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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:02:10 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00181
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Dopa
DescriptionL-Dopa is the naturally occurring form of dihydroxyphenylalanine and the immediate precursor of dopamine. Unlike dopamine itself, L-Dopa can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to dopamine. In particular, it is metabolized to dopamine by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. Pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B6) is a required cofactor for this decarboxylation, and may be administered along with levodopa, usually as pyridoxine. L-Dopa is used for the treatment of Parkinsonian disorders and Dopa-Responsive Dystonia and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system. Peripheral tissue conversion may be the mechanism of the adverse effects of levodopa. It is standard clinical practice to co-administer a peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor - carbidopa or benserazide - and often a catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor, to prevent synthesis of dopamine in peripheral tissue.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanineChEBI
(-)-DopaChEBI
3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanineChEBI
3,4-DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINEChEBI
3-Hydroxy-L-tyrosineChEBI
beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanineChEBI
beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanineChEBI
Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanineChEBI
DoparChEBI
L-beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanineChEBI
LevodopumChEBI
b-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanineGenerator
β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanineGenerator
b-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanineGenerator
β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanineGenerator
L-b-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanineGenerator
L-β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanineGenerator
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)propanoateHMDB
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acidHMDB
3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanineHMDB
3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanineHMDB
b-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-a-L-alanineHMDB
BendopaHMDB
beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-alpha-L-alanineHMDB
CidandopaHMDB
DihydroxyphenylalanineHMDB
DopaflexHMDB
DopaidanHMDB
DopalHMDB
DopalinaHMDB
DoparkineHMDB
DoparlHMDB
DopasolHMDB
DopastonHMDB
DopastoneHMDB
DopastralHMDB
DopicarHMDB
DoprinHMDB
EldopalHMDB
EldoparHMDB
EldopatecHMDB
EurodopaHMDB
helfo-DopaHMDB
InsulaminaHMDB
L-(-)-DopaHMDB
L-3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-alanineHMDB
L-4-5-DihydroxyphenylalanineHMDB
L-b-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-a-alanineHMDB
L-beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-alpha-alanineHMDB
L-DihydroxyphenylalanineHMDB
LaradopaHMDB
LarodopaHMDB
LedopaHMDB
LevedopaHMDB
LevopaHMDB
MaipedopaHMDB
PardaHMDB
PardopaHMDB
ProdopaHMDB
SyndopaHMDB
VeldopaHMDB
WeldopaHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H11NO4
Average Molecular Weight197.1879
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight197.068807845
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
Traditional Namelevodopa
CAS Registry Number59-92-7
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H11NO4/c10-6(9(13)14)3-5-1-2-7(11)8(12)4-5/h1-2,4,6,11-12H,3,10H2,(H,13,14)/t6-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=WTDRDQBEARUVNC-LURJTMIESA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as catecholamines and derivatives. These are compounds containing 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol [4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol] or a derivative thereof formed by substitution.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenols and derivatives
Direct ParentCatecholamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Catecholamine
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Riboflavin metabolism
  • Component of Stilbene, coumarine and lignin biosynthesis
