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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-11-03 18:13:31 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00190
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB03328
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Lactic acid
DescriptionLactic acid plays a role in several biochemical processes and is produced in the muscles during intense activity. Lactate measurement in the critically ill has been traditionally used to stratify patients with poor outcome. However, plasma lactate levels are the result of a finely tuned interplay of factors that affect the balance between its production and its clearance. When the oxygen supply does not match its consumption, organisms such as man who are forced to produce ATP for their integrity adapt in many different ways up to the point when energy failure occurs. Lactate, being part of the adaptive response, may then be used to assess the severity of the supply/demand imbalance. In such a scenario, the time to intervention becomes relevant: early and effective treatment may allow the cell to revert to a normal state, as long as the oxygen machinery (i.e. mitochondria) is intact. Conversely, once the mitochondria are deranged, energy failure occurs even in the presence of normoxia. The lactate increase in critically ill patients may therefore be viewed as an early marker of a potentially reversible state. (PMID 16356243 ) A number of studies have demonstrated that malignant transformation is associated with an increase in glycolytic flux and in anaerobic and aerobic cellular lactate excretion. Using quantitative bioluminescence imaging in various primary carcinomas in patients (uterine cervix, head and neck, colorectal region) at first diagnosis of the disease, lactate concentrations in tumors in vivo could be relatively low or extremely high (up to 40 micromol/g) in different individual tumors or within the same lesion. In all tumor entities investigated, high molar concentrations of lactate were correlated with a high incidence of distant metastasis already in an early stage of the disease. Low lactate tumors (< median of approximately 8 micromol/g) were associated with both a longer overall and disease free survival compared to high lactate lesions (lactate > approximately 8 micromol/g). Lactate dehydrogenase was found to be upregulated in most of these tumors compared to surrounding normal tissue. (PMID 15279558 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (+)-Lactate
  2. (+)-Lactic acid
  3. (alpha)-Lactate
  4. (alpha)-Lactic acid
  5. (S)-(+)-2-Hydroxypropanoate
  6. (S)-(+)-2-Hydroxypropanoic acid
  7. (S)-2-hydroxy-Propanoate
  8. (S)-2-hydroxy-Propanoic acid
  9. (S)-2-Hydroxypropanoate
  10. (S)-2-Hydroxypropanoic acid
  11. (S)-2-Hydroxypropionate
  12. (S)-2-Hydroxypropionic acid
  13. (S)-Lactate
  14. (S)-Lactic acid
  15. 1-Hydroxyethane 1-carboxylate
  16. 1-Hydroxyethane 1-carboxylic acid
  17. 1-Hydroxyethanecarboxylate
  18. 1-Hydroxyethanecarboxylic acid
  19. 2-Hydroxypropanoate
  20. 2-Hydroxypropanoic acid
  21. 2-Hydroxypropionate
  22. a-Hydroxypropanoate
  23. a-Hydroxypropanoic acid
  24. a-Hydroxypropionate
  25. a-Hydroxypropionic acid
  26. alpha-Hydroxypropanoate
  27. alpha-Hydroxypropanoic acid
  28. alpha-Hydroxypropionate
  29. alpha-Hydroxypropionic acid
  30. L-(+)- Lactic acid
  31. L-2-Hydroxypropanoate
  32. L-2-Hydroxypropanoic acid
  33. Lactate
  34. Lactic acid
  35. Milk acid
  36. Sarcolactic acid
Chemical FormulaC3H6O3
Average Molecular Weight90.0779
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight90.031694058
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
Traditional Name(+)-lactic acid
CAS Registry Number79-33-4
SMILES
C[C@H](O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H6O3/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h2,4H,1H3,(H,5,6)/t2-/m0/s1
InChI KeyJVTAAEKCZFNVCJ-REOHCLBHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassHydroxy Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha Hydroxy Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • lactic acid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentAlpha Hydroxy Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of Propanoate metabolism
  • Component of Pyruvate metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point16.8 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility562.0ALOGPS
logP-0.79ALOGPS
logP-0.47ChemAxon
logS0.79ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity18.84 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.06 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MSMS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Bile
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
GluconeogenesisSMP00128map00010
Pyruvate MetabolismSMP00060map00620
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1350.0 (900.0-1800.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified740.0 +/- 2400.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2390.0 +/- 990.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1140.0 +/- 360.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1510.0 (740.0-2400.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2976.0 +/- 1555.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified6400.0 +/- 2000.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1236.0 (367.0-3245.0) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1489.4 +/- 371.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified3200 (2900-3500) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified1100 (600-1600) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1651 +/- 626 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1590.0 +/- 330.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1300.0 (500.0-2100.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified850.0 +/- 400.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2240.0 +/- 600.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified850.0 (450.0-2100.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified3000.0 (1850.0-4150.