You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-05-18 21:41:48 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00164
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02983
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMethylamine
DescriptionMethylamine occurs endogenously from amine catabolism and its tissue levels increase in some pathological conditions, including diabetes. Interestingly, methylamine and ammonia levels are reciprocally controlled by a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity that deaminates methylamine to formaldehyde with the production of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. Methylamine also targets the voltage-operated neuronal potassium channels, probably inducing release of neurotransmitter(s). Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) catalyzes the deamination of primary amines. Such deamination has been shown capable of regulating glucose transport in adipose cells. It has been independently discovered that the primary structure of vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is identical to SSAO. Increased serum SSAO activities have been found in patients with diabetic mellitus, vascular disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The SSAO-catalyzed deamination of endogenous substrates like methylamine led to production of toxic formaldehyde. Chronic elevated methylamine increases the excretion of malondialdehyde and microalbuminuria. Amine oxidase substrates such as methylamine have been shown to stimulate glucose uptake by increasing the recruitment of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from vesicles within the cell to the cell surface. Inhibition of this effect by the presence of semicarbazide and catalase led to the suggestion that the process is mediated by the H (2) O (2) produced in the oxidation of these amines. (PMID: 16049393 , 12686132 , 17406961 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
MethanamineKegg
AminomethaneHMDB
Anhydrous methylamineHMDB
CarbinamineHMDB
ImizinHMDB
MercurialinHMDB
Methyl groupHMDB
Methyl OF gamma-N-methylasparagineHMDB
Methylamine anhydrousHMDB
Methylamine aqueous solutionHMDB
Methylamine solutionHMDB
Methylamine solutionsHMDB
MethylaminenHMDB
MetilamineHMDB
MetyloaminaHMDB
MMAHMDB
MonomethylamineHMDB
N-MethylamineHMDB
NMAHMDB
NMEHMDB
Chemical FormulaCH5N
Average Molecular Weight31.0571
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight31.042199165
IUPAC Namemethanamine
Traditional Namemethylamine
CAS Registry Number74-89-5
SMILES
CN
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/CH5N/c1-2/h2H2,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=BAVYZALUXZFZLV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as monoalkylamines. These are organic compounds containing an primary aliphatic amine group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
ClassAmines
Sub ClassPrimary amines
Direct ParentMonoalkylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-93.4 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1080 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP-0.57HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility367.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.1ALOGPS
logP-0.63ChemAxon
logS1.07ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.08ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity9.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability3.86 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-93f5049fa2e67d0da26dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-53c64a174764bada8913View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-1c10568342e547416eafView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-43b9d7b881c659f2ceb1View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
AlkaptonuriaSMP00169Not Available
Disulfiram PathwaySMP00429Not Available
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencySMP00498Not Available
HawkinsinuriaSMP00190Not Available
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)SMP00533Not Available
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006map00350
Tyrosinemia Type ISMP00218Not Available
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornSMP00494Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1.0 (0.37-4.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified25.55 +/- 13.26 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified158 (0.00-316) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.906 +/- 3.776 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.46 +/- 0.13 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.6 +/- 3.1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.0 (1.5-11.9) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.5 (9.8-12.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified18.68 +/- 3.22 uMAdult (>18 years old)Bothuremia details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Crohn’s Disease
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.09 +/- 6.297 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003958
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID6089
KEGG Compound IDC00218
BioCyc IDMETHYLAMINE
BiGG ID1800349
Wikipedia LinkMethylamine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00164
Metagene LinkHMDB00164
METLIN ID3767
PubChem Compound6329
PDB IDNME
ChEBI ID16830
References
Synthesis ReferenceDenham, William S.; Knapp, Lionel F. The preparation of methylamine from ammonium methyl sulfate. Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions (1920), 117 236-47.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Nicholson JK, Foxall PJ, Spraul M, Farrant RD, Lindon JC: 750 MHz 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma. Anal Chem. 1995 Mar 1;67(5):793-811. [7762816 ]
  2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  3. Wolfe CL, Warrington JA, Davis S, Green S, Norcum MT: Isolation and characterization of human nuclear and cytosolic multisynthetase complexes and the intracellular distribution of p43/EMAPII. Protein Sci. 2003 Oct;12(10):2282-90. [14500886 ]
  4. Wolkers WF, Looper SA, Fontanilla RA, Tsvetkova NM, Tablin F, Crowe JH: Temperature dependence of fluid phase endocytosis coincides with membrane properties of pig platelets. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Jun 10;1612(2):154-63. [12787933 ]
  5. Stanic P, Tandara M, Sonicki Z, Simunic V, Radakovic B, Suchanek E: Comparison of protective media and freezing techniques for cryopreservation of human semen. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000 Jul;91(1):65-70. [10817881 ]
  6. Zeisel SH, Gettner S, Youssef M: Formation of aliphatic amine precursors of N-nitrosodimethylamine after oral administration of choline and choline analogues in the rat. Food Chem Toxicol. 1989 Jan;27(1):31-4. [2703191 ]
  7. O'Sullivan J, Unzeta M, Healy J, O'Sullivan MI, Davey G, Tipton KF: Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases: enzymes with quite a lot to do. Neurotoxicology. 2004 Jan;25(1-2):303-15. [14697905 ]
  8. Sawetawan C, Bruns ES, Prins GS: Improvement of post-thaw sperm motility in poor quality human semen. Fertil Steril. 1993 Oct;60(4):706-10. [8405530 ]
  9. Gunnarsson M, Sundstrom P, Stigbrand T, Jensen PE: Native and transformed alpha2-macroglobulin in plasma from patients with multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2003 Jul;108(1):16-21. [12807388 ]
  10. Kokubo T, Kushitani H, Sakka S, Kitsugi T, Yamamuro T: Solutions able to reproduce in vivo surface-structure changes in bioactive glass-ceramic A-W. J Biomed Mater Res. 1990 Jun;24(6):721-34. [2361964 ]
  11. Mashige F, Imai K, Osuga T: A simple and sensitive assay of total serum bile acids. Clin Chim Acta. 1976 Jul 1;70(1):79-86. [947625 ]
  12. Wosikowski K, Biedermann E, Rattel B, Breiter N, Jank P, Loser R, Jansen G, Peters GJ: In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of methotrexate conjugated to human serum albumin in human cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2003 May;9(5):1917-26. [12738750 ]
  13. Tencer J, Thysell H, Andersson K, Grubb A: Long-term stability of albumin, protein HC, immunoglobulin G, kappa- and lambda-chain-immunoreactivity, orosomucoid and alpha 1-antitrypsin in urine stored at -20 degrees C. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1997 Feb;31(1):67-71. [9060087 ]
  14. Pirisino R, Ghelardini C, De Siena G, Malmberg P, Galeotti N, Cioni L, Banchelli G, Raimondi L: Methylamine: a new endogenous modulator of neuron firing? Med Sci Monit. 2005 Aug;11(8):RA257-61. Epub 2005 Jul 25. [16049393 ]
  15. Yu PH, Wright S, Fan EH, Lun ZR, Gubisne-Harberle D: Physiological and pathological implications of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Apr 11;1647(1-2):193-9. [12686132 ]
  16. McDonald A, Tipton K, O'Sullivan J, Olivieri A, Davey G, Coonan AM, Fu W: Modelling the roles of MAO and SSAO in glucose transport. J Neural Transm. 2007;114(6):783-6. Epub 2007 Apr 5. [17406961 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular weight:
58762.475
Reactions
Epinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Metanephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxide + Methylaminedetails
N-Desmethylcitalopram + Oxygen + Water → Citalopram aldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular weight:
59681.27
Reactions
Epinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Metanephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxide + Methylaminedetails
N-Desmethylcitalopram + Oxygen + Water → Citalopram aldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Cell adhesion protein that participates in lymphocyte recirculation by mediating the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node vascular endothelial cells in an L-selectin-independent fashion. Has a monoamine oxidase activity. May play a role in adipogenesis.
Gene Name:
AOC3
Uniprot ID:
Q16853
Molecular weight:
84621.27
Reactions
Methylamine + Oxygen + Water → Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Has a monoamine oxidase activity with substrate specificity for 2-phenylethylamine and tryptamine. May play a role in adipogenesis. May be a critical modulator of signal transmission in retina.
Gene Name:
AOC2
Uniprot ID:
O75106
Molecular weight:
80515.11
Reactions
Methylamine + Oxygen + Water → Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in lyase activity
Specific function:
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine. The P protein binds the alpha-amino group of glycine through its pyridoxal phosphate cofactor; CO(2) is released and the remaining methylamine moiety is then transferred to the lipoamide cofactor of the H protein.
Gene Name:
GLDC
Uniprot ID:
P23378
Molecular weight:
112728.805