You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version4.0
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-09-27 07:08:04 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000190
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00190
  • HMDB03328
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Lactic acid
DescriptionLactic acid plays a role in several biochemical processes and is produced in the muscles during intense activity. Lactate measurement in the critically ill has been traditionally used to stratify patients with poor outcome. However, plasma lactate levels are the result of a finely tuned interplay of factors that affect the balance between its production and its clearance. When the oxygen supply does not match its consumption, organisms such as man who are forced to produce ATP for their integrity adapt in many different ways up to the point when energy failure occurs. Lactate, being part of the adaptive response, may then be used to assess the severity of the supply/demand imbalance. In such a scenario, the time to intervention becomes relevant: early and effective treatment may allow the cell to revert to a normal state, as long as the oxygen machinery (i.e. mitochondria) is intact. Conversely, once the mitochondria are deranged, energy failure occurs even in the presence of normoxia. The lactate increase in critically ill patients may therefore be viewed as an early marker of a potentially reversible state. (PMID 16356243 ) A number of studies have demonstrated that malignant transformation is associated with an increase in glycolytic flux and in anaerobic and aerobic cellular lactate excretion. Using quantitative bioluminescence imaging in various primary carcinomas in patients (uterine cervix, head and neck, colorectal region) at first diagnosis of the disease, lactate concentrations in tumors in vivo could be relatively low or extremely high (up to 40 micromol/g) in different individual tumors or within the same lesion. In all tumor entities investigated, high molar concentrations of lactate were correlated with a high incidence of distant metastasis already in an early stage of the disease. Low lactate tumors (< median of approximately 8 micromol/g) were associated with both a longer overall and disease free survival compared to high lactate lesions (lactate > approximately 8 micromol/g). Lactate dehydrogenase was found to be upregulated in most of these tumors compared to surrounding normal tissue. (PMID 15279558 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(+)-Lactic acidChEBI
(S)-(+)-Lactic acidChEBI
(S)-2-Hydroxypropanoic acidChEBI
(S)-2-Hydroxypropionic acidChEBI
L-(+)-alpha-Hydroxypropionic acidChEBI
L-(+)-Lactic acidChEBI
L-MilchsaeureChEBI
(+)-LactateGenerator
L-LactateGenerator
(S)-(+)-LactateGenerator
(S)-2-HydroxypropanoateGenerator
(S)-2-HydroxypropionateGenerator
L-(+)-a-HydroxypropionateGenerator
L-(+)-a-Hydroxypropionic acidGenerator
L-(+)-alpha-HydroxypropionateGenerator
L-(+)-α-hydroxypropionateGenerator
L-(+)-α-hydroxypropionic acidGenerator
L-(+)-LactateGenerator
(alpha)-LactateHMDB
(alpha)-Lactic acidHMDB
(S)-(+)-2-HydroxypropanoateHMDB
(S)-(+)-2-Hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
(S)-2-Hydroxy-propanoateHMDB
(S)-2-Hydroxy-propanoic acidHMDB
(S)-LactateHMDB
(S)-Lactic acidHMDB
1-Hydroxyethane 1-carboxylateHMDB
1-Hydroxyethane 1-carboxylic acidHMDB
1-HydroxyethanecarboxylateHMDB
1-Hydroxyethanecarboxylic acidHMDB
2-HydroxypropanoateHMDB
2-Hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
2-HydroxypropionateHMDB
a-HydroxypropanoateHMDB
a-Hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
a-HydroxypropionateHMDB
a-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
alpha-HydroxypropanoateHMDB
alpha-Hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
alpha-HydroxypropionateHMDB
alpha-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
L-(+)- Lactic acidHMDB
L-2-HydroxypropanoateHMDB
L-2-Hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
LactateHMDB
Lactic acidHMDB
Milk acidHMDB
Sarcolactic acidHMDB
2-Hydroxypropionic acidMeSH
D-Lactic acidMeSH
D Lactic acidMeSH
Lactate, ammoniumMeSH
2 Hydroxypropanoic acidMeSH
2 Hydroxypropionic acidMeSH
Ammonium lactateMeSH
L Lactic acidMeSH
Chemical FormulaC3H6O3
Average Molecular Weight90.0779
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight90.031694058
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
Traditional Name(α)-lactate
CAS Registry Number79-33-4
SMILES
C[C@H](O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H6O3/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h2,4H,1H3,(H,5,6)/t2-/m0/s1
InChI KeyJVTAAEKCZFNVCJ-REOHCLBHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as alpha hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassHydroxy acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAlpha hydroxy acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Health condition:

    Psychiatric disorders:

    Metabolism and nutrition disorders:

Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Tissue and substructures:

Source:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Biochemical pathway:

Role

Indirect biological role:

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point16.8 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility562 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.79ALOGPS
logP-0.47ChemAxon
logS0.79ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity18.84 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.06 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0900000000-fb59ec16914501aa19abView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014j-0900000000-c4d9e12b4b0150eda54bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0900000000-fb59ec16914501aa19abView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-a3691f383d440fb00e1fView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01b9-9620000000-f7faa7db9c1be3d9d975View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-1d5a5f55463acefb6fc7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000m-9000000000-c07133799d8f43d4c75aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-ddb080250741e69ab137View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-8f5d5eddb0b4b2a3b541View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-3bcfc4cdc49230f15642View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-48b511409f4f60cec04eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-365ea3c1bcfff2cab938View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-9d0238aeeb837213e81dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-8f5d5eddb0b4b2a3b541View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-3bcfc4cdc49230f15642View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-48b511409f4f60cec04eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-365ea3c1bcfff2cab938View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-9d0238aeeb837213e81dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-006x-9000000000-5f417f4a6d08f0ab00edView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dm-9000000000-df7a94bb1a9cf6e78e1aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004j-9000000000-dc2a1b965287b9dfee9cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-c3686a681cc9bbf039e1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-ddad20647c2ac56efd22View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-b728b45617afcc6b67daView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-002b-9000000000-50213d6b39ef9741c466View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Bile
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiencyPw000538Pw000538 greyscalePw000538 simpleNot Available
GluconeogenesisPw000152Pw000152 greyscalePw000152 simpleMap00010
Glutaminolysis and CancerPw002366Pw002366 greyscalePw002366 simpleNot Available
Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1A (GSD1A) or Von Gierke DiseasePw000205Pw000205 greyscalePw000205 simpleNot Available
Glycogenosis, Type IA. Von gierke diseasePw000557Pw000557 greyscalePw000557 simpleNot Available
Displaying entries 1 - 5 of 16 in total
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified740.0 +/- 2400.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2390.0 +/- 990.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1140.0 +/- 360.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1510.0 (740.0-2400.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2976.0 +/- 1555.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified740.00-2400.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified6400.0 +/- 2000.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1236.0 (367.0-3245.0) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1489.4 +/- 371.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified69.6 +/- 41.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified3200 (2900-3500) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified1100 (600-1600) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1651 +/- 626 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1590.0 +/- 330.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified850.0 +/- 400.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2240.0 +/- 600.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified850.0 (450.0-2100.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified3000.0 (1850.0-4150.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1770.0 (930.0-2600.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified3.64 (2.19–5.09) ppmInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified4.61 (0–9.47) ppmInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified5.32 (2.79–7.85) ppmInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not AvailableNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified331 (17-2795) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified214 (8-826) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified228 (29-1336) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified624 (21-18855) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified451 (113-8585) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified244 (64-1480) uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified511 +/- 612 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified622 +/- 625 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified96.4 +/- 68.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified4210 +/- 10430 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified20310 +/- 29930 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified14010 +/- 20350 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified4950 +/- 9300 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified5450 +/- 10940 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified159 +/- 71.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified4840 +/- 10270 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3550 +/- 7790 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified227 +/- 132 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified231 +/- 112 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified262 +/- 280 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified526.98 +/- 689.57 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified655.86 +/- 393.26 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SweatDetected and Quantified34000-235000 uMAdult (60 years old)Male
Normal
details
SweatDetected and Quantified< 10 uMAdult (40 years old)Male
Normal
details
SweatDetected but not Quantified Adult BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified50.73 +/- 53.54 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified25.194 +/- 11.831 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified13 (0-78) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.2 +/- 47.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNot Available details