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1770.0 (930.0-2600.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified331 (17-2795) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified214 (8-826) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified228 (29-1336) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified624 (21-18855) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified451 (113-8585) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified244 (64-1480) uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified511 +/- 612 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified622 +/- 625 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified96.4 +/- 68.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified4210 +/- 10430 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified20310 +/- 29930 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified14010 +/- 20350 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified4950 +/- 9300 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified5450 +/- 10940 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified159 +/- 71.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified4840 +/- 10270 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3550 +/- 7790 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified227 +/- 132 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified231 +/- 112 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified262 +/- 280 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified526.98 +/- 689.57 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified655.86 +/- 393.26 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified50.73 +/- 53.54 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified13 (0-78) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.2 +/- 47.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNot Available details
UrineDetected and Quantified50.73 +/- 53.54 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified33.32-444.29 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.5 (0.00-25.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified33.4 +/- 19.27 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified33.7 +/- 12.37 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified65.6 +/- 30.5 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.0 +/- 10.2 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified30.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.18 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.6 (3.5-29.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified33.2 +/- 11.4 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified25 (13-46) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified43.2 +/- 15.1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.3 +/- 6.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified65.78 (21.37 – 249.66) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Lorena Ivona ŞTEF...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.1 (0.9-16.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified70.4 (27.3-268.3) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified104.9 (40.2-325.6) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified18.7 (5.2-117.8) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.4 (4.6-77.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BileDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHepatic and biliary malignancies details
BloodDetected and Quantified1401.2 +/- 692.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected and Quantified4000.0 (2000.0-6000.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothChronic progressive external opthalmoplegia details
BloodDetected and Quantified500.0 +/- 130.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothInsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus(IDDM) details
BloodDetected and Quantified3500.0 +/- 4300.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAcute ethanol intoxication details
BloodDetected and Quantified4500.00 (3000.00-6000.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothLethal infantile mitochondrial disease details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified16000 (13000-19000) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAnoxia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified6850.0 (1700.0-12000) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothCytochrome C oxidase deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified4577.0 (1684.0-7470.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) details
SalivaDetected and Quantified919.97 +/- 827.31 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified811.10 +/- 931.32 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral leukoplakia (OLK) details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1429.05 +/- 1493.26 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified250 +/- 142 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTemporomandibular joint disorder (TMD)
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified37550.0 (100.0-75000.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothCytochrome C oxidase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified440 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothParaquat poisoning details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0015 - 0.0226 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothADPKD details
UrineDetected and Quantified90.28 (23.35 – 424.10) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothType 1 diabetes Mellitus
    • Lorena Ivona ŞTEF...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Ethanol intoxication
  1. Fulop M, Bock J, Ben-Ezra J, Antony M, Danzig J, Gage JS: Plasma lactate and 3-hydroxybutyrate levels in patients with acute ethanol intoxication. Am J Med. 1986 Feb;80(2):191-4. Pubmed: 3080879
Anoxia
  1. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834
Cytochrome C oxidase deficiency
  1. MetaGene
Dementia
