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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-12-01 23:16:37 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00167
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Threonine
DescriptionThreonine is an essential amino acid in humans. It is abundant in human plasma, particularly in newborns. Severe deficiency of threonine causes neurological dysfunction and lameness in experimental animals. Threonine is an immunostimulant which promotes the growth of thymus gland. It also can probably promote cell immune defense function. This amino acid has been useful in the treatment of genetic spasticity disorders and multiple sclerosis at a dose of 1 gram daily. It is highly concentrated in meat products, cottage cheese and wheat germ. (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/) The threonine content of most of the infant formulas currently on the market is approximately 20% higher than the threonine concentration in human milk. Due to this high threonine content the plasma threonine concentrations are up to twice as high in premature infants fed these formulas than in infants fed human milk. The whey proteins which are used for infant formulas are sweet whey proteins. Sweet whey results from cheese production. Threonine catabolism in mammals appears to be due primarily (70-80%) to the activity of threonine dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.103) that oxidizes threonine to 2-amino-3-oxobutyrate, which forms glycine and acetyl CoA, whereas threonine dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.16) that catabolizes threonine into 2-oxobutyrate and ammonia, is significantly less active. Increasing the threonine plasma concentrations leads to accumulation of threonine and glycine in the brain. Such accumulation affects the neurotransmitter balance which may have consequences for the brain development during early postnatal life. Thus, excessive threonine intake during infant feeding should be avoided. (PMID 9853925 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (2S,3R)-(-)-Threonine
  2. (2S,3R)-2-Amino-3-hydroxybutyrate
  3. (2S,3R)-2-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid
  4. (R-(R*,S*))-2-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoate
  5. (R-(R*,S*))-2-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
  6. (S)-Threonine
  7. 2-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoate
  8. 2-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
  9. 2-Amino-3-hydroxybutyrate
  10. 2-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid
  11. L-(-)-Threonine
  12. L-2-Amino-3-hydroxybutyrate
  13. L-2-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid
  14. L-alpha-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyrate
  15. L-alpha-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid
  16. Threonin
  17. Threonine
  18. [R-(R*,S*)]-2-amino-3-hydroxy-Butanoate
  19. [R-(R*,S*)]-2-amino-3-hydroxy-Butanoic acid
  20. [R-(R*,S*)]-2-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoate
  21. [R-(R*,S*)]-2-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
Chemical FormulaC4H9NO3
Average Molecular Weight119.1192
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight119.058243159
IUPAC Name(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
Traditional NameL-threonine
CAS Registry Number72-19-5
SMILES
C[C@@H](O)[C@H](N)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H9NO3/c1-2(6)3(5)4(7)8/h2-3,6H,5H2,1H3,(H,7,8)/t2-,3+/m1/s1
InChI KeyAYFVYJQAPQTCCC-GBXIJSLDSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
ClassAmino Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Common amino acids(KEGG)
  • amino acid zwitterion(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Aminoalcohol
  • Beta Hydroxy Acid
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
  • Plant
Biofunction
  • Component of Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Essential amino acids
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point256 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility97.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.94HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility477.0ALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-3.5ChemAxon
logS0.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.21ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area83.55 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity26.46 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.25 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Threonine and 2-Oxobutanoate DegradationSMP00452Not Available
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified127.7 +/- 41 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified102.3 +/- 24.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified140.0 (107.0-173.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified215.0 +/- 60.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified140.0 +/- 28.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified146.0 +/- 22.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified154.0 +/- 40.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified260.0 +/- 10.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified32.0 (4.00-60.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified30 +/- 12 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified27.7 +/- 4.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified45.9 +/- 12.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified37.4 +/- 7.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified34.7 +/- 6.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified26.5 +/- 4.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified10.35 +/- 0.88 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified7.78 +/- 13.