You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:08:02 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00181
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Dopa
DescriptionL-Dopa is the naturally occurring form of dihydroxyphenylalanine and the immediate precursor of dopamine. Unlike dopamine itself, L-Dopa can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to dopamine. In particular, it is metabolized to dopamine by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. Pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B6) is a required cofactor for this decarboxylation, and may be administered along with levodopa, usually as pyridoxine. L-Dopa is used for the treatment of Parkinsonian disorders and Dopa-Responsive Dystonia and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system. Peripheral tissue conversion may be the mechanism of the adverse effects of levodopa. It is standard clinical practice to co-administer a peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor - carbidopa or benserazide - and often a catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor, to prevent synthesis of dopamine in peripheral tissue.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (-)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
  2. (-)-Dopa
  3. (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoate
  4. (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
  5. 3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
  6. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine
  7. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
  8. 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
  9. 3-Hydroxy-L-tyrosine
  10. b-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-a-L-alanine
  11. b-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
  12. b-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
  13. Bendopa
  14. beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-alpha-L-alanine
  15. beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
  16. beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
  17. Cidandopa
  18. Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
  19. Dihydroxyphenylalanine
  20. Dopaflex
  21. Dopaidan
  22. Dopal
  23. Dopalina
  24. Dopar
  25. Doparkine
  26. Doparl
  27. Dopasol
  28. Dopaston
  29. Dopastone
  30. Dopastral
  31. Dopicar
  32. Doprin
  33. Eldopal
  34. Eldopar
  35. Eldopatec
  36. Eurodopa
  37. Helfo-dopa
  38. Insulamina
  39. L-(-)-Dopa
  40. L-3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-Alanine
  41. L-4-5-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
  42. L-b-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-a-alanine
  43. L-beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-alpha-alanine
  44. L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
  45. L-Dopa
  46. Laradopa
  47. Larodopa
  48. Ledopa
  49. Levedopa
  50. Levodopa
  51. Levopa
  52. Maipedopa
  53. Parda
  54. Pardopa
  55. Prodopa
  56. Syndopa
  57. Veldopa
  58. Weldopa
Chemical FormulaC9H11NO4
Average Molecular Weight197.1879
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight197.068807845
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Namelevodopa
CAS Registry Number59-92-7
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H11NO4/c10-6(9(13)14)3-5-1-2-7(11)8(12)4-5/h1-2,4,6,11-12H,3,10H2,(H,13,14)/t6-/m0/s1
InChI KeyWTDRDQBEARUVNC-LURJTMIESA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
ClassAmino Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds
  • Biogenic amines(KEGG)
  • Other amino acids(KEGG)
  • amino acid zwitterion(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diphenol
  • Amphetamine Or Derivative
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Catecholamine
  • Phenethylamine
  • Phenol
  • Phenol Derivative
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
Direct ParentAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Riboflavin metabolism
  • Component of Stilbene, coumarine and lignin biosynthesis
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point285 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility5.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.39SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.3 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.3ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.06ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area103.78ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity49.08ChemAxon
Polarizability19.02ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Intestine
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Striatum
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Catecholamine BiosynthesisSMP00012map00350
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006map00350
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00723 +/- 0.00097 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0035 +/- 0.0009 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified<0.025 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.02 (0.01-0.04) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.008 (0.0036-0.0138) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0136 +/- 0.0033 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified14.0 +/- 2.53 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified<0.001 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Malesepiapterin reductase deficiency details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed: 17031479
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB01235
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000567
KNApSAcK IDC00001357