  1. Redjems-Bennani N, Jeandel C, Lefebvre E, Blain H, Vidailhet M, Gueant JL: Abnormal substrate levels that depend upon mitochondrial function in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer patients. Gerontology. 1998;44(5):300-4. Pubmed: 9693263
Diabetes mellitus type 1
  1. Blomqvist G, Alvarsson M, Grill V, Von Heijne G, Ingvar M, Thorell JO, Stone-Elander S, Widen L, Ekberg K: Effect of acute hyperketonemia on the cerebral uptake of ketone bodies in nondiabetic subjects and IDDM patients. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jul;283(1):E20-8. Pubmed: 12067838
Hepatic and biliary malignancies
  1. Khan SA, Cox IJ, Hamilton G, Thomas HC, Taylor-Robinson SD: In vivo and in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a tool for investigating hepatobiliary disease: a review of H and P MRS applications. Liver Int. 2005 Apr;25(2):273-81. Pubmed: 15780050
Paraquat poisoning
  1. Bairaktari E, Katopodis K, Siamopoulos KC, Tsolas O: Paraquat-induced renal injury studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine. Clin Chem. 1998 Jun;44(6 Pt 1):1256-61. Pubmed: 9625050
Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and Kearns-Sayre syndrome
  1. MetaGene
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 167320 (Dementia)
  • 222100 (Diabetes mellitus type 1)
  • 530000 (Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and Kearns-Sayre syndrome)
  • 220110 (Cytochrome C oxidase deficiency)
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003294
KNApSAcK IDC00001191
Chemspider ID96860
KEGG Compound IDC00186
BioCyc IDL-LACTATE
BiGG ID34179
Wikipedia LinkLactate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00190
Metagene LinkHMDB00190
METLIN ID5205
PubChem Compound107689
PDB ID2OP
ChEBI ID422
References
Synthesis ReferenceLao, Hanzhang; Sun, Jianrong; Wang, Jian; Qian, Zhiliang. Process for preparation of high-purity L-lactic acid. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2007), 9pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. Pubmed: 8412012
  2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
  3. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. Pubmed: 15627241
  4. Commodari F, Arnold DL, Sanctuary BC, Shoubridge EA: 1H NMR characterization of normal human cerebrospinal fluid and the detection of methylmalonic acid in a vitamin B12 deficient patient. NMR Biomed. 1991 Aug;4(4):192-200. Pubmed: 1931558
  5. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2(1):18. Pubmed: 15882454
  6. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834
  7. Nicholson JK, Buckingham MJ, Sadler PJ: High resolution 1H n.m.r. studies of vertebrate blood and plasma. Biochem J. 1983 Jun 1;211(3):605-15. Pubmed: 6411064
  8. Redjems-Bennani N, Jeandel C, Lefebvre E, Blain H, Vidailhet M, Gueant JL: Abnormal substrate levels that depend upon mitochondrial function in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer patients. Gerontology. 1998;44(5):300-4. Pubmed: 9693263
  9. Bairaktari E, Katopodis K, Siamopoulos KC, Tsolas O: Paraquat-induced renal injury studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine. Clin Chem. 1998 Jun;44(6 Pt 1):1256-61. Pubmed: 9625050
  10. Wevers RA, Engelke U, Wendel U, de Jong JG, Gabreels FJ, Heerschap A: Standardized method for high-resolution 1H-NMR of cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 1995 May;41(5):744-51. Pubmed: 7729054
  11. Khan SA, Cox IJ, Hamilton G, Thomas HC, Taylor-Robinson SD: In vivo and in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a tool for investigating hepatobiliary disease: a review of H and P MRS applications. Liver Int. 2005 Apr;25(2):273-81. Pubmed: 15780050
  12. Kaya M, Moriwaki Y, Ka T, Inokuchi T, Yamamoto A, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Tsuzita J, Oku Y, Yamamoto T: Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of purine bases (uric acid, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and oxypurinol after rigorous exercise. Metabolism. 2006 Jan;55(1):103-7. Pubmed: 16324927
  13. Nielsen J, Ytrebo LM, Borud O: Lactate and pyruvate concentrations in capillary blood from newborns. Acta Paediatr. 1994 Sep;83(9):920-2. Pubmed: 7819686
  14. Isotalo T, Talja M, Hellstrom P, Perttila I, Valimaa T, Tormala P, Tammela TL: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study to investigate the effects of finasteride combined with a biodegradable self-reinforced poly L-lactic acid spiral stent in patients with urinary retention caused by bladder outlet obstruction from benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int. 2001 Jul;88(1):30-4. Pubmed: 11446841
  15. Shirai Y, Kamimura K, Seki T, Morohashi M: L-lactic acid as a mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellent on human and mouse skin. J Med Entomol. 2001 Jan;38(1):51-4. Pubmed: 11268691
  16. Valenza F, Aletti G, Fossali T, Chevallard G, Sacconi F, Irace M, Gattinoni L: Lactate as a marker of energy failure in critically ill patients: hypothesis. Crit Care. 2005;9(6):588-93. Epub 2005 Sep 28. Pubmed: 16356243
  17. Walenta S, Schroeder T, Mueller-Klieser W: Lactate in solid malignant tumors: potential basis of a metabolic classification in clinical oncology. Curr Med Chem. 2004 Aug;11(16):2195-204. Pubmed: 15279558

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Displays an lactate dehydrogenase activity. Significantly increases the transcriptional activity of JUN, when overexpressed.
Gene Name:
LDHAL6A
Uniprot ID:
Q6ZMR3
Molecular weight:
36507.015
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHB
Uniprot ID:
P07195
Molecular weight:
36638.225
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Possible role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
LDHC
Uniprot ID:
P07864
Molecular weight:
36310.965
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHA
Uniprot ID:
P00338
Molecular weight:
30204.975
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHAL6B
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYZ2
Molecular weight:
41942.53
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails