Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:08:03 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00191
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Aspartic acid
DescriptionAspartic acid (Asp, D), also known as aspartate, the name of its anion, is one of the 20 natural proteinogenic amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. As its name indicates, aspartic acid is the carboxylic acid analog of asparagine. As a neurotransmitter, aspartic acid may provide resistance to fatigue and thus lead to endurance, although the evidence to support this idea is not strong. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspartic_acid) Aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acid which is made from glutamic acid by enzymes using vitamin B6. The amino acid has important roles in the urea cycle and DNA metabolism. Aspartic acid is a major excitatory neurotransmitter, which is sometimes found to be increased in epileptic and stroke patients. It is decreased in depressed patients and in patients with brain atrophy. Aspartic acid supplements are being evaluated. Five grams can raise blood levels. Magnesium and zinc may be natural inhibitors of some of the actions of aspartic acid. Aspartic acid, with the amino acid phenylalanine, is a part of a new natural sweetener, aspartame. This sweetener is an advance in artificial sweeteners, and is probably safe in normal doses to all except phenylketonurics. The jury is still out on the long term effects it has on many brain neurohormones. Aspartic acid may be a significant immunostimulant of the thymus and can protect against some of the damaging effects of radiation. Many claims have been made for the special value of administering aspartic acid in the form of potassium and magnesium salts. Since aspartic acid is relatively nontoxic, studies are now in progress to elucidate its pharmacological and therapeutic roles. (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Asp
  2. (+)-Aspartate
  3. (+)-Aspartic acid
  4. (2S)-Aspartate
  5. (2S)-Aspartic acid
  6. (L)-Aspartate
  7. (L)-Aspartic acid
  8. (R)-2-aminosuccinate
  9. (S)-(+)-Aspartate
  10. (S)-(+)-Aspartic acid
  11. (S)-2-aminosuccinate
  12. (S)-2-aminosuccinic acid
  13. (S)-amino-Butanedioate
  14. (S)-amino-Butanedioic acid
  15. (S)-Aminobutanedioate
  16. (S)-Aminobutanedioic acid
  17. (S)-Aspartate
  18. (S)-Aspartic acid
  19. 2-Amino-3-methylsuccinate
  20. 2-Amino-3-methylsuccinic acid
  21. 2-Aminosuccinate
  22. 2-Aminosuccinic acid
  23. alpha-Aminosuccinate
  24. alpha-Aminosuccinic acid
  25. Aminosuccinate
  26. Asparagate
  27. Asparagic acid
  28. Asparaginate
  29. Asparaginic acid
  30. Asparatate
  31. Aspartate
  32. H-Asp-OH
  33. L-(+)-Aspartate
  34. L-(+)-Aspartic acid
  35. L-Aminosuccinate
  36. L-Aminosuccinic acid
  37. L-Asparagate
  38. L-Asparagic acid
  39. L-Asparaginate
  40. L-Asparaginic acid
  41. L-Aspartate
Chemical FormulaC4H7NO4
Average Molecular Weight133.1027
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight133.037507717
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-aminobutanedioic acid
Traditional IUPAC NameL-aspartic acid
CAS Registry Number56-84-8
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H7NO4/c5-2(4(8)9)1-3(6)7/h2H,1,5H2,(H,6,7)(H,8,9)/t2-/m0/s1
InChI KeyCKLJMWTZIZZHCS-REOHCLBHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
ClassAmino Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Amino acids(KEGG)
  • Common amino acids(KEGG)
  • L-alpha-amino acid(ChEBI)
  • aspartic acid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,3 Aminoalcohol
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Dicarboxylic Acid Derivative
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
  • Succinic Acid
Direct ParentAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Histidine metabolism
  • Component of Nitrogen metabolism
  • Component of Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Component of Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Component of Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
  • Essential amino acid
  • Non-essential amino acid
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point270 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility5.39 mg/mLYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
LogP-3.89CHMELIK,J ET AL. (1991)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility142 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.5ChemAxon
logS0.03ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)1.7ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)9.61ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count5ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count3ChemAxon
polar surface area100.62ChemAxon
rotatable bond count3ChemAxon
refractivity26.53ChemAxon
polarizability11.4ChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009map00910
Arginine and Proline MetabolismSMP00020map00330
Aspartate MetabolismSMP00067map00250
Beta-Alanine MetabolismSMP00007map00410
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleSMP00129Not Available
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059map00330
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified21.0 +/- 5.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified20.0 +/- 5.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified20.9 +/- 6.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.30 (0.0-4.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.8 +/- 1.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.8 +/- 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.6 +/- 0.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.19 +/- 2.63 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.23 +/- 0.18 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified1.36 +/- 1.06 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified0.32 (0.30-0.45) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified10.9 (3.5-21.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified5.2 +/- 6.15 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified10.9 (1.9-26.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified0.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified4.638 (1.711-7.566) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