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified7.98 +/- 7.32 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified<0.25 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified<0.25 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.7 +/- 3.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.50 +/- 4.89 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified26.75 +/- 28.12 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.96 +/- 2.50 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.7 +/- 0.45 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified6.27 +/- 3.07 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.40-100.79 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified36.20 +/- 25.38 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.3 (6.4-25.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.17-24.59 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified14.6 (6.6-29.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.0 (0.16-2.4) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.9 +/- 2.5 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified18.0 +/- 9.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.0 +/- 9.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.7 (4.934-20.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified13.4 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    BloodDetected and Quantified83.4 +/- 47.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHeart Transplant details
    BloodDetected and Quantified114.0 +/- 9.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified118.0 +/- 3.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified227.0 +/- 10.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Heart failure
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified41.0 +/- 15.9 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedLeukemia details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified30.2 +/- 9.8 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
    Leukemia
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified9.68 +/- 2.22 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
    FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Irritable bowel syndrome
    details
    FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Ulcerative colitis
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified3.65 +/- 0.97 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)FemaleBreast cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPancreatic cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPeriodontal diseases details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified4.36 +/- 1.21 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral leukoplakia (OLK) details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified5.83 +/- 3.11 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
    UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.03 +/- 0.003 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Alzheimer's disease
    1. Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed: 17031479
    Epilepsy
    1. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
    Schizophrenia
    1. Do KQ, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Zollinger M, Gutteck-Amsler U, Cuenod M, Holsboer F: gamma-Glutamylglutamine and taurine concentrations are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug-naive patients with schizophrenic disorders. J Neurochem. 1995 Dec;65(6):2652-62. Pubmed: 7595563
    Heart failure
    1. Norrelund H, Wiggers H, Halbirk M, Frystyk J, Flyvbjerg A, Botker HE, Schmitz O, Jorgensen JO, Christiansen JS, Moller N: Abnormalities of whole body protein turnover, muscle metabolism and levels of metabolic hormones in patients with chronic heart failure. J Intern Med. 2006 Jul;260(1):11-21. Pubmed: 16789974
    Leukemia
    1. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDDB00156
    DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB011999
    KNApSAcK IDC00001394
    Chemspider ID6051
    KEGG Compound IDC00188
    BioCyc IDTHR
    BiGG ID34186
    Wikipedia LinkL-Threonine
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00167
    Metagene LinkHMDB00167
    METLIN ID32
    PubChem Compound6288
    PDB IDTHR
    ChEBI ID16857
    References
    Synthesis Reference Fujita, Chuzo; Nara, Takashi; Samejima, Hirotoshi; Kinoshita, Shukuo. L-Threonine fermentation. I. Microbial conversion of L-homoserine to L-threonine. Nippon Nogei Kagaku Kaishi (1965), 39(6), 2
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
    2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
    3. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. Pubmed: 6696735
    4. Wevers RA, Engelke U, Wendel U, de Jong JG, Gabreels FJ, Heerschap A: Standardized method for high-resolution 1H-NMR of cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 1995 May;41(5):744-51. Pubmed: 7729054
    5. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. Pubmed: 6198473
    6. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239
    7. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216
    8. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
    9. Vold BS, Keith DE Jr, Slavik M: Urine levels of N-[9-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)purin-6-ylcarbamoyl]-L-threonine, N6-(delta 2-isopentenyl)adenosine, and 2'-O-methylguanosine as determined by radioimmunoassay for normal subjects and cancer patients. Cancer Res. 1982 Dec;42(12):5265-9. Pubmed: 7139629
    10. Hallgren P, Lundblad A, Svensson S: A new type of carbohydrate-protein linkage in a glycopeptide from normal human urine. J Biol Chem. 1975 Jul 25;250(14):5312-4. Pubmed: 1141232
