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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-10-29 21:50:23 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00191
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Aspartic acid
DescriptionAspartic acid (Asp, D), also known as aspartate, the name of its anion, is one of the 20 natural proteinogenic amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. As its name indicates, aspartic acid is the carboxylic acid analog of asparagine. As a neurotransmitter, aspartic acid may provide resistance to fatigue and thus lead to endurance, although the evidence to support this idea is not strong. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspartic_acid) Aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acid which is made from glutamic acid by enzymes using vitamin B6. The amino acid has important roles in the urea cycle and DNA metabolism. Aspartic acid is a major excitatory neurotransmitter, which is sometimes found to be increased in epileptic and stroke patients. It is decreased in depressed patients and in patients with brain atrophy. Aspartic acid supplements are being evaluated. Five grams can raise blood levels. Magnesium and zinc may be natural inhibitors of some of the actions of aspartic acid. Aspartic acid, with the amino acid phenylalanine, is a part of a new natural sweetener, aspartame. This sweetener is an advance in artificial sweeteners, and is probably safe in normal doses to all except phenylketonurics. The jury is still out on the long term effects it has on many brain neurohormones. Aspartic acid may be a significant immunostimulant of the thymus and can protect against some of the damaging effects of radiation. Many claims have been made for the special value of administering aspartic acid in the form of potassium and magnesium salts. Since aspartic acid is relatively nontoxic, studies are now in progress to elucidate its pharmacological and therapeutic roles. (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Asp
  2. (+)-Aspartate
  3. (+)-Aspartic acid
  4. (2S)-Aspartate
  5. (2S)-Aspartic acid
  6. (L)-Aspartate
  7. (L)-Aspartic acid
  8. (R)-2-aminosuccinate
  9. (S)-(+)-Aspartate
  10. (S)-(+)-Aspartic acid
  11. (S)-2-aminosuccinate
  12. (S)-2-aminosuccinic acid
  13. (S)-amino-Butanedioate
  14. (S)-amino-Butanedioic acid
  15. (S)-Aminobutanedioate
  16. (S)-Aminobutanedioic acid
  17. (S)-Aspartate
  18. (S)-Aspartic acid
  19. 2-Amino-3-methylsuccinate
  20. 2-Amino-3-methylsuccinic acid
  21. 2-Aminosuccinate
  22. 2-Aminosuccinic acid
  23. alpha-Aminosuccinate
  24. alpha-Aminosuccinic acid
  25. Aminosuccinate
  26. Asparagate
  27. Asparagic acid
  28. Asparaginate
  29. Asparaginic acid
  30. Asparatate
  31. Aspartate
  32. H-Asp-OH
  33. L-(+)-Aspartate
  34. L-(+)-Aspartic acid
  35. L-Aminosuccinate
  36. L-Aminosuccinic acid
  37. L-Asparagate
  38. L-Asparagic acid
  39. L-Asparaginate
  40. L-Asparaginic acid
  41. L-Aspartate
Chemical FormulaC4H7NO4
Average Molecular Weight133.1027
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight133.037507717
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-aminobutanedioic acid
Traditional NameL-aspartic acid
CAS Registry Number56-84-8
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H7NO4/c5-2(4(8)9)1-3(6)7/h2H,1,5H2,(H,6,7)(H,8,9)/t2-/m0/s1
InChI KeyCKLJMWTZIZZHCS-REOHCLBHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
ClassAmino Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Amino acids(KEGG)
  • Common amino acids(KEGG)
  • L-alpha-amino acid(ChEBI)
  • aspartic acid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,3 Aminoalcohol
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Dicarboxylic Acid Derivative
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
  • Succinic Acid
Direct ParentAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Histidine metabolism
  • Component of Nitrogen metabolism
  • Component of Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Component of Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Component of Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
  • Essential amino acid
  • Non-essential amino acid
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point270 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility5.39 mg/mLYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
LogP-3.89CHMELIK,J ET AL. (1991)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility142 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.5ChemAxon
logS0.03ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.61ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.62ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity26.53ChemAxon
Polarizability11.4ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009map00910
Arginine and Proline MetabolismSMP00020map00330
Aspartate MetabolismSMP00067map00250
Beta-Alanine MetabolismSMP00007map00410
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleSMP00129Not Available
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059map00330
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified21.0 +/- 5.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified20.0 +/- 5.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified20.9 +/- 6.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.30 (0.0-4.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.8 +/- 1.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.8 +/- 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.6 +/- 0.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.19 +/- 2.63 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.23 +/- 0.18 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified6.54 +/- 2.35 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified18.2 +/- 14.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.6 +/- 3.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.5 +/- 2.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified<0.25 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified33.30 +/- 19.39 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified<0.25 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified13.83 +/- 5.06 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.36 +/- 1.06 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.32 (0.30-0.45) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.9 (3.5-21.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.2 +/- 6.15 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.9 (1.9-26.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.638 (1.711-7.566) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    BloodDetected and Quantified36.0 +/- 9.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCirrhosis details
    BloodDetected and Quantified3.9 (3.7-4.1) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified11.8 (10.9-12.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified12.67 +/- 2.86 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.233 +/- 0.081 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedGrowth hormone deficiency details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.24 +/- 0.10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified9.62 +/- 6.59 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified11.32 +/- 3.39 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified13.36 +/- 3.74 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)FemaleBreast cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPancreatic cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPeriodontal diseases details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Alzheimer's disease
    1. Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed: 17031479
    Cirrhosis
    1. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216
    Epilepsy
    1. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
    Schizophrenia
    1. Do KQ, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Zollinger M, Gutteck-Amsler U, Cuenod M, Holsboer F: gamma-Glutamylglutamine and taurine concentrations are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug-naive patients with schizophrenic disorders. J Neurochem. 1995 Dec;65(6):2652-62. Pubmed: 7595563
    Growth hormone deficiency
    1. Burman P, Hetta J, Wide L, Mansson JE, Ekman R, Karlsson FA: Growth hormone treatment affects brain neurotransmitters and thyroxine [see comment] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1996 Mar;44(3):319-24. Pubmed: 8729530
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDDB00128
    DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB012567
    KNApSAcK IDC00001342
    Chemspider ID5745
    KEGG Compound IDC00049
    BioCyc IDL-ASPARTATE
    BiGG ID33663
    Wikipedia LinkAsp
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00191
    Metagene LinkHMDB00191
    METLIN ID5206
    PubChem Compound5960
    PDB IDASP
    ChEBI ID17053
    References
    Synthesis ReferencePamfil, Maria; Lupescu, Irina; Savoiu, Valeria Gabriela. L-aspartic acid production from fumarate using Escherichia coli whole cells. Rom. (2005), 3pp.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
    2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
    3. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. Pubmed: 6696735
    4. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. Pubmed: 12834252
    5. Burman P, Hetta J, Wide L, Mansson JE, Ekman R, Karlsson FA: Growth hormone treatment affects brain neurotransmitters and thyroxine [see comment] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1996 Mar;44(3):319-24. Pubmed: 8729530
    6. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. Pubmed: 6198473
    7. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216
    8. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
    9. Chiara F, Goumans MJ, Forsberg H, Ahgren A, Rasola A, Aspenstrom P, Wernstedt C, Hellberg C, Heldin CH, Heuchel R: A gain of function mutation in the activation loop of platelet-derived growth factor beta-receptor deregulates its kinase activity. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 8;279(41):42516-27. Epub 2004 Jul 28. Pubmed: 15284236
    10. Fujii N: D-amino acid in elderly tissues. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Sep;28(9):1585-9. Pubmed: 16141520
    11. Grdzelishvili VZ, Smallwood S, Tower D, Hall RL, Hunt DM, Moyer SA: A single amino acid change in the L-polymerase protein of vesicular stomatitis virus completely abolishes viral mRNA cap methylation. J Virol. 2005 Jun;79(12):7327-37. Pubmed: 15919887
    12. Lockridge O: Genetic variants of human serum cholinesterase influence metabolism of the muscle relaxant succinylcholine. Pharmacol Ther. 1990;47(1):35-60. Pubmed: 2195556
    13. Franklin RB, Zou J, Yu Z, Costello LC: EAAC1 is expressed in rat and human prostate epithelial cells; functions as a high-affinity L-aspartate transporter; and is regulated by prolactin and testosterone. BMC Biochem. 2006 Mar 27;7:10. Pubmed: 16566829
    14. Advani SJ, Hagglund R, Weichselbaum RR, Roizman B: Posttranslational processing of infected cell proteins 0 and 4 of herpes simplex virus 1 is sequential and reflects the subcellular compartment in which the proteins localize. J Virol. 2001 Sep;75(17):7904-12. Pubmed: 11483735
    15. Wang M, Meng Z, Fu J: Synthesis and biodistribution of six novel 99mTc complexes of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde-amino acid Schiff bases. Appl Radiat Isot. 2006 Feb;64(2):235-40. Pubmed: 16309915
    16. Fisher G, Lopez S, Peterson K, Goff T, Philip I, Gaviria R, Lorenzo N, Tsesarskaia M: Is there a correlation between age and D: -aspartic acid in human knee cartilage? Amino Acids. 2006 Jun 1;. Pubmed: 16738792
    17. Baslow MH: Brain N-acetylaspartate as a molecular water pump and its role in the etiology of Canavan disease: a mechanistic explanation. J Mol Neurosci. 2003;21(3):185-90. Pubmed: 14645985
    18. Shao B, Belaaouaj A, Verlinde CL, Fu X, Heinecke JW: Methionine sulfoxide and proteolytic cleavage contribute to the inactivation of cathepsin G by hypochlorous acid: an oxidative mechanism for regulation of serine proteinases by myeloperoxidase. J Biol Chem. 2005 Aug 12;280(32):29311-21. Epub 2005 Jun 20. Pubmed: 15967795
    19. Rose CH, Thigpen BD, Bofill JA, Cushman J, May WL, Martin JN Jr: Obstetric implications of antepartum corticosteroid therapy for HELLP syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Nov;104(5 Pt 1):1011-4. Pubmed: 15516393
    20. Bhende PM, Seaman WT, Delecluse HJ, Kenney SC: BZLF1 activation of the methylated form of the BRLF1 immediate-early promoter is regulated by BZLF1 residue 186. J Virol. 2005 Jun;79(12):7338-48. Pubmed: 15919888
    21. Butterworth RF: Pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy: a new look at ammonia. Metab Brain Dis. 2002 Dec;17(4):221-7. Pubmed: 12602499

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
    Specific function:
    Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    GOT1
    Uniprot ID:
    P17174
    Molecular weight:
    46247.14
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid → Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Tordjman J, Leroyer S, Chauvet G, Quette J, Chauvet C, Tomkiewicz C, Chapron C, Barouki R, Forest C, Aggerbeck M, Antoine B: Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase, a new partner in adipocyte glyceroneogenesis and an atypical target of thiazolidinedione. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 10;282(32):23591-602. Epub 2007 Jun 1. Pubmed: 17545671
    2. Girgin S, Gedik E, Tacyildiz IH, Akgun Y, Bac B, Uysal E: Factors affecting morbidity and mortality in gangrenous cholecystitis. Acta Chir Belg. 2006 Sep-Oct;106(5):545-9. Pubmed: 17168267
    3. Guidetti P, Amori L, Sapko MT, Okuno E, Schwarcz R: Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate-producing enzyme in the mammalian brain. J Neurochem. 2007 Jul;102(1):103-11. Epub 2007 Apr 17. Pubmed: 17442055
    4. Wu ZM, Wen T, Tan YF, Liu Y, Ren F, Wu H: Effects of salvianolic acid a on oxidative stress and liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007 Feb;100(2):115-20. Pubmed: 17244260
    5. Zappacosta B, Manni A, Persichilli S, Boari A, Scribano D, Minucci A, Raffaelli L, Giardina B, De Sole P: Salivary thiols and enzyme markers of cell damage in periodontal disease. Clin Biochem. 2007 Jun;40(9-10):661-5. Epub 2007 Jan 26. Pubmed: 17328883
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. Important for metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Facilitates cellular uptake of long-chain free fatty acids.
