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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:24:58 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00189
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameInosine triphosphate
DescriptionInosine triphosphate (ITP) is an intermediate in the purine metabolism pathway. Relatively high levels of ITP in red cells are found in individuals as result of deficiency of inosine triphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.56, ITPase) ITPase is a cytosolic nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase specific for ITP catalysis to inosine monophosphate (IMP) and deoxy-inosine triphosphate (dITP) to deoxy-inosine monophosphate. ITPase deficiency is not associated with any defined pathology other than the characteristic and abnormal accumulation of ITP in red blood cells. Nevertheless, ITPase deficiency may have pharmacogenomic implications, and the abnormal metabolism of 6-mercaptopurine in ITPase-deficient patients may lead to thiopurine drug toxicity. ITPase's function is not clearly understood but possible roles for ITPase could be to prevent the accumulation of rogue nucleotides which would be otherwise incorporated into DNA and RNA, or compete with nucleotides such as GTP in signalling processes. (PMID : 170291, 1204209, 17113761, 17924837).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 2'-Inosine-5'-triphosphate
  2. 5'-ITP
  3. 5-ITP
  4. Inosine 5
  5. Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate)
  6. Inosine 5'-triphosphate
  7. Inosine 5(tetrahydrogen triphosphate)
  8. Inosine 5-triphopshate
  9. Inosine triphosphate
  10. Inosine tripolyphosphate
  11. ITP
  12. ITT
Chemical FormulaC10H15N4O14P3
Average Molecular Weight508.1658
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight507.979760744
IUPAC Name({[({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(6-hydroxy-9H-purin-9-yl)oxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)phosphonic acid
Traditional Name({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(6-hydroxypurin-9-yl)oxolan-2-yl]methoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxyphosphonic acid
CAS Registry Number132-06-9
SMILES
O[C@@H]1[C@@H](COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OP(O)(O)=O)O[C@H]([C@@H]1O)N1C=NC2=C1N=CN=C2O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H15N4O14P3/c15-6-4(1-25-30(21,22)28-31(23,24)27-29(18,19)20)26-10(7(6)16)14-3-13-5-8(14)11-2-12-9(5)17/h2-4,6-7,10,15-16H,1H2,(H,21,22)(H,23,24)(H,11,12,17)(H2,18,19,20)/t4-,6-,7-,10-/m1/s1
InChI KeyHAEJPQIATWHALX-KQYNXXCUSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, Nucleotides, and Analogues
ClassPurine Nucleotides
Sub ClassPurine Ribonucleotides
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
  • inosine phosphate(ChEBI)
  • purine ribonucleoside 5'-triphosphate(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • 1 Phosphoribosyl Imidazole
  • Glycosyl Compound
  • Hypoxanthine
  • Imidazole
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Monosaccharide Phosphate
  • N Glycosyl Compound
  • Organic Hypophosphite
  • Organic Phosphite
  • Organic Pyrophosphate
  • Oxolane
  • Pentose Monosaccharide
  • Phosphoric Acid Ester
  • Purine
  • Pyrimidine
  • Saccharide
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentPurine Ribonucleoside Triphosphates
Ontology
StatusExpected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility903.5 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.78 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.67ALOGPS
logP-4.4ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.93ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.17ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count14ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count7ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area273.34ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity93.09ChemAxon
Polarizability38.01ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS/MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Erythrocyte
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021902
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID8265
KEGG Compound IDC00081
BioCyc IDITP
BiGG ID33780
Wikipedia LinkITP
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00189
Metagene LinkHMDB00189
METLIN ID5204
PubChem Compound8583
PDB IDITT
ChEBI ID16039
References
Synthesis ReferenceNakayama, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Haruo. Fermentative preparation of inosine di- and triphosphate. Jpn. Tokkyo Koho (1972), 2 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Lin S, McLennan AG, Ying K, Wang Z, Gu S, Jin H, Wu C, Liu W, Yuan Y, Tang R, Xie Y, Mao Y: Cloning, expression, and characterization of a human inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase encoded by the itpa gene. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jun 1;276(22):18695-701. Epub 2001 Mar 13. Pubmed: 11278832
  2. Sumi S, Marinaki AM, Arenas M, Fairbanks L, Shobowale-Bakre M, Rees DC, Thein SL, Ansari A, Sanderson J, De Abreu RA, Simmonds HA, Duley JA: Genetic basis of inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase deficiency. Hum Genet. 2002 Oct;111(4-5):360-7. Epub 2002 Aug 15. Pubmed: 12384777
  3. Zachara B, Kopff M: Activity of inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase in fresh and stored human erythrocytes. Haematologia (Budap). 1981;14(3):277-83. Pubmed: 6120123
  4. Vormittag W, Brannath W: As to the clastogenic-, sister-chromatid exchange inducing-and cytotoxic activity of inosine triphosphate in cultures of human peripheral lymphocytes. Mutat Res. 2001 May 9;476(1-2):71-81. Pubmed: 11336985
  5. Dutta TK, Goel A, Ghotekar LH, Hamide A, Badhe BA, Basu D: Dapsone in treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001 Apr;49:421-5. Pubmed: 11762611
