Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for L-Aspartic acid (HMDB00191)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2005-11-16 08:48:42 -0700
Update Date 2013-02-08 17:08:03 -0700
HMDB ID HMDB00191
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name L-Aspartic acid
Description Aspartic acid (Asp, D), also known as aspartate, the name of its anion, is one of the 20 natural proteinogenic amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. As its name indicates, aspartic acid is the carboxylic acid analog of asparagine. As a neurotransmitter, aspartic acid may provide resistance to fatigue and thus lead to endurance, although the evidence to support this idea is not strong. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspartic_acid) Aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acid which is made from glutamic acid by enzymes using vitamin B6. The amino acid has important roles in the urea cycle and DNA metabolism. Aspartic acid is a major excitatory neurotransmitter, which is sometimes found to be increased in epileptic and stroke patients. It is decreased in depressed patients and in patients with brain atrophy. Aspartic acid supplements are being evaluated. Five grams can raise blood levels. Magnesium and zinc may be natural inhibitors of some of the actions of aspartic acid. Aspartic acid, with the amino acid phenylalanine, is a part of a new natural sweetener, aspartame. This sweetener is an advance in artificial sweeteners, and is probably safe in normal doses to all except phenylketonurics. The jury is still out on the long term effects it has on many brain neurohormones. Aspartic acid may be a significant immunostimulant of the thymus and can protect against some of the damaging effects of radiation. Many claims have been made for the special value of administering aspartic acid in the form of potassium and magnesium salts. Since aspartic acid is relatively nontoxic, studies are now in progress to elucidate its pharmacological and therapeutic roles. (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids).
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. Asp
  2. (+)-Aspartate
  3. (+)-Aspartic acid
  4. (2S)-Aspartate
  5. (2S)-Aspartic acid
  6. (L)-Aspartate
  7. (L)-Aspartic acid
  8. (R)-2-aminosuccinate
  9. (S)-(+)-Aspartate
  10. (S)-(+)-Aspartic acid
  11. (S)-2-aminosuccinate
  12. (S)-2-aminosuccinic acid
  13. (S)-amino-Butanedioate
  14. (S)-amino-Butanedioic acid
  15. (S)-Aminobutanedioate
  16. (S)-Aminobutanedioic acid
  17. (S)-Aspartate
  18. (S)-Aspartic acid
  19. 2-Amino-3-methylsuccinate
  20. 2-Amino-3-methylsuccinic acid
  21. 2-Aminosuccinate
  22. 2-Aminosuccinic acid
  23. alpha-Aminosuccinate
  24. alpha-Aminosuccinic acid
  25. Aminosuccinate
  26. Asparagate
  27. Asparagic acid
  28. Asparaginate
  29. Asparaginic acid
  30. Asparatate
  31. Aspartate
  32. H-Asp-OH
  33. L-(+)-Aspartate
  34. L-(+)-Aspartic acid
  35. L-Aminosuccinate
  36. L-Aminosuccinic acid
  37. L-Asparagate
  38. L-Asparagic acid
  39. L-Asparaginate
  40. L-Asparaginic acid
  41. L-Aspartate
Chemical Formula C4H7NO4
Average Molecular Weight 133.1027
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 133.037507717
IUPAC Name (2S)-2-aminobutanedioic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name L-aspartic acid
CAS Registry Number 56-84-8
SMILES N[C@@H](CC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C4H7NO4/c5-2(4(8)9)1-3(6)7/h2H,1,5H2,(H,6,7)(H,8,9)/t2-/m0/s1
InChI Key CKLJMWTZIZZHCS-REOHCLBHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Class Amino Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class Alpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Amino acids(KEGG)
  • Common amino acids(KEGG)
  • L-alpha-amino acid(ChEBI)
  • aspartic acid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,3 Aminoalcohol
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Dicarboxylic Acid Derivative
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
  • Succinic Acid
Direct Parent Alpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Histidine metabolism
  • Component of Nitrogen metabolism
  • Component of Novobiocin biosynthesis
  • Component of Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Component of Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
  • Essential amino acid
  • Non-essential amino acid
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 270 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 5.39 mg/mL YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
LogP -3.89 CHMELIK,J ET AL. (1991)
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
Water Solubility 142 g/L ALOGPS
LogP -3.52 ALOGPS
LogP -3.5 ChemAxon
LogS 0.03 ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic) 1.7 ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic) 9.61 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 5 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 3 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 100.62 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 3 ChemAxon