    BloodDetected and Quantified36.0 +/- 9.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCirrhosis
    BloodDetected and Quantified3.9 (3.7-4.1) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentEpilepsy
    BloodDetected and Quantified11.8 (10.9-12.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentEpilepsy
    BloodDetected and Quantified12.67 +/- 2.86 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.233 +/- 0.081 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedGrowth hormone deficiency
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.24 +/- 0.10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Alzheimer's disease
    • Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed: 17031479
    Cirrhosis
    • Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216
    Epilepsy
    • Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
    Schizophrenia
    • Do KQ, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Zollinger M, Gutteck-Amsler U, Cuenod M, Holsboer F: gamma-Glutamylglutamine and taurine concentrations are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug-naive patients with schizophrenic disorders. J Neurochem. 1995 Dec;65(6):2652-62. Pubmed: 7595563
    Growth hormone deficiency
    • Burman P, Hetta J, Wide L, Mansson JE, Ekman R, Karlsson FA: Growth hormone treatment affects brain neurotransmitters and thyroxine [see comment] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1996 Mar;44(3):319-24. Pubmed: 8729530
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDDB00128
    DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB012567
    KNApSAcK IDC00001342
    Chemspider ID5745
    KEGG Compound IDC00049
    BioCyc IDL-ASPARTATE
    BiGG ID33663
    Wikipedia LinkAsp
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00191
    Metagene LinkHMDB00191
    METLIN ID5206
    PubChem Compound5960
    PDB IDASP
    ChEBI ID17053
    References
    Synthesis ReferencePamfil, Maria; Lupescu, Irina; Savoiu, Valeria Gabriela. L-aspartic acid production from fumarate using Escherichia coli whole cells. Rom. (2005), 3pp.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
    General References
    1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
    2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
    3. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. Pubmed: 6696735
    4. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. Pubmed: 12834252
    5. Burman P, Hetta J, Wide L, Mansson JE, Ekman R, Karlsson FA: Growth hormone treatment affects brain neurotransmitters and thyroxine [see comment] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1996 Mar;44(3):319-24. Pubmed: 8729530
    6. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. Pubmed: 6198473
    7. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216
    8. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
    9. Chiara F, Goumans MJ, Forsberg H, Ahgren A, Rasola A, Aspenstrom P, Wernstedt C, Hellberg C, Heldin CH, Heuchel R: A gain of function mutation in the activation loop of platelet-derived growth factor beta-receptor deregulates its kinase activity. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 8;279(41):42516-27. Epub 2004 Jul 28. Pubmed: 15284236
    10. Fujii N: D-amino acid in elderly tissues. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Sep;28(9):1585-9. Pubmed: 16141520
    11. Grdzelishvili VZ, Smallwood S, Tower D, Hall RL, Hunt DM, Moyer SA: A single amino acid change in the L-polymerase protein of vesicular stomatitis virus completely abolishes viral mRNA cap methylation. J Virol. 2005 Jun;79(12):7327-37. Pubmed: 15919887
    12. Lockridge O: Genetic variants of human serum cholinesterase influence metabolism of the muscle relaxant succinylcholine. Pharmacol Ther. 1990;47(1):35-60. Pubmed: 2195556
    13. Franklin RB, Zou J, Yu Z, Costello LC: EAAC1 is expressed in rat and human prostate epithelial cells; functions as a high-affinity L-aspartate transporter; and is regulated by prolactin and testosterone. BMC Biochem. 2006 Mar 27;7:10. Pubmed: 16566829
    14. Advani SJ, Hagglund R, Weichselbaum RR, Roizman B: Posttranslational processing of infected cell proteins 0 and 4 of herpes simplex virus 1 is sequential and reflects the subcellular compartment in which the proteins localize. J Virol. 2001 Sep;75(17):7904-12. Pubmed: 11483735
    15. Wang M, Meng Z, Fu J: Synthesis and biodistribution of six novel 99mTc complexes of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde-amino acid Schiff bases. Appl Radiat Isot. 2006 Feb;64(2):235-40. Pubmed: 16309915
    16. Fisher G, Lopez S, Peterson K, Goff T, Philip I, Gaviria R, Lorenzo N, Tsesarskaia M: Is there a correlation between age and D: -aspartic acid in human knee cartilage? Amino Acids. 2006 Jun 1;. Pubmed: 16738792
    17. Baslow MH: Brain N-acetylaspartate as a molecular water pump and its role in the etiology of Canavan disease: a mechanistic explanation. J Mol Neurosci. 2003;21(3):185-90. Pubmed: 14645985
    18. Shao B, Belaaouaj A, Verlinde CL, Fu X, Heinecke JW: Methionine sulfoxide and proteolytic cleavage contribute to the inactivation of cathepsin G by hypochlorous acid: an oxidative mechanism for regulation of serine proteinases by myeloperoxidase. J Biol Chem. 2005 Aug 12;280(32):29311-21. Epub 2005 Jun 20. Pubmed: 15967795
    19. Rose CH, Thigpen BD, Bofill JA, Cushman J, May WL, Martin JN Jr: Obstetric implications of antepartum corticosteroid therapy for HELLP syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Nov;104(5 Pt 1):1011-4. Pubmed: 15516393