    Gene Name:
    GOT2
    Uniprot ID:
    P00505
    Molecular weight:
    47517.285
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid → Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Collier RH, Kohlhaw G: Nonidentity of the aspartate and the aromatic aminotransferase components of transaminase A in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1972 Oct;112(1):365-71. Pubmed: 4404056
    4. Grell EH: Genetic analysis of aspartate aminotransferase isozymes from hybrids between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans and mutagen-induced isozyme variants. Genetics. 1976 Aug;83(4):753-64. Pubmed: 823072
    5. Recasens M, Mandel P: Similarities between cysteinesulphinate transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase. Ciba Found Symp. 1979;(72):259-70. Pubmed: 261660
    6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed: 10592235
    General function:
    Involved in nucleic acid binding
    Specific function:
    Endonuclease that catalyzes the cleavage of RNA on the 3' side of pyrimidine nucleotides. Acts on single stranded and double stranded RNA
    Gene Name:
    RNASE1
    Uniprot ID:
    P07998
    Molecular weight:
    17644.1
    References
    1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed: 10592235
    General function:
    Involved in metallopeptidase activity
    Specific function:
    Involved in the hydrolysis of N-acylated or N-acetylated amino acids (except L-aspartate).
    Gene Name:
    ACY1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q03154
    Molecular weight:
    45884.705
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Mitta M, Ohnogi H, Yamamoto A, Kato I, Sakiyama F, Tsunasawa S: The primary structure of porcine aminoacylase 1 deduced from cDNA sequence. J Biochem. 1992 Dec;112(6):737-42. Pubmed: 1284246
    General function:
    Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the deacetylation of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) to produce acetate and L-aspartate. NAA occurs in high concentration in brain and its hydrolysis NAA plays a significant part in the maintenance of intact white matter. In other tissues it act as a scavenger of NAA from body fluids.
    Gene Name:
    ASPA
    Uniprot ID:
    P45381
    Molecular weight:
    35734.79
    Reactions
    N-acyl-L-aspartate + Water → a carboxylate + L-Aspartic aciddetails
    N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid + Water → Acetic acid + L-Aspartic aciddetails
    N-Formyl-L-aspartate + Water → Formic acid + L-Aspartic aciddetails
    References
    1. Wang J, Matalon R, Bhatia G, Wu G, Li H, Liu T, Lu ZH, Ledeen RW: Bimodal occurrence of aspartoacylase in myelin and cytosol of brain. J Neurochem. 2007 Apr;101(2):448-57. Epub 2007 Jan 24. Pubmed: 17254025
    2. Bitto E, Bingman CA, Wesenberg GE, McCoy JG, Phillips GN Jr: Structure of aspartoacylase, the brain enzyme impaired in Canavan disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 9;104(2):456-61. Epub 2006 Dec 28. Pubmed: 17194761
    3. Janson CG, McPhee SW, Francis J, Shera D, Assadi M, Freese A, Hurh P, Haselgrove J, Wang DJ, Bilaniuk L, Leone P: Natural history of Canavan disease revealed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and diffusion-weighted MRI. Neuropediatrics. 2006 Aug;37(4):209-21. Pubmed: 17177147
    4. Srikanth SG, Chandrashekar HS, Nagarajan K, Jayakumar PN: Restricted diffusion in Canavan disease. Childs Nerv Syst. 2007 Apr;23(4):465-8. Epub 2007 Jan 12. Pubmed: 17219235
    5. Moffett JR, Ross B, Arun P, Madhavarao CN, Namboodiri AM: N-Acetylaspartate in the CNS: from neurodiagnostics to neurobiology. Prog Neurobiol. 2007 Feb;81(2):89-131. Epub 2007 Jan 5. Pubmed: 17275978
    General function:
    Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
    Specific function:
    Plays an important role in deacetylating mercapturic acids in kidney proximal tubules (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    ACY3
    Uniprot ID:
    Q96HD9
    Molecular weight:
    Not Available
    Reactions
    N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid + Water → Acetic acid + L-Aspartic aciddetails
    N-Formyl-L-aspartate + Water → Formic acid + L-Aspartic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    General function:
    Involved in asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    ASNS
    Uniprot ID:
    P08243
    Molecular weight:
    62167.855
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    General function:
    Involved in nucleotide binding
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a 2 step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA.
    Gene Name:
    DARS
    Uniprot ID:
    P14868
    Molecular weight:
    57135.8
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + tRNA(Asp) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-aspartyl-tRNA(Asp)details
    tRNA(Asp) + L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate → L-Aspartyl-tRNA(Asp) + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphatedetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Eiler S, Dock-Bregeon A, Moulinier L, Thierry JC, Moras D: Synthesis of aspartyl-tRNA(Asp) in Escherichia coli--a snapshot of the second step. EMBO J. 1999 Nov 15;18(22):6532-41. Pubmed: 10562565
    4. Fender A, Sauter C, Messmer M, Putz J, Giege R, Florentz C, Sissler M: Loss of a primordial identity element for a mammalian mitochondrial aminoacylation system. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 9;281(23):15980-6. Epub 2006 Apr 5. Pubmed: 16597625
    5. Cavarelli J, Eriani G, Rees B, Ruff M, Boeglin M, Mitschler A, Martin F, Gangloff J, Thierry JC, Moras D: The active site of yeast aspartyl-tRNA synthetase: structural and functional aspects of the aminoacylation reaction. EMBO J. 1994 Jan 15;13(2):327-37. Pubmed: 8313877
    General function:
    Involved in argininosuccinate synthase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    ASS1
    Uniprot ID:
    P00966
    Molecular weight:
    46530.055
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + Citrulline + L-Aspartic acid → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Argininosuccinic aciddetails
    Adenosine triphosphate + Citrulline + L-Aspartic acid → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Argininosuccinic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Flam BR, Eichler DC, Solomonson LP: Endothelial nitric oxide production is tightly coupled to the citrulline-NO cycle. Nitric Oxide. 2007 Nov-Dec;17(3-4):115-21. Epub 2007 Aug 3. Pubmed: 17869551
    4. Ben-Yoseph Y, Mitchell DA: Detection of kinetically abnormal argininosuccinate synthase in neonatal citrullinemia by conversion of citrulline to arginine in intact fibroblasts. Clin Chim Acta. 1989 Aug 15;183(2):125-33. Pubmed: 2791302
    5. Shen LJ, Beloussow K, Shen WC: Accessibility of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase to the intracellular citrulline-arginine regeneration pathway. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Jan 1;69(1):97-104. Pubmed: 15588718
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    May be involved in learning and memory reactions by increasing the turnover of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    GLUD1
    Uniprot ID:
    P00367
    Molecular weight:
    61397.315
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the production of GABA.
    Gene Name:
    GAD2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q05329
    Molecular weight:
    65410.77
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the production of GABA.
    Gene Name:
    GAD1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q99259
    Molecular weight:
    66896.065
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in adenylosuccinate synthase activity
    Specific function:
    Plays an important role in the de novo pathway and in the salvage pathway of purine nucleotide biosynthesis. Catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of AMP from IMP.
    Gene Name:
    ADSS
    Uniprot ID:
    P30520
    Molecular weight:
    50097.075
    Reactions
    Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + Adenylsuccinic aciddetails
    Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + N(6)-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)AMPdetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Raman J, Mehrotra S, Anand RP, Balaram H: Unique kinetic mechanism of Plasmodium falciparum adenylosuccinate synthetase. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2004 Nov;138(1):1-8. Pubmed: 15500910
    4. Mehrotra S, Balaram H: Kinetic characterization of adenylosuccinate synthetase from the thermophilic archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Biochemistry. 2007 Nov 6;46(44):12821-32. Epub 2007 Oct 11. Pubmed: 17929831
    5. Datta SK, Guicherit OM, Kellems RE: Adenylosuccinate synthetase: a dominant amplifiable genetic marker in mammalian cells. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1994 Sep;20(5):381-9. Pubmed: 7825060
    General function:
    Involved in adenylosuccinate synthase activity
    Specific function:
    Component of the purine nucleotide cycle (PNC), which interconverts IMP and AMP to regulate the nucleotide levels in various tissues, and which contributes to glycolysis and ammoniagenesis. Catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of AMP from IMP (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    ADSSL1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8N142
    Molecular weight:
    50208.16
    Reactions
    Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + Adenylsuccinic aciddetails
    Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + N(6)-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)AMPdetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    General function:
    Involved in phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    PAICS
    Uniprot ID:
    P22234
    Molecular weight:
    47078.82
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate + L-Aspartic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + SAICARdetails
    Adenosine triphosphate + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate + L-Aspartic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + SAICARdetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    General function:
    Involved in hydrolase activity
    Specific function:
    Cleaves the GlcNAc-Asn bond which joins oligosaccharides to the peptide of asparagine-linked glycoproteins.