Refractivity 26.53 ChemAxon
Polarizability 11.4 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 0 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge -1 ChemAxon
Spectra
Gas-MS Spectrum
1H NMR Spectrum
13C NMR Spectrum
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 10
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 25
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 40
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
Transcription/Translation SMP00019 Not Available
Arginine and Proline Metabolism SMP00020 map00330 Link_out
Aspartate Metabolism SMP00067 map00250 Link_out
Urea Cycle SMP00059 map00330 Link_out
Beta-Alanine Metabolism SMP00007 map00410 Link_out
Malate-Aspartate Shuttle SMP00129 Not Available
Ammonia Recycling SMP00009 map00910 Link_out
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
21.0 +/- 5.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
20.0 +/- 5.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
20.9 +/- 6.1 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
2.30 (0.0-4.6) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
2.8 +/- 1.2 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
1.8 +/- 0.2 uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.6 +/- 0.3 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
2.19 +/- 2.63 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.23 +/- 0.18 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Saliva Detected and Quantified
>10 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
1.36 +/- 1.06 umol/mmol creatinine Infant (0-1 year old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.32 (0.30-0.45) umol/mmol creatinine Newborn (0-30 days old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
10.9 (3.5-21.8) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
5.2 +/- 6.15 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
10.9 (1.9-26.8) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.5 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
4.638 (1.711-7.566) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 36.0 +/- 9.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Cirrhosis
Blood Detected and Quantified 3.9 (3.7-4.1) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Epilepsy
Blood Detected and Quantified 11.8 (10.9-12.7) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Epilepsy
Blood Detected and Quantified 12.67 +/- 2.86 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Alzheimer's disease
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 0.233 +/- 0.081 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Growth hormone deficiency
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 0.24 +/- 0.10 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Schizophrenia
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Epilepsy
  • Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292 Link_out
      Growth hormone deficiency
      • Burman P, Hetta J, Wide L, Mansson JE, Ekman R, Karlsson FA: Growth hormone treatment affects brain neurotransmitters and thyroxine [see comment] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1996 Mar;44(3):319-24. Pubmed: 8729530 Link_out
          Cirrhosis
          • Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216 Link_out
              Alzheimer's disease
              • Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed: 17031479 Link_out
                  Schizophrenia
                  • Do KQ, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Zollinger M, Gutteck-Amsler U, Cuenod M, Holsboer F: gamma-Glutamylglutamine and taurine concentrations are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug-naive patients with schizophrenic disorders. J Neurochem. 1995 Dec;65(6):2652-62. Pubmed: 7595563 Link_out
                      Associated OMIM IDs
                      DrugBank ID DB00128 Link_out
                      DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
                      Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
                      Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
                      FoodDB ID FDB012567
                      KNApSAcK ID C00001342 Link_out
                      Chemspider ID 5745 Link_out
                      KEGG Compound ID C00049 Link_out
                      BioCyc ID L-ASPARTATE Link_out
                      BiGG ID 33663 Link_out
                      Wikipedia Link Asp Link_out
                      NuGOwiki Link HMDB00191 Link_out
                      Metagene Link HMDB00191 Link_out
                      METLIN ID 5206 Link_out
                      PubChem Compound 5960 Link_out
                      PDB ID ASP Link_out
                      ChEBI ID 17053 Link_out
                      References
                      Synthesis Reference Pamfil, Maria; Lupescu, Irina; Savoiu, Valeria Gabriela. L-aspartic acid production from fumarate using Escherichia coli whole cells. Rom. (2005), 3pp.