    11. Wulf G, Finn G, Suizu F, Lu KP: Phosphorylation-specific prolyl isomerization: is there an underlying theme? Nat Cell Biol. 2005 May;7(5):435-41. Pubmed: 15867923
    12. Takeda DY, Parvin JD, Dutta A: Degradation of Cdt1 during S phase is Skp2-independent and is required for efficient progression of mammalian cells through S phase. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jun 17;280(24):23416-23. Epub 2005 Apr 25. Pubmed: 15855168
    13. Nanda N, Bao M, Lin H, Clauser K, Komuves L, Quertermous T, Conley PB, Phillips DR, Hart MJ: Platelet endothelial aggregation receptor 1 (PEAR1), a novel epidermal growth factor repeat-containing transmembrane receptor, participates in platelet contact-induced activation. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jul 1;280(26):24680-9. Epub 2005 Apr 25. Pubmed: 15851471
    14. Boneh A, Korman SH, Sato K, Kanno J, Matsubara Y, Lerer I, Ben-Neriah Z, Kure S: A single nucleotide substitution that abolishes the initiator methionine codon of the GLDC gene is prevalent among patients with glycine encephalopathy in Jerusalem. J Hum Genet. 2005;50(5):230-4. Epub 2005 Apr 29. Pubmed: 15864413
    15. Elzinga M, Maron BJ, Adelstein RS: Human heart and platelet actins are products of different genes. Science. 1976 Jan 9;191(4222):94-5. Pubmed: 1246600
    16. Rodriguez-Soriano J, Vallo A, Perez de Nanclares G, Bilbao JR, Castano L: A founder mutation in the CLCNKB gene causes Bartter syndrome type III in Spain. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005 Jul;20(7):891-6. Epub 2005 May 5. Pubmed: 15875219
    17. Boehm G, Cervantes H, Georgi G, Jelinek J, Sawatzki G, Wermuth B, Colombo JP: Effect of increasing dietary threonine intakes on amino acid metabolism of the central nervous system and peripheral tissues in growing rats. Pediatr Res. 1998 Dec;44(6):900-6. Pubmed: 9853925

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in nucleotide binding
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    TARS
    Uniprot ID:
    P26639
    Molecular weight:
    83434.5
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Threonine + tRNA(Thr) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-threonyl-tRNA(Thr)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Threonine + tRNA(Thr) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Threonyl-tRNA(Thr)details
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Torres-Larios A, Sankaranarayanan R, Rees B, Dock-Bregeon AC, Moras D: Conformational movements and cooperativity upon amino acid, ATP and tRNA binding in threonyl-tRNA synthetase. J Mol Biol. 2003 Aug 1;331(1):201-11. Pubmed: 12875846
    4. Ruan B, Bovee ML, Sacher M, Stathopoulos C, Poralla K, Francklyn CS, Soll D: A unique hydrophobic cluster near the active site contributes to differences in borrelidin inhibition among threonyl-tRNA synthetases. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jan 7;280(1):571-7. Epub 2004 Oct 26. Pubmed: 15507440
    5. Cusack S, Yaremchuk A, Krikliviy I, Tukalo M: tRNA(Pro) anticodon recognition by Thermus thermophilus prolyl-tRNA synthetase. Structure. 1998 Jan 15;6(1):101-8. Pubmed: 9493271
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    SDS
    Uniprot ID:
    P20132
    Molecular weight:
    34625.105
    Reactions
    L-Threonine → 2-Ketobutyric acid + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
    Specific function:
    Transporter for alanine, serine, cysteine, and threonine. Exhibits sodium dependence
    Gene Name:
    SLC1A4
    Uniprot ID:
    P43007
    Molecular weight:
    55722.5
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    THNSL1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8IYQ7
    Molecular weight:
    83069.5
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    General function:
    Involved in magnesium ion binding
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    ILVBL
    Uniprot ID:
    A1L0T0
    Molecular weight:
    67867.2
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Has low serine dehydratase and threonine dehydratase activity.
    Gene Name:
    SDSL
    Uniprot ID:
    Q96GA7
    Molecular weight:
    34674.01
    Reactions
    L-Threonine → 2-Ketobutyric acid + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in nucleotide binding
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    TARSL2
    Uniprot ID:
    A2RTX5
    Molecular weight:
    92644.755
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Threonine + tRNA(Thr) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-threonyl-tRNA(Thr)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Threonine + tRNA(Thr) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Threonyl-tRNA(Thr)details
    General function:
    Involved in nucleotide binding
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    TARS2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9BW92
    Molecular weight:
    81035.345
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Threonine + tRNA(Thr) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-threonyl-tRNA(Thr)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Threonine + tRNA(Thr) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Threonyl-tRNA(Thr)details
    References
    1. Caillet J, Graffe M, Eyermann F, Romby P, Springer M: Mutations in residues involved in zinc binding in the catalytic site of Escherichia coli threonyl-tRNA synthetase confer a dominant lethal phenotype. J Bacteriol. 2007 Oct;189(19):6839-48. Epub 2007 Jul 20. Pubmed: 17644600

    Transporters

    General function:
    Involved in transmembrane transport
    Specific function:
    Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells
    Gene Name:
    SLC16A10
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8TF71
    Molecular weight:
    55492.1
    References
    1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. Pubmed: 11278508