dependent nitric-oxide synthase by antifungal imidazole agents. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 5;268(13):9430-6. [PubMed:7683652 ]
  2. Bogle RG, Whitley GS, Soo SC, Johnstone AP, Vallance P: Effect of anti-fungal imidazoles on mRNA levels and enzyme activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Br J Pharmacol. 1994 Apr;111(4):1257-61. [PubMed:7518297 ]
  3. Sennequier N, Wolan D, Stuehr DJ: Antifungal imidazoles block assembly of inducible NO synthase into an active dimer. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 8;274(2):930-8. [PubMed:9873034 ]
  4. Dudek RR, Conforto A, Pinto V, Wildhirt S, Suzuki H: Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by cytochrome P-450 reductase inhibitors. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1995 May;209(1):60-4. [PubMed:7536941 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is implicated in vascular smooth muscle relaxation through a cGMP-mediated signal transduction pathway. NO mediates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in coronary vessels and promotes blood clotting through the activation of platelets. Isoform eNOS13C: Lacks eNOS activity, dominant-negative form that may down-regulate eNOS activity by forming heterodimers with isoform 1.
Gene Name:
NOS3
Uniprot ID:
P29474
Molecular weight:
133273.59
References
  1. Wolff DJ, Datto GA, Samatovicz RA: The dual mode of inhibition of calmodulin-dependent nitric-oxide synthase by antifungal imidazole agents. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 5;268(13):9430-6. [PubMed:7683652 ]
  2. Bogle RG, Whitley GS, Soo SC, Johnstone AP, Vallance P: Effect of anti-fungal imidazoles on mRNA levels and enzyme activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Br J Pharmacol. 1994 Apr;111(4):1257-61. [PubMed:7518297 ]
  3. Sennequier N, Wolan D, Stuehr DJ: Antifungal imidazoles block assembly of inducible NO synthase into an active dimer. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 8;274(2):930-8. [PubMed:9873034 ]
  4. Dudek RR, Conforto A, Pinto V, Wildhirt S, Suzuki H: Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by cytochrome P-450 reductase inhibitors. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1995 May;209(1):60-4. [PubMed:7536941 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Sakaeda T, Iwaki K, Kakumoto M, Nishikawa M, Niwa T, Jin JS, Nakamura T, Nishiguchi K, Okamura N, Okumura K: Effect of micafungin on cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1 activities, and its comparison with azole antifungal drugs. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Jun;57(6):759-64. [PubMed:15969931 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Ekins S, Kim RB, Leake BF, Dantzig AH, Schuetz EG, Lan LB, Yasuda K, Shepard RL, Winter MA, Schuetz JD, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):964-73. [PubMed:11961113 ]
  2. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389 ]
  3. Yasuda K, Lan LB, Sanglard D, Furuya K, Schuetz JD, Schuetz EG: Interaction of cytochrome P450 3A inhibitors with P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Oct;303(1):323-32. [PubMed:12235267 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 25 proteins in total.