    Gene Name:
    AGA
    Uniprot ID:
    P20933
    Molecular weight:
    37207.955
    Reactions
    N(4)-(beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)-L-asparagine + Water → N-Acetyl-b-glucosaminylamine + L-Aspartic aciddetails
    General function:
    Involved in peptide-aspartate beta-dioxygenase activity
    Specific function:
    Isoform 1: specifically hydroxylates an Asp or Asn residue in certain epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) domains of a number of proteins. Isoform 8: membrane-bound Ca(2+)-sensing protein, which is a structural component of the ER-plasma membrane junctions. Isoform 8 regulates the activity of Ca(+2) released-activated Ca(+2) (CRAC) channels in T-cells.
    Gene Name:
    ASPH
    Uniprot ID:
    Q12797
    Molecular weight:
    83267.47
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Whiteman P, Marks C, Freese E: The sodium effect of Bacillus subtilis growth on aspartate. J Gen Microbiol. 1980 Aug;119(2):493-504. Pubmed: 6785382
    4. Iijima T, Diesterhaft MD, Freese E: Sodium effect of growth on aspartate and genetic analysis of a Bacillus subtilis mutant with high aspartase activity. J Bacteriol. 1977 Mar;129(3):1440-7. Pubmed: 403177
    General function:
    Involved in lysozyme activity
    Specific function:
    Lysozymes have primarily a bacteriolytic function; those in tissues and body fluids are associated with the monocyte- macrophage system and enhance the activity of immunoagents
    Gene Name:
    LYZ
    Uniprot ID:
    P61626
    Molecular weight:
    16536.9
    References
    1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed: 10592235
    General function:
    Involved in transporter activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the calcium-dependent exchange of cytoplasmic glutamate with mitochondrial aspartate across the mitochondrial inner membrane. May have a function in the urea cycle.
    Gene Name:
    SLC25A13
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UJS0
    Molecular weight:
    74303.085
    References
    1. Contreras L, Gomez-Puertas P, Iijima M, Kobayashi K, Saheki T, Satrustegui J: Ca2+ Activation kinetics of the two aspartate-glutamate mitochondrial carriers, aralar and citrin: role in the heart malate-aspartate NADH shuttle. J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 9;282(10):7098-106. Epub 2007 Jan 9. Pubmed: 17213189
    2. Saheki T, Iijima M, Li MX, Kobayashi K, Horiuchi M, Ushikai M, Okumura F, Meng XJ, Inoue I, Tajima A, Moriyama M, Eto K, Kadowaki T, Sinasac DS, Tsui LC, Tsuji M, Okano A, Kobayashi T: Citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knock-out mice recapitulate features of human citrin deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 24;282(34):25041-52. Epub 2007 Jun 25. Pubmed: 17591776
    3. Satrustegui J, Pardo B, Del Arco A: Mitochondrial transporters as novel targets for intracellular calcium signaling. Physiol Rev. 2007 Jan;87(1):29-67. Pubmed: 17237342
    4. Ikeda S: [Adult-onset citrullinemia]. Brain Nerve. 2007 Jan;59(1):59-66. Pubmed: 17354380
    5. Ikeda S: [Adult-onset citrullinemia]. No To Shinkei. 2007 Jan;59(1):59-66. Pubmed: 17228780
    General function:
    Involved in sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
    Specific function:
    Transports L-glutamate and also L- and D-aspartate. Essential for terminating the postsynaptic action of glutamate by rapidly removing released glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Acts as a symport by cotransporting sodium. Negatively regulated by ARL6IP5
    Gene Name:
    SLC1A1
    Uniprot ID:
    P43005
    Molecular weight:
    57099.8
    References
    1. Tao Z, Grewer C: Cooperation of the conserved aspartate 439 and bound amino acid substrate is important for high-affinity Na+ binding to the glutamate transporter EAAC1. J Gen Physiol. 2007 Apr;129(4):331-44. Pubmed: 17389249