Chemspider ID5824
KEGG Compound IDC00355
BioCyc IDL-DOPA
BiGG ID34719
Wikipedia LinkL-Dopa
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00181
Metagene LinkHMDB00181
METLIN ID42
PubChem Compound6047
PDB IDDAH
ChEBI ID15765
References
Synthesis ReferenceHaneda, Katsuji; Watanabe, Shiro; Takeda, Isao. Synthesis ofL-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine from L-tyrosine by microorganisms. Applied Microbiology (1971), 22(4), 721-2.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Kopin IJ: Sources and significance of plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jun;305(3):800-11. Epub 2003 Mar 20. Pubmed: 12649306
  2. Cools R: Dopaminergic modulation of cognitive function-implications for L-DOPA treatment in Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30(1):1-23. Epub 2005 Jun 1. Pubmed: 15935475
  3. de Jong AP, Kok RM, Cramers CA, Wadman SK, Haan E: A new method for the determination of L-dopa and 3-O-methyldopa in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid using gas chromatography and electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry. Clin Chim Acta. 1988 Jan 15;171(1):49-61. Pubmed: 3127089
  4. Dutton J, Copeland LG, Playfer JR, Roberts NB: Measuring L-dopa in plasma and urine to monitor therapy of elderly patients with Parkinson disease treated with L-dopa and a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor. Clin Chem. 1993 Apr;39(4):629-34. Pubmed: 8472357
  5. Mercuri NB, Bernardi G: The 'magic' of L-dopa: why is it the gold standard Parkinson's disease therapy? Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Jul;26(7):341-4. Pubmed: 15936832
  6. Goldstein DS, Hahn SH, Holmes C, Tifft C, Harvey-White J, Milstien S, Kaufman S: Monoaminergic effects of folinic acid, L-DOPA, and 5-hydroxytryptophan in dihydropteridine reductase deficiency. J Neurochem. 1995 Jun;64(6):2810-3. Pubmed: 7760062
  7. Kagedal B, Pettersson A: Liquid-chromatographic determination of 5-S-L-cysteinyl-L-dopa with electrochemical detection in urine prepurified with a phenylboronate affinity gel. Clin Chem. 1983 Dec;29(12):2031-4. Pubmed: 6416708
  8. Dousa MK, Weinshilboum RM, Muenter MD, Offord KP, Decker PA, Tyce GM: L-DOPA biotransformation: correlations of dosage, erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and platelet SULT1A3 activities with metabolic pathways in Parkinsonian patients. J Neural Transm. 2003 Aug;110(8):899-910. Pubmed: 12898345
  9. Di Stefano A, Mosciatti B, Cingolani GM, Giorgioni G, Ricciutelli M, Cacciatore I, Sozio P, Claudi F: Dimeric L-dopa derivatives as potential prodrugs. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001 Apr 23;11(8):1085-8. Pubmed: 11327596
  10. Tada K, Kudo T, Kishimoto Y: Effects of L-dopa or dopamine on human decidual prostaglandin synthesis. Acta Med Okayama. 1991 Oct;45(5):333-8. Pubmed: 1755339
  11. Crivellato E, Damiani D, Mallardi F: Comparison between the L-DOPA histofluorescence procedure and the indirect immunofluorescence with anti-T6 and -HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies in visualizing Langerhans cells of human epidermis. Acta Histochem. 1990;88(1):59-64. Pubmed: 2113342
  12. Michel H, Solere M, Granier P, Cauvet G, Bali JP, Pons F, Bellet-Hermann H: Treatment of cirrhotic hepatic encephalopathy with L-dopa. A controlled trial. Gastroenterology. 1980 Aug;79(2):207-11. Pubmed: 6995221
  13. Streifler M, Avrami E, Rabey JM: L-dopa and the secretion of sebum in Parkinsonian patients. Eur Neurol. 1980;19(1):43-8. Pubmed: 7371653
  14. Hyland K, Clayton PT: Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: diagnostic methodology. Clin Chem. 1992 Dec;38(12):2405-10. Pubmed: 1281049
  15. Vassiliou AG, Vassilacopoulou D, Fragoulis EG: Purification of an endogenous inhibitor of L-Dopa decarboxylase activity from human serum. Neurochem Res. 2005 May;30(5):641-9. Pubmed: 16176068
  16. Chalimoniuk M, Stepien A: Influence of the therapy with pergolide mesylate plus L-DOPA and with L-DOPA alone on serum cGMP level in PD patients. Pol J Pharmacol. 2004 Sep-Oct;56(5):647-50. Pubmed: 15591656
  17. Blandini F, Nappi G, Fancellu R, Mangiagalli A, Samuele A, Riboldazzi G, Calandrella D, Pacchetti C, Bono G, Martignoni E: Modifications of plasma and platelet levels of L-DOPA and its direct metabolites during treatment with tolcapone or entacapone in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm. 2003 Aug;110(8):911-22. Pubmed: 12898346
  18. Shen H, Kannari K, Yamato H, Arai A, Matsunaga M: Effects of benserazide on L-DOPA-derived extracellular dopamine levels and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity in the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2003 Mar;199(3):149-59. Pubmed: 12703659
  19. Kageyama T, Nakamura M, Matsuo A, Yamasaki Y, Takakura Y, Hashida M, Kanai Y, Naito M, Tsuruo T, Minato N, Shimohama S: The 4F2hc/LAT1 complex transports L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2000 Oct 6;879(1-2):115-21. Pubmed: 11011012
  20. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. Pubmed: 15200428

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Molecular weight:
60392.69
Reactions
L-Dopa + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + Waterdetails
L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → L-Dopa + Waterdetails
L-Dopa + L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + L-Dopa + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOPA, alpha-methyl DOPA and isoproterenol.
Gene Name:
COMT
Uniprot ID:
P21964
Molecular weight:
30036.77
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Plays an important role in the physiology of adrenergic neurons.