                      Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
                      General References
                      1. Fujii N: D-amino acid in elderly tissues. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Sep;28(9):1585-9. Pubmed: 16141520 Link_out
                      2. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216 Link_out
                      3. Grdzelishvili VZ, Smallwood S, Tower D, Hall RL, Hunt DM, Moyer SA: A single amino acid change in the L-polymerase protein of vesicular stomatitis virus completely abolishes viral mRNA cap methylation. J Virol. 2005 Jun;79(12):7327-37. Pubmed: 15919887 Link_out
                      4. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292 Link_out
                      5. Lockridge O: Genetic variants of human serum cholinesterase influence metabolism of the muscle relaxant succinylcholine. Pharmacol Ther. 1990;47(1):35-60. Pubmed: 2195556 Link_out
                      6. Franklin RB, Zou J, Yu Z, Costello LC: EAAC1 is expressed in rat and human prostate epithelial cells; functions as a high-affinity L-aspartate transporter; and is regulated by prolactin and testosterone. BMC Biochem. 2006 Mar 27;7:10. Pubmed: 16566829 Link_out
                      7. Advani SJ, Hagglund R, Weichselbaum RR, Roizman B: Posttranslational processing of infected cell proteins 0 and 4 of herpes simplex virus 1 is sequential and reflects the subcellular compartment in which the proteins localize. J Virol. 2001 Sep;75(17):7904-12. Pubmed: 11483735 Link_out
                      8. Wang M, Meng Z, Fu J: Synthesis and biodistribution of six novel 99mTc complexes of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde-amino acid Schiff bases. Appl Radiat Isot. 2006 Feb;64(2):235-40. Pubmed: 16309915 Link_out
                      9. Fisher G, Lopez S, Peterson K, Goff T, Philip I, Gaviria R, Lorenzo N, Tsesarskaia M: Is there a correlation between age and D: -aspartic acid in human knee cartilage? Amino Acids. 2006 Jun 1;. Pubmed: 16738792 Link_out
                      10. Baslow MH: Brain N-acetylaspartate as a molecular water pump and its role in the etiology of Canavan disease: a mechanistic explanation. J Mol Neurosci. 2003;21(3):185-90. Pubmed: 14645985 Link_out
                      11. Shao B, Belaaouaj A, Verlinde CL, Fu X, Heinecke JW: Methionine sulfoxide and proteolytic cleavage contribute to the inactivation of cathepsin G by hypochlorous acid: an oxidative mechanism for regulation of serine proteinases by myeloperoxidase. J Biol Chem. 2005 Aug 12;280(32):29311-21. Epub 2005 Jun 20. Pubmed: 15967795 Link_out
                      12. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436 Link_out
                      13. Rose CH, Thigpen BD, Bofill JA, Cushman J, May WL, Martin JN Jr: Obstetric implications of antepartum corticosteroid therapy for HELLP syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Nov;104(5 Pt 1):1011-4. Pubmed: 15516393 Link_out
                      14. Chiara F, Goumans MJ, Forsberg H, Ahgren A, Rasola A, Aspenstrom P, Wernstedt C, Hellberg C, Heldin CH, Heuchel R: A gain of function mutation in the activation loop of platelet-derived growth factor beta-receptor deregulates its kinase activity. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 8;279(41):42516-27. Epub 2004 Jul 28. Pubmed: 15284236 Link_out
                      15. Bhende PM, Seaman WT, Delecluse HJ, Kenney SC: BZLF1 activation of the methylated form of the BRLF1 immediate-early promoter is regulated by BZLF1 residue 186. J Virol. 2005 Jun;79(12):7338-48. Pubmed: 15919888 Link_out
                      16. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. Pubmed: 6696735 Link_out
                      17. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. Pubmed: 12834252 Link_out
                      18. Burman P, Hetta J, Wide L, Mansson JE, Ekman R, Karlsson FA: Growth hormone treatment affects brain neurotransmitters and thyroxine [see comment] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1996 Mar;44(3):319-24. Pubmed: 8729530 Link_out
                      19. Butterworth RF: Pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy: a new look at ammonia. Metab Brain Dis. 2002 Dec;17(4):221-7. Pubmed: 12602499 Link_out
                      20. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. Pubmed: 6198473 Link_out
                      21. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411 Link_out

                      Enzymes
                      Name: Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic
                      Reactions:
                      L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                      Gene Name: GOT1
                      Uniprot ID: P17174 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
                      Reactions:
                      L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                      Gene Name: GOT2
                      Uniprot ID: P00505 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Ribonuclease pancreatic
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: RNASE1
                      Uniprot ID: P07998 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Aminoacylase-1
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: ACY1
                      Uniprot ID: Q03154 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Aspartoacylase
                      Reactions:
                      N-acyl-L-aspartate + Water unknown a carboxylate + L-Aspartic acid details
                      N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid + Water unknown Acetic acid + L-Aspartic acid details
                      N-Formyl-L-aspartate + Water unknown Formic acid + L-Aspartic acid details
                      Gene Name: ASPA
                      Uniprot ID: P45381 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Aspartoacylase-2
                      Reactions:
                      N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid + Water unknown Acetic acid + L-Aspartic acid details
                      N-Formyl-L-aspartate + Water unknown Formic acid + L-Aspartic acid details
                      Gene Name: ACY3