    2. Teichman S, Kanner BI: Aspartate-444 is essential for productive substrate interactions in a neuronal glutamate transporter. J Gen Physiol. 2007 Jun;129(6):527-39. Pubmed: 17535962
    3. Tai YH, Wang YH, Tsai RY, Wang JJ, Tao PL, Liu TM, Wang YC, Wong CS: Amitriptyline preserves morphine's antinociceptive effect by regulating the glutamate transporter GLAST and GLT-1 trafficking and excitatory amino acids concentration in morphine-tolerant rats. Pain. 2007 Jun;129(3):343-54. Epub 2007 Mar 7. Pubmed: 17346885
    4. Ozawa S: [Role of glutamate transporters in excitatory synapses in cerebellar Purkinje cells]. Brain Nerve. 2007 Jul;59(7):669-76. Pubmed: 17663137
    General function:
    Involved in transporter activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the calcium-dependent exchange of cytoplasmic glutamate with mitochondrial aspartate across the mitochondrial inner membrane. May have a function in the urea cycle.
    Gene Name:
    SLC25A12
    Uniprot ID:
    O75746
    Molecular weight:
    74761.225
    References
    1. Correia C, Coutinho AM, Diogo L, Grazina M, Marques C, Miguel T, Ataide A, Almeida J, Borges L, Oliveira C, Oliveira G, Vicente AM: Brief report: High frequency of biochemical markers for mitochondrial dysfunction in autism: no association with the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier SLC25A12 gene. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006 Nov;36(8):1137-40. Pubmed: 17151801
    2. Contreras L, Gomez-Puertas P, Iijima M, Kobayashi K, Saheki T, Satrustegui J: Ca2+ Activation kinetics of the two aspartate-glutamate mitochondrial carriers, aralar and citrin: role in the heart malate-aspartate NADH shuttle. J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 9;282(10):7098-106. Epub 2007 Jan 9. Pubmed: 17213189
    3. Satrustegui J, Contreras L, Ramos M, Marmol P, del Arco A, Saheki T, Pardo B: Role of aralar, the mitochondrial transporter of aspartate-glutamate, in brain N-acetylaspartate formation and Ca(2+) signaling in neuronal mitochondria. J Neurosci Res. 2007 Nov 15;85(15):3359-66. Pubmed: 17497669
    4. Satrustegui J, Pardo B, Del Arco A: Mitochondrial transporters as novel targets for intracellular calcium signaling. Physiol Rev. 2007 Jan;87(1):29-67. Pubmed: 17237342
    General function:
    Involved in hydrolase activity
    Specific function:
    This protein is a "fusion" protein encoding four enzymatic activities of the pyrimidine pathway (GATase, CPSase, ATCase and DHOase).
    Gene Name:
    CAD
    Uniprot ID:
    P27708
    Molecular weight:
    242981.73
    Reactions
    Carbamoyl phosphate + L-Aspartic acid → Phosphoric acid + Ureidosuccinic aciddetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    General function:
    Involved in hydrolase activity
    Specific function:
    Has both L-asparaginase and beta-aspartyl peptidase activity. May be involved in the production of L-aspartate, which can act as an excitatory neurotransmitter in some brain regions. Is highly active with L-Asp beta-methyl ester. Besides, has catalytic activity toward beta-aspartyl dipeptides and their methyl esters, including beta-L-Asp-L-Phe, beta-L-Asp-L-Phe methyl ester (aspartame), beta-L-Asp-L-Ala, beta-L-Asp-L-Leu and beta-L-Asp-L-Lys. Does not have aspartylglucosaminidase activity and is inactive toward GlcNAc-L-Asn. Likewise, has no activity toward glutamine.
    Gene Name:
    ASRGL1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q7L266
    Molecular weight:
    32054.325
    Reactions
    L-Asparagine + Water → L-Aspartic acid + Ammoniadetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    General function:
    Involved in asparaginase activity
    Specific function:
    Exhibits lysophospholipase, transacylase, PAF acetylhydrolase and asparaginase activities.