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point285 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility5.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.39SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.3 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.3ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.06ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area103.78 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity49.08 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.91 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-014i-0790000000-b2f7f063a2c8197c7eddView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-014i-0690000000-622497b3104c6082a45dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-00xr-9350000000-b0cc4636931d2de64d81View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-014i-0590000000-4474e81e4226bb4e1d4cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0uea-0900000000-8eb71aa0cc8622f097a2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a59-2900000000-bf63b9b719959b82b543View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-056r-9300000000-a78b0b31dd33fe8479a7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0f6t-0911000000-15affa616923dfb9c45aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-22d8267801d0eb0b73c2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-2c310034a1a871502b4cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-5e6020c952f741531fcbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0007-0970100000-49594dae82ce73e734e6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-2183a68f58b951f3f1c7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-0030db588fbd92c5b761View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-0090000000-544615463a975baae9e4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0729111000-0a20b01f58fff8ad7ef0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-c8095a31ed4b3dbbc646View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0190000000-41515cba3a6929721859View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-8074c509ef5bae1129fcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0006-0502193020-497bfad7ba247159ca00View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-0b0d4b6dcb7f1fa24e1aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0029800000-05f40324c8c1fec7963aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0006-0000090000-c0cd80185ce47b30e5feView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-df116b84981cf4a1371aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-0f6t-0900000000-1c1c39a8880442ea18dfView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Intestine
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Striatum
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
AlkaptonuriaSMP00169Not Available
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencySMP00170Not Available
Catecholamine BiosynthesisSMP00012map00350
Disulfiram PathwaySMP00429Not Available
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencySMP00498Not Available
HawkinsinuriaSMP00190Not Available
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)SMP00533Not Available
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencySMP00497Not Available
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006map00350
Tyrosinemia Type ISMP00218Not Available
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornSMP00494Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00723 +/- 0.00097 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0035 +/- 0.0009 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified<0.025 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0833 +/- 0.0238 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.02 (0.01-0.04) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.008 (0.0036-0.0138) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0136 +/- 0.0033 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified14.0 +/- 2.53 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified<0.001 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Malesepiapterin reductase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.094 +/- 0.0546 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.1135 +/- 0.1355 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [17031479 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB01235
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000567
KNApSAcK IDC00001357
Chemspider ID5824
KEGG Compound IDC00355
BioCyc IDL-DOPA
BiGG ID34719
Wikipedia LinkL-Dopa
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00181
Metagene LinkHMDB00181
METLIN ID42
PubChem Compound6047
PDB IDDAH
ChEBI ID15765
References
Synthesis ReferenceHaneda, Katsuji; Watanabe, Shiro; Takeda, Isao. Synthesis ofL-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine from L-tyrosine by microorganisms. Applied Microbiology (1971), 22(4), 721-2.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Kopin IJ: Sources and significance of plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jun;305(3):800-11. Epub 2003 Mar 20. [12649306 ]
  2. Cools R: Dopaminergic modulation of cognitive function-implications for L-DOPA treatment in Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30(1):1-23. Epub 2005 Jun 1. [15935475 ]