Gene Name:
TH
Uniprot ID:
P07101
Molecular weight:
55611.26
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + Oxygen → L-Dopa + 4a-Hydroxytetrahydrobiopterindetails
L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → L-Dopa + 4a-Carbinolamine tetrahydrobiopterin + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name:
DDC
Uniprot ID:
P20711
Molecular weight:
53893.755
Reactions
L-Dopa → Dopamine + CO(2)details
L-Dopa → Dopamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
References
  1. BIRKMAYER W, HORNYKIEWICZ O: [The L-3,4-dioxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-effect in Parkinson-akinesia]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1961 Nov 10;73:787-8. Pubmed: 13869404
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular weight:
50618.9
References
  1. Dupre KB, Eskow KL, Negron G, Bishop C: The differential effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation on dopamine receptor-mediated abnormal involuntary movements and rotations in the primed hemiparkinsonian rat. Brain Res. 2007 Jul 16;1158:135-43. Epub 2007 May 8. Pubmed: 17553470
  2. Mori A, Ohashi S, Nakai M, Moriizumi T, Mitsumoto Y: Neural mechanisms underlying motor dysfunction as detected by the tail suspension test in MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice. Neurosci Res. 2005 Mar;51(3):265-74. Epub 2005 Jan 8. Pubmed: 15710490
  3. Zappia M, Annesi G, Nicoletti G, Arabia G, Annesi F, Messina D, Pugliese P, Spadafora P, Tarantino P, Carrideo S, Civitelli D, De Marco EV, Ciro-Candiano IC, Gambardella A, Quattrone A: Sex differences in clinical and genetic determinants of levodopa peak-dose dyskinesias in Parkinson disease: an exploratory study. Arch Neurol. 2005 Apr;62(4):601-5. Pubmed: 15824260
  4. Kovoor A, Seyffarth P, Ebert J, Barghshoon S, Chen CK, Schwarz S, Axelrod JD, Cheyette BN, Simon MI, Lester HA, Schwarz J: D2 dopamine receptors colocalize regulator of G-protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) via the RGS9 DEP domain, and RGS9 knock-out mice develop dyskinesias associated with dopamine pathways. J Neurosci. 2005 Feb 23;25(8):2157-65. Pubmed: 15728856
  5. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. Pubmed: 18549347
  6. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. Pubmed: 11978145
  7. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. Pubmed: 9633680
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD4
Uniprot ID:
P21917
Molecular weight:
48359.9
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. Pubmed: 18549347
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. Pubmed: 11978145
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. Pubmed: 9633680
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters. Involved in sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan. Involved in guiding and targeting of LAT1 and LAT2 to the plasma membrane. When associated with SLC7A6 or SLC7A7 acts as an arginine/glutamine exchanger, following an antiport mechanism for amino acid transport, influencing arginine release in exchange for extracellular amino acids. Plays a role in nitric oxide synthesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via transport of L-arginine. Required for normal and neoplastic cell growth. When associated with SLC7A5/LAT1, is also involved in the transport of L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier, and that of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) across the cell membrane in tissues such as placenta. Involved in the uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) when administered as the L-cysteine or D,L-homocysteine complexes, and hence plays a role in metal ion homeostasis and toxicity. When associated with SLC7A5 or SLC7A8, involved in the cellular activity of small molecular weight nitrosothiols, via the stereoselective transport of L- nitrosocysteine (L-CNSO) across the transmembrane. Together with ICAM1, regulates the transport activity LAT2 in polarized intestinal cells, by generating and delivering intracellular signals. When associated with SLC7A5, plays an important role in transporting L-leucine from the circulating blood to the retina across the inner blood-retinal barrier
Gene Name:
SLC3A2
Uniprot ID:
P08195
Molecular weight:
67993.3
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation
Gene Name:
DRD3
Uniprot ID:
P35462
Molecular weight:
44224.3
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. Pubmed: 18549347
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. Pubmed: 11978145
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. Pubmed: 9633680
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular weight:
49292.8
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. Pubmed: 18549347
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. Pubmed: 11978145
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. Pubmed: 9633680
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD5
Uniprot ID:
P21918
Molecular weight:
52950.5
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. Pubmed: 18549347
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. Pubmed: 11978145
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. Pubmed: 9633680

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products
Gene Name:
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID:
P46059
Molecular weight:
78805.3
References
  1. Han HK, Rhie JK, Oh DM, Saito G, Hsu CP, Stewart BH, Amidon GL: CHO/hPEPT1 cells overexpressing the human peptide transporter (hPEPT1) as an alternative in vitro model for peptidomimetic drugs. J Pharm Sci. 1999 Mar;88(3):347-50. Pubmed: 10052994
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular weight:
55492.1
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. Pubmed: 11278508