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Record Information
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:02:10 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMaleic acid
DescriptionMaleic acid is an industrial raw material for the production of glyoxylic acid by ozonolysis. Maleic acid is an organic compound which is a dicarboxylic acid (molecule with two carboxyl groups). The molecule consists of an ethylene group flanked by two carboxylic acid groups. Maleic acid is the cis isomer of butenedioic acid, whereas fumaric acid is the trans isomer. The cis isomer is the less stable one of the two; the difference in heat of combustion is 22.7 kJ/mol. The physical properties of maleic acid are very different from that of fumaric acid. Maleic acid is soluble in water whereas fumaric acid is not and the melting point of maleic acid (130 - 131 degree centigrade) is also much lower than that of fumaric acid (287 degree centigrade). Both properties of maleic acid can be explained on account of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding that takes place at the expense of intermolecular interactions. Maleic acid is converted into maleic anhydride by dehydration, to malic acid by hydration, and to succinic acid by hydrogenation. It reacts with thionyl chloride or phosphorus pentachloride to give the maleic acid chloride (it is not possible to isolate the mono acid chloride). Maleic acid is a reactant in many Diels-Alder reactions.
(Z)-2-Butenedioic acidChEBI
(Z)-Butenedioic acidChEBI
cis-1,2-Ethylenedicarboxylic acidChEBI
cis-But-2-enedioic acidChEBI
cis-Butenedioic acidChEBI
Toxilic acidChEBI
(2Z)-2-Butenedioic acidHMDB
(2Z)-But-2-enedioic acidHMDB
(2Z)-Butene-2-dioic acidHMDB
2-Butenedioic acidHMDB
cis-2-Butenedioic acidHMDB
Kyselina maleinovaHMDB
Maleic acidHMDB
Maleinic acidHMDB
Malenic acidHMDB
Malezid CMHMDB
Scotchbond multipurpose etchantHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H4O4
Average Molecular Weight116.0722
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight116.010958616
IUPAC Name(2Z)-but-2-enedioic acid
Traditional Namemaleic acid
CAS Registry Number110-16-7
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Endogenous
  • Food
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point130.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility441 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP-0.48SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility24.1 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity24.61 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.19 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0002-0900000000-170a9d63d0cb31451c1dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-001j-5940000000-59e85bafafc1675e24adView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9200000000-77d8b2c7abcec2e3d5a1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9200000000-8d8a8b14a723e0363227View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0229-9700000000-061b31801a2ae4703fc5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6L) , Positivesplash10-0uxs-9000000000-d768b92d45a58ec32ec7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-2900000000-6bbe33cf398e663af0fcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-550ee9efb3babd781bcaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-18e922c569242e2111e7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-f344fe84d76f2bf06f91View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-00fu-9000000000-6f90988f5d68f87b52d2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-00di-9400000000-99bc7f4db87479b4122aView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Fibroblasts
  • Muscle
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Spleen
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot Available
  • Not Applicable
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
UrineDetected and Quantified5.447 +/- 6.8 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
UrineDetected and Quantified10.4 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.7 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.7 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.1 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.4 (0.3-0.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
UrineDetected and Quantified10.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.1 umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
UrineDetected and Quantified1.585 +/- 1.123 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB008113
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID392248
KEGG Compound IDC01384
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMaleic acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00176