  3. de Jong AP, Kok RM, Cramers CA, Wadman SK, Haan E: A new method for the determination of L-dopa and 3-O-methyldopa in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid using gas chromatography and electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry. Clin Chim Acta. 1988 Jan 15;171(1):49-61. [3127089 ]
  4. Dutton J, Copeland LG, Playfer JR, Roberts NB: Measuring L-dopa in plasma and urine to monitor therapy of elderly patients with Parkinson disease treated with L-dopa and a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor. Clin Chem. 1993 Apr;39(4):629-34. [8472357 ]
  5. Mercuri NB, Bernardi G: The 'magic' of L-dopa: why is it the gold standard Parkinson's disease therapy? Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Jul;26(7):341-4. [15936832 ]
  6. Goldstein DS, Hahn SH, Holmes C, Tifft C, Harvey-White J, Milstien S, Kaufman S: Monoaminergic effects of folinic acid, L-DOPA, and 5-hydroxytryptophan in dihydropteridine reductase deficiency. J Neurochem. 1995 Jun;64(6):2810-3. [7760062 ]
  7. Kagedal B, Pettersson A: Liquid-chromatographic determination of 5-S-L-cysteinyl-L-dopa with electrochemical detection in urine prepurified with a phenylboronate affinity gel. Clin Chem. 1983 Dec;29(12):2031-4. [6416708 ]
  8. Dousa MK, Weinshilboum RM, Muenter MD, Offord KP, Decker PA, Tyce GM: L-DOPA biotransformation: correlations of dosage, erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and platelet SULT1A3 activities with metabolic pathways in Parkinsonian patients. J Neural Transm. 2003 Aug;110(8):899-910. [12898345 ]
  9. Di Stefano A, Mosciatti B, Cingolani GM, Giorgioni G, Ricciutelli M, Cacciatore I, Sozio P, Claudi F: Dimeric L-dopa derivatives as potential prodrugs. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001 Apr 23;11(8):1085-8. [11327596 ]
  10. Tada K, Kudo T, Kishimoto Y: Effects of L-dopa or dopamine on human decidual prostaglandin synthesis. Acta Med Okayama. 1991 Oct;45(5):333-8. [1755339 ]
  11. Crivellato E, Damiani D, Mallardi F: Comparison between the L-DOPA histofluorescence procedure and the indirect immunofluorescence with anti-T6 and -HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies in visualizing Langerhans cells of human epidermis. Acta Histochem. 1990;88(1):59-64. [2113342 ]
  12. Michel H, Solere M, Granier P, Cauvet G, Bali JP, Pons F, Bellet-Hermann H: Treatment of cirrhotic hepatic encephalopathy with L-dopa. A controlled trial. Gastroenterology. 1980 Aug;79(2):207-11. [6995221 ]
  13. Streifler M, Avrami E, Rabey JM: L-dopa and the secretion of sebum in Parkinsonian patients. Eur Neurol. 1980;19(1):43-8. [7371653 ]
  14. Hyland K, Clayton PT: Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: diagnostic methodology. Clin Chem. 1992 Dec;38(12):2405-10. [1281049 ]
  15. Vassiliou AG, Vassilacopoulou D, Fragoulis EG: Purification of an endogenous inhibitor of L-Dopa decarboxylase activity from human serum. Neurochem Res. 2005 May;30(5):641-9. [16176068 ]
  16. Chalimoniuk M, Stepien A: Influence of the therapy with pergolide mesylate plus L-DOPA and with L-DOPA alone on serum cGMP level in PD patients. Pol J Pharmacol. 2004 Sep-Oct;56(5):647-50. [15591656 ]
  17. Blandini F, Nappi G, Fancellu R, Mangiagalli A, Samuele A, Riboldazzi G, Calandrella D, Pacchetti C, Bono G, Martignoni E: Modifications of plasma and platelet levels of L-DOPA and its direct metabolites during treatment with tolcapone or entacapone in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm. 2003 Aug;110(8):911-22. [12898346 ]
  18. Shen H, Kannari K, Yamato H, Arai A, Matsunaga M: Effects of benserazide on L-DOPA-derived extracellular dopamine levels and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity in the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2003 Mar;199(3):149-59. [12703659 ]
  19. Kageyama T, Nakamura M, Matsuo A, Yamasaki Y, Takakura Y, Hashida M, Kanai Y, Naito M, Tsuruo T, Minato N, Shimohama S: The 4F2hc/LAT1 complex transports L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2000 Oct 6;879(1-2):115-21. [11011012 ]
  20. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. [15200428 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Molecular weight:
60392.69
Reactions
L-Dopa + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + Waterdetails
L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → L-Dopa + Waterdetails
L-Dopa + L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + L-Dopa + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOPA, alpha-methyl DOPA and isoproterenol.
Gene Name:
COMT
Uniprot ID:
P21964
Molecular weight:
30036.77
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Plays an important role in the physiology of adrenergic neurons.