    Gene Name:
    ASPG
    Uniprot ID:
    Q86U10
    Molecular weight:
    60882.4
    Reactions
    L-Asparagine + Water → L-Aspartic acid + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Lysosomal L-amino-acid oxidase with highest specific activity with phenylalanine. May play a role in lysosomal antigen processing and presentation (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    IL4I1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q96RQ9
    Molecular weight:
    65327.26
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid + Water + Oxygen → Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Specifically catalyzes the NAD or NADP-dependent dehydrogenation of L-aspartate to iminoaspartate (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    ASPDH
    Uniprot ID:
    A6ND91
    Molecular weight:
    18655.255
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) → Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)Hdetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    GOT1L1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8NHS2
    Molecular weight:
    47304.72
    Reactions
    L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid → Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
    Specific function:
    L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate
    Gene Name:
    GIG18
    Uniprot ID:
    Q2TU84
    Molecular weight:
    46319.2
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    General function:
    Involved in argininosuccinate synthase activity
    Specific function:
    ATP + L-citrulline + L-aspartate = AMP + diphosphate + N(omega)-(L-arginino)succinate
    Gene Name:
    ASS1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q5T6L4
    Molecular weight:
    46530.1
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Flam BR, Eichler DC, Solomonson LP: Endothelial nitric oxide production is tightly coupled to the citrulline-NO cycle. Nitric Oxide. 2007 Nov-Dec;17(3-4):115-21. Epub 2007 Aug 3. Pubmed: 17869551
    4. Ben-Yoseph Y, Mitchell DA: Detection of kinetically abnormal argininosuccinate synthase in neonatal citrullinemia by conversion of citrulline to arginine in intact fibroblasts. Clin Chim Acta. 1989 Aug 15;183(2):125-33. Pubmed: 2791302
    5. Shen LJ, Beloussow K, Shen WC: Accessibility of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase to the intracellular citrulline-arginine regeneration pathway. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Jan 1;69(1):97-104. Pubmed: 15588718
    General function:
    Involved in nucleotide binding
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    DARS2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q6PI48
    Molecular weight:
    73562.02
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + tRNA(Asp) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-aspartyl-tRNA(Asp)details
    tRNA(Asp) + L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate → L-Aspartyl-tRNA(Asp) + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphatedetails
    References
    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
    3. Eiler S, Dock-Bregeon A, Moulinier L, Thierry JC, Moras D: Synthesis of aspartyl-tRNA(Asp) in Escherichia coli--a snapshot of the second step. EMBO J. 1999 Nov 15;18(22):6532-41. Pubmed: 10562565
    4. Fender A, Sauter C, Messmer M, Putz J, Giege R, Florentz C, Sissler M: Loss of a primordial identity element for a mammalian mitochondrial aminoacylation system. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 9;281(23):15980-6. Epub 2006 Apr 5. Pubmed: 16597625
    5. Cavarelli J, Eriani G, Rees B, Ruff M, Boeglin M, Mitschler A, Martin F, Gangloff J, Thierry JC, Moras D: The active site of yeast aspartyl-tRNA synthetase: structural and functional aspects of the aminoacylation reaction. EMBO J. 1994 Jan 15;13(2):327-37. Pubmed: 8313877
    General function:
    Not Available
    Specific function:
    Plays a role in the regulation of lipogenesis by producing N-acetylaspartate acid (NAA), a brain-specific metabolite. NAA occurs in high concentration in brain and its hydrolysis plays a significant part in the maintenance of intact white matter. Promotes dopamine uptake by regulating TNF-alpha expression. Attenuates methamphetamine-induced inhibition of dopamine uptake.
    Gene Name:
    NAT8L
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8N9F0
    Molecular weight:
    32836.875
    Reactions
    Acetyl-CoA + L-Aspartic acid → Coenzyme A + N-Acetyl-L-aspartic aciddetails

    Transporters

    General function:
    Involved in transmembrane transport
    Specific function:
    Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells
    Gene Name:
    SLC16A10
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8TF71
    Molecular weight:
    55492.1
    References
    1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. Pubmed: 11278508