Metagene LinkHMDB00176
PubChem Compound444266
ChEBI ID18300
Synthesis ReferenceDethloff, Christian; Barbarino, Sergio. Process temperature optimization in the manufacture of maleic acid by the hydrolysis of maleic anhydride. Eur. Pat. Appl. (1998), 7 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
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  2. Kotikoski H, Oksala O, Vapaatalo H, Aine E: Aqueous humour flow after a single oral dose of isosorbide-5-mononitrate in healthy volunteers. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2003 Aug;81(4):355-60. [12859262 ]
  3. Herreras JM, Pastor JC, Calonge M, Asensio VM: Ocular surface alteration after long-term treatment with an antiglaucomatous drug. Ophthalmology. 1992 Jul;99(7):1082-8. [1495787 ]
  4. Klose T, Welzel PB, Werner C: Protein adsorption from flowing solutions on pure and maleic acid copolymer modified glass particles. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2006 Aug 1;51(1):1-9. Epub 2006 May 17. [16797943 ]
  5. Renner L, Pompe T, Salchert K, Werner C: Dynamic alterations of fibronectin layers on copolymer substrates with graded physicochemical characteristics. Langmuir. 2004 Mar 30;20(7):2928-33. [15835174 ]
  6. Gong Z, Lv Y, Huang Y, Zhang Z: Determination of ergometrine maleate by fluorescence detection. Luminescence. 2005 May-Jun;20(3):124-8. [15924314 ]
  7. Goes MF, Sinhoreti MA, Consani S, Silva MA: Morphological effect of the type, concentration and etching time of acid solutions on enamel and dentin surfaces. Braz Dent J. 1998;9(1):3-10. [9835798 ]
  8. Gallagher RM: Menstrual migraine and intermittent ergonovine therapy. Headache. 1989 Jun;29(6):366-7. [2759844 ]
  9. Seki T, Wakabayashi M, Nakagawa T, Imamura M, Tamai T, Nishimura A, Yamashiki N, Okamura A, Inoue K: Hepatic infarction following percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998 Nov;10(11):915-8. [9872612 ]
  10. Snider BJ, Moss JL, Revilla FJ, Lee CS, Wheeler VC, Macdonald ME, Choi DW: Neocortical neurons cultured from mice with expanded CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene: unaltered vulnerability to excitotoxins and other insults. Neuroscience. 2003;120(3):617-25. [12895502 ]
  11. Lavit M, Saivin S, Boudra H, Michel F, Martin A, Cahiez G, Labaune JP, Chomard JM, Houin G: Determination of trimebutine and desmethyl-trimebutine in human plasma by HPLC. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000 Jul;50(7):640-4. [10965422 ]
  12. Strasser G, Grabner G: The influence of long-term treatment with timolol on human tear lysozyme albumin content. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1982;218(2):93-5. [7075967 ]
  13. Glazunova OO, Korepanova EA, Efimov VS, Smirnov AI, Vladimirov YuA: A synthetic polycation, a copolymer of 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazole iodide with maleic acid diethyl ester, increases passive ionic permeability in erythrocyte membranes modified by fatty acids. Membr Cell Biol. 1998;12(3):401-9. [10024972 ]
  14. Yoshida H, Onda M, Tajiri T, Uchida E, Arima Y, Mamada Y, Yamamoto K, Kaneko M, Terada Y, Kumazaki T: Experience with intraarterial infusion of styrene maleic acid neocarzinostatin (SMANCS)-lipiodol in pancreatic cancer. Hepatogastroenterology. 1999 Jul-Aug;46(28):2612-5. [10522050 ]
  15. Benderli Y, Gokce K, Buyukgokcesu S: In vitro shear bond strength of adhesive to normal and fluoridated enamel under various contaminated conditions. Quintessence Int. 1999 Aug;30(8):570-5. [10635272 ]
  16. Liu Y, Yanai R, Lu Y, Hirano S, Sagara T, Nishida T: Effects of antiglaucoma drugs on collagen gel contraction mediated by human corneal fibroblasts. J Glaucoma. 2006 Jun;15(3):255-9. [16778650 ]
  17. Dorr J, Roth K, Zurbuchen U, Deisz R, Bechmann I, Lehmann TN, Meier S, Nitsch R, Zipp F: Tumor-necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing-ligand (TRAIL)-mediated death of neurons in living human brain tissue is inhibited by flupirtine-maleate. J Neuroimmunol. 2005 Oct;167(1-2):204-9. [16043230 ]
  18. Turcan RG, Hillbeck D, Hartley TE, Gilbert PJ, Coe RA, Troke JA, Vose CW: Disposition of [14C]velnacrine maleate in rats, dogs, and humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 1993 Nov-Dec;21(6):1037-47. [7905382 ]
  19. Chen CN, Huang GF, Guo MK, Lin CP: An in vitro study on restoring bond strength of a GIC to saliva contaminated enamel under unrinse condition. J Dent. 2002 Jul-Aug;30(5-6):189-94. [12450709 ]
  20. Daykin CA, Foxall PJ, Connor SC, Lindon JC, Nicholson JK: The comparison of plasma deproteinization methods for the detection of low-molecular-weight metabolites by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Anal Biochem. 2002 May 15;304(2):220-30. [12009699 ]