UrineDetected and Quantified50.73 +/- 53.54 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified33.32-444.29 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.6-11 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified33.4 +/- 19.27 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified33.7 +/- 12.37 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified65.6 +/- 30.5 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.0 +/- 10.2 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified<199.69 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified30.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.18 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.6 (3.5-29.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified33.2 +/- 11.4 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified25 (13-46) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified43.2 +/- 15.1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.3 +/- 6.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.084 +/- 4.404 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified65.78 (21.37 – 249.66) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Lorena Ivona ŞTEF...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.9-9.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.1 (0.9-16.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified70.4 (27.3-268.3) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified104.9 (40.2-325.6) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified18.7 (5.2-117.8) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.4 (4.6-77.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BileDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHepatic and biliary malignancies details
BloodDetected and Quantified1172.1 (683.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleDown syndrome pregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified884.7 (369.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Oesophageal cancer
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1401.2 +/- 692.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1350.0 (900.0-1800.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothChronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and Kearns-Sayre syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified4000.0 (2000.0-6000.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothChronic progressive external opthalmoplegia details
BloodDetected and Quantified500.0 +/- 130.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothInsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus(IDDM) details
BloodDetected and Quantified1247.6 +/- 900.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Pregnancy with fetuses with trisomy 18
details
BloodDetected and Quantified946.4 +/- 451.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
BloodDetected and Quantified1006.2 (396.8) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEarly preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified1035.6 (505.9) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Bothoesophago-gastric cancer details
BloodDetected and Quantified3500.0 +/- 4300.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAcute ethanol intoxication details
BloodDetected and Quantified1236.89 (410.48) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy with fetus having congenital heart defect details
BloodDetected and Quantified1270.97 (604.28) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1213.1 (564.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleLate-onset preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified1100.9 (689.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Pancreatic
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4500.00 (3000.00-6000.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothLethal infantile mitochondrial disease details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified16000 (13000-19000) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAnoxia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1300.0 (500.0-2100.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCytochrome C oxidase deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified6850.0 (1700.0-12000) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothCytochrome C oxidase deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified4577.0 (1684.0-7470.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedGenetically At-Risk of celiac disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Cryptosporidium infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleMyalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothIrritable Bowel Syndrome details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
SalivaDetected and Quantified919.97 +/- 827.31 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified811.10 +/- 931.32 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothOral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothOral leukoplakia (OLK) details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1429.05 +/- 1493.26 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified250 +/- 142 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTemporomandibular joint disorder (TMD)
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.237 +/- 15.482 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.5 (0.00-25.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCytochrome C oxidase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified37550.0 (100.0-75000.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothCytochrome C oxidase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified440 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothParaquat poisoning details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0015 - 0.0226 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothADPKD details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.427 +/- 6.717 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified40.788 +/- 110.925 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified90.28 (23.35 – 424.10) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothType 1 diabetes Mellitus
    • Lorena Ivona ŞTEF...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Ethanol intoxication
  1. Fulop M, Bock J, Ben-Ezra J, Antony M, Danzig J, Gage JS: Plasma lactate and 3-hydroxybutyrate levels in patients with acute ethanol intoxication. Am J Med. 1986 Feb;80(2):191-4. [PubMed:3080879 ]
Anoxia
  1. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. [PubMed:8579834 ]
Cytochrome C oxidase deficiency
    MetaGene
Dementia
  1. Redjems-Bennani N, Jeandel C, Lefebvre E, Blain H, Vidailhet M, Gueant JL: Abnormal substrate levels that depend upon mitochondrial function in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer patients. Gerontology. 1998;44(5):300-4. [PubMed:9693263 ]
Diabetes mellitus type 1