  6. Soder C, Henderson JF, Zombor G, McCoy EE, Verhoef V, Morris AJ: Relationships between nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase activity and inosine triphosphate accumulation in human erythrocytes. Can J Biochem. 1976 Oct;54(10):843-7. Pubmed: 990987
  7. Henderson JF, Zombor G, Fraser JH, McCoy EE, Verhoef V, Morris AJ: Factors affecting inosinate synthesis and inosine triphosphate accumulation in human erythrocytes. Can J Biochem. 1977 Apr;55(4):359-64. Pubmed: 15708
  8. Klinker JF, Seifert R: Functionally nonequivalent interactions of guanosine 5'-triphosphate, inosine 5'-triphosphate, and xanthosine 5'-triphosphate with the retinal G-protein, transducin, and with Gi-proteins in HL-60 leukemia cell membranes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Sep 1;54(5):551-62. Pubmed: 9337071
  9. Zachara B, Lewandowski J: Isolation and identification of inosine triphosphate from human erythrocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1974 Jun 27;353(2):253-9. Pubmed: 4842021
  10. Mikami T, Yoshino Y, Ito A: Does a relationship exist between the urate pool in the body and lipid peroxidation during exercise? Free Radic Res. 2000 Jan;32(1):31-9. Pubmed: 10625215
  11. Kopff M, Zachara B, Klem J, Zakrzewska I: [Accumulation of inosine triphosphate in human erythrocytes as a function of ITP-pyrophosphohydrolase activity] Acta Haematol Pol. 1983 Jul-Dec;14(3-4):165-71. Pubmed: 6147059
  12. Fraser JH, Meyers H, Henderson JF, Brox LW, McCoy EE: Individual variation in inosine triphosphate accumulation in human erythrocytes. Clin Biochem. 1975 Dec;8(6):353-64. Pubmed: 1204209

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
In the nervous system, could hydrolyze ATP and other nucleotides to regulate purinergic neurotransmission. Could also be implicated in the prevention of platelet aggregation by hydrolyzing platelet-activating ADP to AMP. Hydrolyzes ATP and ADP equally well.
Gene Name:
ENTPD1
Uniprot ID:
P49961
Molecular weight:
58706.0
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + Water → IDP + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Calcium-dependent nucleotidase with a preference for UDP. The order of activity with different substrates is UDP > GDP > UTP > GTP. Has very low activity towards ADP and even lower activity towards ATP. Does not hydrolyze AMP and GMP. Involved in proteoglycan synthesis.
Gene Name:
CANT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8WVQ1
Molecular weight:
44839.24
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Has a threefold preference for the hydrolysis of ATP over ADP.
Gene Name:
ENTPD3
Uniprot ID:
O75355
Molecular weight:
59104.76
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + Water → IDP + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Phosphorylates uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate and cytidine monophosphate. Does not phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides or purine ribonucleosides. Can use ATP or GTP as a phosphate donor. Can also phosphorylate cytidine and uridine nucleoside analogs such as 6-azauridine, 5-fluorouridine, 4-thiouridine, 5-bromouridine, N(4)-acetylcytidine, N(4)-benzoylcytidine, 5-fluorocytidine, 2-thiocytidine, 5-methylcytidine, and N(4)-anisoylcytidine.
Gene Name:
UCK1
Uniprot ID:
Q9HA47
Molecular weight:
22760.43
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + Cytidine → IDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Inosine triphosphate + Uridine → IDP + Uridine 5'-monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NME4
Uniprot ID:
O00746
Molecular weight:
20658.45
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + IDP → ADP + Inosine triphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. Possesses nucleoside-diphosphate kinase, serine/threonine-specific protein kinase, geranyl and farnesyl pyrophosphate kinase, histidine protein kinase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. Involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and development, signal transduction, G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis, and gene expression. Required for neural development including neural patterning and cell fate determination.
Gene Name:
NME1
Uniprot ID:
P15531
Molecular weight:
17148.635
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + IDP → ADP + Inosine triphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-site intermediate.
Gene Name:
NME7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5B8
Molecular weight:
42491.365
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + IDP → ADP + Inosine triphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. Negatively regulates Rho activity by interacting with AKAP13/LBC. Acts as a transcriptional activator of the MYC gene; binds DNA non-specifically (PubMed:8392752). Exhibits histidine protein kinase activity.
Gene Name:
NME2
Uniprot ID:
P22392
Molecular weight:
30136.92
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + IDP → ADP + Inosine triphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-site intermediate. Probably has a role in normal hematopoiesis by inhibition of granulocyte differentiation and induction of apoptosis.
Gene Name:
NME3
Uniprot ID:
Q13232
Molecular weight:
19014.85
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + IDP → ADP + Inosine triphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-site intermediate. Inhibitor of p53-induced apoptosis.
Gene Name:
NME6
Uniprot ID:
O75414
Molecular weight:
22002.965
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + IDP → ADP + Inosine triphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial step in utilization of glucose by the beta-cell and liver at physiological glucose concentration. Glucokinase has a high Km for glucose, and so it is effective only when glucose is abundant. The role of GCK is to provide G6P for the synthesis of glycogen. Pancreatic glucokinase plays an important role in modulating insulin secretion. Hepatic glucokinase helps to facilitate the uptake and conversion of glucose by acting as an insulin-sensitive determinant of hepatic glucose usage.