    20. Bhende PM, Seaman WT, Delecluse HJ, Kenney SC: BZLF1 activation of the methylated form of the BRLF1 immediate-early promoter is regulated by BZLF1 residue 186. J Virol. 2005 Jun;79(12):7338-48. Pubmed: 15919888
    21. Butterworth RF: Pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy: a new look at ammonia. Metab Brain Dis. 2002 Dec;17(4):221-7. Pubmed: 12602499

    Enzymes

    Gene Name:
    GOT1
    Uniprot ID:
    P17174
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    GOT2
    Uniprot ID:
    P00505
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    RNASE1
    Uniprot ID:
    P07998
    Gene Name:
    ACY1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q03154
    Gene Name:
    ASPA
    Uniprot ID:
    P45381
    Reactions
    N-acyl-L-aspartate + Water unknown a carboxylate + L-Aspartic aciddetails
    N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid + Water unknown Acetic acid + L-Aspartic aciddetails
    N-Formyl-L-aspartate + Water unknown Formic acid + L-Aspartic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    ACY3
    Uniprot ID:
    Q96HD9
    Reactions
    N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid + Water unknown Acetic acid + L-Aspartic aciddetails
    N-Formyl-L-aspartate + Water unknown Formic acid + L-Aspartic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    ASNS
    Uniprot ID:
    P08243
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    DARS
    Uniprot ID:
    P14868
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + tRNA(Asp) unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-aspartyl-tRNA(Asp)details
    tRNA(Asp) + L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate unknown L-Aspartyl-tRNA(Asp) + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphatedetails
    Gene Name:
    ASS1
    Uniprot ID:
    P00966
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + Citrulline + L-Aspartic acid unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Argininosuccinic aciddetails
    Adenosine triphosphate + Citrulline + L-Aspartic acid unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Argininosuccinic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    GAD2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q05329
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid unknown Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Gene Name:
    GAD1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q99259
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid unknown Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Gene Name:
    ADSS
    Uniprot ID:
    P30520
    Reactions
    Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid unknown Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + Adenylsuccinic aciddetails
    Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid unknown Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + N(6)-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)AMPdetails
    Gene Name:
    ADSSL1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8N142
    Reactions
    Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid unknown Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + Adenylsuccinic aciddetails
    Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid unknown Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + N(6)-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)AMPdetails
    Gene Name:
    PAICS
    Uniprot ID:
    P22234
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate + L-Aspartic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + SAICARdetails
    Adenosine triphosphate + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate + L-Aspartic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + SAICARdetails
    Gene Name:
    AGA
    Uniprot ID:
    P20933
    Reactions
    N(4)-(beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)-L-asparagine + Water unknown N-Acetyl-b-glucosaminylamine + L-Aspartic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    LYZ
    Uniprot ID:
    P61626
    Gene Name:
    SLC1A1
    Uniprot ID:
    P43005
    Gene Name:
    CAD
    Uniprot ID:
    P27708
    Reactions
    Carbamoyl phosphate + L-Aspartic acid unknown Phosphoric acid + Ureidosuccinic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    ASRGL1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q7L266
    Reactions
    L-Asparagine + Water unknown L-Aspartic acid + Ammoniadetails
    Gene Name:
    ASPG
    Uniprot ID:
    Q86U10
    Reactions
    L-Asparagine + Water unknown L-Aspartic acid + Ammoniadetails
    Gene Name:
    IL4I1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q96RQ9
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid + Water + Oxygen unknown Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Gene Name:
    ASPDH
    Uniprot ID:
    A6ND91
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) unknown Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)Hdetails
    Gene Name:
    GOT1L1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8NHS2
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    Gene Name:
    GIG18
    Uniprot ID:
    Q2TU84
    Gene Name:
    ASS1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q5T6L4
    Gene Name:
    DARS2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q6PI48
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + tRNA(Asp) unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-aspartyl-tRNA(Asp)details
    tRNA(Asp) + L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate unknown L-Aspartyl-tRNA(Asp) + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphatedetails
    Gene Name:
    NAT8L
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8N9F0
    Reactions
    Acetyl-CoA + L-Aspartic acid unknown Coenzyme A + N-Acetyl-L-aspartic aciddetails

    Transporters

    Gene Name:
    SLC16A10
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8TF71