  1. Blomqvist G, Alvarsson M, Grill V, Von Heijne G, Ingvar M, Thorell JO, Stone-Elander S, Widen L, Ekberg K: Effect of acute hyperketonemia on the cerebral uptake of ketone bodies in nondiabetic subjects and IDDM patients. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jul;283(1):E20-8. [PubMed:12067838 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Yang J, Chen T, Sun L, Zhao Z, Qi X, Zhou K, Cao Y, Wang X, Qiu Y, Su M, Zhao A, Wang P, Yang P, Wu J, Feng G, He L, Jia W, Wan C: Potential metabolite markers of schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2013 Jan;18(1):67-78. doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.131. Epub 2011 Oct 25. [PubMed:22024767 ]
  2. Xuan J, Pan G, Qiu Y, Yang L, Su M, Liu Y, Chen J, Feng G, Fang Y, Jia W, Xing Q, He L: Metabolomic profiling to identify potential serum biomarkers for schizophrenia and risperidone action. J Proteome Res. 2011 Dec 2;10(12):5433-43. doi: 10.1021/pr2006796. Epub 2011 Nov 8. [PubMed:22007635 ]
  3. Cai HL, Li HD, Yan XZ, Sun B, Zhang Q, Yan M, Zhang WY, Jiang P, Zhu RH, Liu YP, Fang PF, Xu P, Yuan HY, Zhang XH, Hu L, Yang W, Ye HS: Metabolomic analysis of biochemical changes in the plasma and urine of first-episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenia patients after treatment with risperidone. J Proteome Res. 2012 Aug 3;11(8):4338-50. doi: 10.1021/pr300459d. Epub 2012 Jul 26. [PubMed:22800120 ]
Hepatic and biliary malignancies
  1. Khan SA, Cox IJ, Hamilton G, Thomas HC, Taylor-Robinson SD: In vivo and in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a tool for investigating hepatobiliary disease: a review of H and P MRS applications. Liver Int. 2005 Apr;25(2):273-81. [PubMed:15780050 ]
Paraquat poisoning
  1. Bairaktari E, Katopodis K, Siamopoulos KC, Tsolas O: Paraquat-induced renal injury studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine. Clin Chem. 1998 Jun;44(6 Pt 1):1256-61. [PubMed:9625050 ]
Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and Kearns-Sayre syndrome
    MetaGene
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 222100 (Diabetes mellitus type 1)
  • 530000 (Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and Kearns-Sayre syndrome)
  • 181500 (Schizophrenia)
  • 167320 (Dementia)
  • 220110 (Cytochrome C oxidase deficiency)
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003294
KNApSAcK IDC00001191
Chemspider ID96860
KEGG Compound IDC00186
BioCyc IDL-LACTATE
BiGG ID34179
Wikipedia LinkLactate
METLIN ID5205
PubChem Compound107689
PDB ID2OP
ChEBI ID422
References
Synthesis ReferenceLao, Hanzhang; Sun, Jianrong; Wang, Jian; Qian, Zhiliang. Process for preparation of high-purity L-lactic acid. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2007), 9pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. [PubMed:8412012 ]
  2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [PubMed:12097436 ]
  3. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. [PubMed:15627241 ]
  4. Commodari F, Arnold DL, Sanctuary BC, Shoubridge EA: 1H NMR characterization of normal human cerebrospinal fluid and the detection of methylmalonic acid in a vitamin B12 deficient patient. NMR Biomed. 1991 Aug;4(4):192-200. [PubMed:1931558 ]
  5. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2:18. [PubMed:15882454 ]
  6. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. [PubMed:8579834 ]
  7. Nicholson JK, Buckingham MJ, Sadler PJ: High resolution 1H n.m.r. studies of vertebrate blood and plasma. Biochem J. 1983 Jun 1;211(3):605-15. [PubMed:6411064 ]
  8. Redjems-Bennani N, Jeandel C, Lefebvre E, Blain H, Vidailhet M, Gueant JL: Abnormal substrate levels that depend upon mitochondrial function in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer patients. Gerontology. 1998;44(5):300-4. [PubMed:9693263 ]
  9. Bairaktari E, Katopodis K, Siamopoulos KC, Tsolas O: Paraquat-induced renal injury studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine. Clin Chem. 1998 Jun;44(6 Pt 1):1256-61. [PubMed:9625050 ]
  10. Wevers RA, Engelke U, Wendel U, de Jong JG, Gabreels FJ, Heerschap A: Standardized method for high-resolution 1H-NMR of cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 1995 May;41(5):744-51. [PubMed:7729054 ]
  11. Khan SA, Cox IJ, Hamilton G, Thomas HC, Taylor-Robinson SD: In vivo and in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a tool for investigating hepatobiliary disease: a review of H and P MRS applications. Liver Int. 2005 Apr;25(2):273-81. [PubMed:15780050 ]
  12. Kaya M, Moriwaki Y, Ka T, Inokuchi T, Yamamoto A, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Tsuzita J, Oku Y, Yamamoto T: Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of purine bases (uric acid, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and oxypurinol after rigorous exercise. Metabolism. 2006 Jan;55(1):103-7. [PubMed:16324927 ]
  13. Nielsen J, Ytrebo LM, Borud O: Lactate and pyruvate concentrations in capillary blood from newborns. Acta Paediatr. 1994 Sep;83(9):920-2. [PubMed:7819686 ]
  14. Isotalo T, Talja M, Hellstrom P, Perttila I, Valimaa T, Tormala P, Tammela TL: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study to investigate the effects of finasteride combined with a biodegradable self-reinforced poly L-lactic acid spiral stent in patients with urinary retention caused by bladder outlet obstruction from benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int. 2001 Jul;88(1):30-4. [PubMed:11446841 ]
  15. Shirai Y, Kamimura K, Seki T, Morohashi M: L-lactic acid as a mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellent on human and mouse skin. J Med Entomol. 2001 Jan;38(1):51-4. [PubMed:11268691 ]
  16. Valenza F, Aletti G, Fossali T, Chevallard G, Sacconi F, Irace M, Gattinoni L: Lactate as a marker of energy failure in critically ill patients: hypothesis. Crit Care. 2005;9(6):588-93. Epub 2005 Sep 28. [PubMed:16356243 ]
  17. Walenta S, Schroeder T, Mueller-Klieser W: Lactate in solid malignant tumors: potential basis of a metabolic classification in clinical oncology. Curr Med Chem. 2004 Aug;11(16):2195-204. [PubMed:15279558 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Displays an lactate dehydrogenase activity. Significantly increases the transcriptional activity of JUN, when overexpressed.
Gene Name:
LDHAL6A
Uniprot ID:
Q6ZMR3
Molecular weight:
36507.015
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHB
Uniprot ID:
P07195
Molecular weight:
36638.225
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Possible role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
LDHC
Uniprot ID:
P07864
Molecular weight:
36310.965
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHA
Uniprot ID:
P00338
Molecular weight:
30204.975
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHAL6B
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYZ2
Molecular weight:
41942.53
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails