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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:52 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 20:21:04 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15612
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGallium nitrate
DescriptionGallium nitrate is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a drug that is used to treat hyper-calcemia, or too much calcium in the blood. This condition may occur when individuals develop various types of cancer. Gallium nitrate is also known by the common brand name Ganite.Gallium nitrate is believed to exert a hypocalcemic effect by inhibiting calcium resorption from bone. Gallium nitrate localizes preferentially where bone resorption and remodeling is occurring, and inhibits osteoclast activity. Inhibition of resorption may occur via a reduction in increased bone turnover. It seems to enhance hydroxyapatite function, inhibit osteocalcin, and inhibit the vacuolar ATPase on the osteoclast ruffled membrane. All these aid in the reduction of bone resorption.
Gallium nitrate, 67ga-labeledMeSH
Gallium nitrate heptahydrateMeSH
Chemical FormulaGaN3O9
Average Molecular Weight255.738
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight254.889034525
IUPAC Namegallium(3+) ion trinitrate
Traditional Namegallium(3+) ion trinitrate
CAS Registry Number13494-90-1
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as post-transition metal nitrates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is nitrate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is a post-transition metal.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
ClassPost-transition metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassPost-transition metal nitrates
Direct ParentPost-transition metal nitrates
Alternative Parents
  • Post-transition metal nitrate
  • Inorganic post-transition metal salt
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Inorganic salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available

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Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-1.4ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area68.88 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity9.85 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability3.24 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB05260 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB05260 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB05260
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID55543
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGallium nitrate
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound61635
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID774934
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Chitambar CR: Apoptotic mechanisms of gallium nitrate: basic and clinical investigations. Oncology (Williston Park). 2004 Nov;18(13 Suppl 10):39-44. [PubMed:15651176 ]
  2. Leyland-Jones B: Treating cancer-related hypercalcemia with gallium nitrate. J Support Oncol. 2004 Nov-Dec;2(6):509-16. [PubMed:15605917 ]
  3. Cvitkovic F, Armand JP, Tubiana-Hulin M, Rossi JF, Warrell RP Jr: Randomized, double-blind, phase II trial of gallium nitrate compared with pamidronate for acute control of cancer-related hypercalcemia. Cancer J. 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):47-53. [PubMed:16613662 ]
  4. Yang M, Kroft SH, Chitambar CR: Gene expression analysis of gallium-resistant and gallium-sensitive lymphoma cells reveals a role for metal-responsive transcription factor-1, metallothionein-2A, and zinc transporter-1 in modulating the antineoplastic activity of gallium nitrate. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Feb;6(2):633-43. [PubMed:17308060 ]


General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides. Inhibits Wnt signaling.
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  1. Chitambar CR: Apoptotic mechanisms of gallium nitrate: basic and clinical investigations. Oncology (Williston Park). 2004 Nov;18(13 Suppl 10):39-44. [PubMed:15651176 ]
  2. Narasimhan J, Antholine WE, Chitambar CR: Effect of gallium on the tyrosyl radical of the iron-dependent M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Dec 15;44(12):2403-8. [PubMed:1335254 ]
  3. Straus DJ: Gallium nitrate in the treatment of lymphoma. Semin Oncol. 2003 Apr;30(2 Suppl 5):25-33. [PubMed:12776257 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Non-catalytic subunit of the peripheral V1 complex of vacuolar ATPase. V-ATPase is responsible for acidifying a variety of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells
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  1. Bockman R: The effects of gallium nitrate on bone resorption. Semin Oncol. 2003 Apr;30(2 Suppl 5):5-12. [PubMed:12776254 ]
  2. Mattsson JP, Skyman C, Palokangas H, Vaananen KH, Keeling DJ: Characterization and cellular distribution of the osteoclast ruffled membrane vacuolar H+-ATPase B-subunit using isoform-specific antibodies. J Bone Miner Res. 1997 May;12(5):753-60. [PubMed:9144341 ]
  3. Jakupec MA, Keppler BK: Gallium and other main group metal compounds as antitumor agents. Met Ions Biol Syst. 2004;42:425-62. [PubMed:15206110 ]
General function:
Involved in regulation of bone mineralization
Specific function:
Constitutes 1-2% of the total bone protein. It binds strongly to apatite and calcium
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  1. Jenis LG, Waud CE, Stein GS, Lian JB, Baran DT: Effect of gallium nitrate in vitro and in normal rats. J Cell Biochem. 1993 Jul;52(3):330-6. [PubMed:8366144 ]
  2. Guidon PT Jr, Salvatori R, Bockman RS: Gallium nitrate regulates rat osteoblast expression of osteocalcin protein and mRNA levels. J Bone Miner Res. 1993 Jan;8(1):103-12. [PubMed:8381250 ]
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
Produced by activated macrophages, IL-1 stimulates thymocyte proliferation by inducing IL-2 release, B-cell maturation and proliferation, and fibroblast growth factor activity. IL-1 proteins are involved in the inflammatory response, being identified as endogenous pyrogens, and are reported to stimulate the release of prostaglandin and collagenase from synovial cells
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  1. Eby G: Elimination of arthritis pain and inflammation for over 2 years with a single 90 min, topical 14% gallium nitrate treatment: case reports and review of actions of gallium III. Med Hypotheses. 2005;65(6):1136-41. Epub 2005 Aug 24. [PubMed:16122880 ]