Gene Name:
GCK
Uniprot ID:
P35557
Molecular weight:
52191.07
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK3
Uniprot ID:
P52790
Molecular weight:
99024.56
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK2
Uniprot ID:
P52789
Molecular weight:
102379.06
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes the non-canonical purine nucleotides inosine triphosphate (ITP), deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) as well as 2'-deoxy-N-6-hydroxylaminopurine triposphate (dHAPTP) and xanthosine 5'-triphosphate (XTP) to their respective monophosphate derivatives. The enzyme does not distinguish between the deoxy- and ribose forms. Probably excludes non-canonical purines from RNA and DNA precursor pools, thus preventing their incorporation into RNA and DNA and avoiding chromosomal lesions.
Gene Name:
ITPA
Uniprot ID:
Q9BY32
Molecular weight:
16833.23
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + Water → Inosinic acid + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in 6-phosphofructokinase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the third step of glycolysis, the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) by ATP to generate fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and ADP.
Gene Name:
PFKP
Uniprot ID:
Q01813
Molecular weight:
85595.405
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + D-Tagatose 6-phosphate → IDP + D-Tagatose 1,6-bisphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in 6-phosphofructokinase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the third step of glycolysis, the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) by ATP to generate fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and ADP.
Gene Name:
PFKL
Uniprot ID:
P17858
Molecular weight:
85017.825
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + D-Tagatose 6-phosphate → IDP + D-Tagatose 1,6-bisphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in 6-phosphofructokinase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the third step of glycolysis, the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) by ATP to generate fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and ADP.
Gene Name:
PFKM
Uniprot ID:
P08237
Molecular weight:
85181.925
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + D-Tagatose 6-phosphate → IDP + D-Tagatose 1,6-bisphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general role in caspase independent cell death of tumor cells. The ratio betwween the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic ATP production. The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for tumor cell proliferation and survival.
Gene Name:
PKM
Uniprot ID:
P14618
Molecular weight:
65930.14
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Plays a key role in glycolysis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PKLR
Uniprot ID:
P30613
Molecular weight:
61829.575
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP- or GTP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA. The nature of the beta subunit determines the nucleotide specificity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SUCLG1
Uniprot ID:
P53597
Molecular weight:
36249.505
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + Succinic acid + Coenzyme A → IDP + Phosphoric acid + Succinyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the rate-limiting step in the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from lactate and other precursors derived from the citric acid cycle (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PCK2
Uniprot ID:
Q16822
Molecular weight:
47563.34
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + Oxalacetic acid → IDP + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the GTP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SUCLG2
Uniprot ID:
Q96I99
Molecular weight:
47731.605
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + Succinic acid + Coenzyme A → IDP + Phosphoric acid + Succinyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the rate-limiting step in the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from lactate and other precursors derived from the citric acid cycle.
Gene Name:
PCK1
Uniprot ID:
P35558
Molecular weight:
69193.975
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + Oxalacetic acid → IDP + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SUCLA2
Uniprot ID:
Q9P2R7
Molecular weight:
50316.88
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + Succinic acid + Coenzyme A → IDP + Phosphoric acid + Succinyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Phosphorylates uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate and cytidine monophosphate. Does not phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides or purine ribonucleosides. Can use ATP or GTP as a phosphate donor. Can also phosphorylate cytidine and uridine nucleoside analogs such as 6-azauridine, 5-fluorouridine, 4-thiouridine, 5-bromouridine, N(4)-acetylcytidine, N(4)-benzoylcytidine, 5-fluorocytidine, 2-thiocytidine, 5-methylcytidine, and N(4)-anisoylcytidine.
Gene Name:
UCK2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZX2
Molecular weight:
29298.92
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + Cytidine → IDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Inosine triphosphate + Uridine → IDP + Uridine 5'-monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May contribute to UTP accumulation needed for blast transformation and proliferation.
Gene Name:
UCKL1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NWZ5
Molecular weight:
59465.77
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + Cytidine → IDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Inosine triphosphate + Uridine → IDP + Uridine 5'-monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Canalicular ectonucleoside NTPDase responsible for the main hepatic NTPDase activity. Ectonucleoside NTPDases catalyze the hydrolysis of gamma- and beta-phosphate residues of nucleotides, playing a central role in concentration of extracellular nucleotides. Has activity toward ATP, ADP, UTP and UDP, but not toward AMP.
Gene Name:
ENTPD8
Uniprot ID:
Q5MY95
Molecular weight:
53903.14
Reactions
Inosine triphosphate + Water → IDP + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Does not seem to have NDK kinase activity. Confers protection from cell death by Bax and alters the cellular levels of several antioxidant enzymes including Gpx5. May play a role in spermiogenesis by increasing the ability of late-stage spermatids to eliminate reactive oxygen species (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NME5
Uniprot ID:
P56597
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + IDP → ADP + Inosine triphosphatedetails