Gene Name:
TH
Uniprot ID:
P07101
Molecular weight:
55611.26
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + Oxygen → L-Dopa + 4a-Hydroxytetrahydrobiopterindetails
L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → L-Dopa + 4a-Carbinolamine tetrahydrobiopterin + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name:
DDC
Uniprot ID:
P20711
Molecular weight:
53893.755
Reactions
L-Dopa → Dopamine + CO(2)details
L-Dopa → Dopamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
References
  1. BIRKMAYER W, HORNYKIEWICZ O: [The L-3,4-dioxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-effect in Parkinson-akinesia]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1961 Nov 10;73:787-8. [13869404 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular weight:
50618.9
References
  1. Dupre KB, Eskow KL, Negron G, Bishop C: The differential effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation on dopamine receptor-mediated abnormal involuntary movements and rotations in the primed hemiparkinsonian rat. Brain Res. 2007 Jul 16;1158:135-43. Epub 2007 May 8. [17553470 ]
  2. Mori A, Ohashi S, Nakai M, Moriizumi T, Mitsumoto Y: Neural mechanisms underlying motor dysfunction as detected by the tail suspension test in MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice. Neurosci Res. 2005 Mar;51(3):265-74. Epub 2005 Jan 8. [15710490 ]
  3. Zappia M, Annesi G, Nicoletti G, Arabia G, Annesi F, Messina D, Pugliese P, Spadafora P, Tarantino P, Carrideo S, Civitelli D, De Marco EV, Ciro-Candiano IC, Gambardella A, Quattrone A: Sex differences in clinical and genetic determinants of levodopa peak-dose dyskinesias in Parkinson disease: an exploratory study. Arch Neurol. 2005 Apr;62(4):601-5. [15824260 ]
  4. Kovoor A, Seyffarth P, Ebert J, Barghshoon S, Chen CK, Schwarz S, Axelrod JD, Cheyette BN, Simon MI, Lester HA, Schwarz J: D2 dopamine receptors colocalize regulator of G-protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) via the RGS9 DEP domain, and RGS9 knock-out mice develop dyskinesias associated with dopamine pathways. J Neurosci. 2005 Feb 23;25(8):2157-65. [15728856 ]
  5. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. [18549347 ]
  6. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [11978145 ]
  7. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [9633680 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD4
Uniprot ID:
P21917
Molecular weight:
48359.9
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. [18549347 ]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [11978145 ]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [9633680 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters. Involved in sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan. Involved in guiding and targeting of LAT1 and LAT2 to the plasma membrane. When associated with SLC7A6 or SLC7A7 acts as an arginine/glutamine exchanger, following an antiport mechanism for amino acid transport, influencing arginine release in exchange for extracellular amino acids. Plays a role in nitric oxide synthesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via transport of L-arginine. Required for normal and neoplastic cell growth. When associated with SLC7A5/LAT1, is also involved in the transport of L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier, and that of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) across the cell membrane in tissues such as placenta. Involved in the uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) when administered as the L-cysteine or D,L-homocysteine complexes, and hence plays a role in metal ion homeostasis and toxicity. When associated with SLC7A5 or SLC7A8, involved in the cellular activity of small molecular weight nitrosothiols, via the stereoselective transport of L- nitrosocysteine (L-CNSO) across the transmembrane. Together with ICAM1, regulates the transport activity LAT2 in polarized intestinal cells, by generating and delivering intracellular signals. When associated with SLC7A5, plays an important role in transporting L-leucine from the circulating blood to the retina across the inner blood-retinal barrier
Gene Name:
SLC3A2
Uniprot ID:
P08195
Molecular weight:
67993.3
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation
Gene Name:
DRD3
Uniprot ID:
P35462
Molecular weight:
44224.3
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. [18549347 ]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [11978145 ]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [9633680 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular weight:
49292.8
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. [18549347 ]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [11978145 ]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [9633680 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD5
Uniprot ID:
P21918
Molecular weight:
52950.5
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. [18549347 ]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [11978145 ]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [9633680 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products
Gene Name:
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID:
P46059
Molecular weight:
78805.3
References
  1. Han HK, Rhie JK, Oh DM, Saito G, Hsu CP, Stewart BH, Amidon GL: CHO/hPEPT1 cells overexpressing the human peptide transporter (hPEPT1) as an alternative in vitro model for peptidomimetic drugs. J Pharm Sci. 1999 Mar;88(3):347-50. [10052994 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular weight:
55492.1
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [11278508 ]