                      Uniprot ID: Q96HD9 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Asparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]
                      Reactions:
                      Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamic acid details
                      Gene Name: ASNS
                      Uniprot ID: P08243 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Aspartate--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
                      Reactions:
                      Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + tRNA(Asp) unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-aspartyl-tRNA(Asp) details
                      tRNA(Asp) + L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate unknown L-Aspartyl-tRNA(Asp) + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate details
                      Gene Name: DARS
                      Uniprot ID: P14868 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Argininosuccinate synthase
                      Reactions:
                      Adenosine triphosphate + Citrulline + L-Aspartic acid unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Argininosuccinic acid details
                      Adenosine triphosphate + Citrulline + L-Aspartic acid unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Argininosuccinic acid details
                      Gene Name: ASS1
                      Uniprot ID: P00966 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: GLUD1
                      Uniprot ID: P00367 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Glutamate decarboxylase 2
                      Reactions:
                      L-Aspartic acid unknown Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxide details
                      Gene Name: GAD2
                      Uniprot ID: Q05329 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Glutamate decarboxylase 1
                      Reactions:
                      L-Aspartic acid unknown Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxide details
                      Gene Name: GAD1
                      Uniprot ID: Q99259 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Adenylosuccinate synthetase isozyme 2
                      Reactions:
                      Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid unknown Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + Adenylsuccinic acid details
                      Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid unknown Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + N(6)-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)AMP details
                      Gene Name: ADSS
                      Uniprot ID: P30520 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Adenylosuccinate synthetase isozyme 1
                      Reactions:
                      Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid unknown Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + Adenylsuccinic acid details
                      Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid unknown Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + N(6)-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)AMP details
                      Gene Name: ADSSL1
                      Uniprot ID: Q8N142 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Multifunctional protein ADE2
                      Reactions:
                      Adenosine triphosphate + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate + L-Aspartic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + SAICAR details
                      Adenosine triphosphate + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate + L-Aspartic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + SAICAR details
                      Gene Name: PAICS
                      Uniprot ID: P22234 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: N(4)-(beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl)-L-asparaginase
                      Reactions:
                      N(4)-(beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)-L-asparagine + Water unknown N-Acetyl-b-glucosaminylamine + L-Aspartic acid details
                      Gene Name: AGA
                      Uniprot ID: P20933 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Aspartyl/asparaginyl beta-hydroxylase
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: ASPH
                      Uniprot ID: Q12797 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Lysozyme C
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: LYZ
                      Uniprot ID: P61626 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar2
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: SLC25A13
                      Uniprot ID: Q9UJS0 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Excitatory amino acid transporter 3
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: SLC1A1
                      Uniprot ID: P43005 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar1
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: SLC25A12
                      Uniprot ID: O75746 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: CAD protein
                      Reactions:
                      Carbamoyl phosphate + L-Aspartic acid unknown Phosphoric acid + Ureidosuccinic acid details
                      Gene Name: CAD
                      Uniprot ID: P27708 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Isoaspartyl peptidase/L-asparaginase
                      Reactions:
                      L-Asparagine + Water unknown L-Aspartic acid + Ammonia details
                      Gene Name: ASRGL1
                      Uniprot ID: Q7L266 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: 60 kDa lysophospholipase
                      Reactions:
                      L-Asparagine + Water unknown L-Aspartic acid + Ammonia details
                      Gene Name: ASPG
                      Uniprot ID: Q86U10 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: L-amino-acid oxidase
                      Reactions:
                      L-Aspartic acid + Water + Oxygen unknown Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
                      Gene Name: IL4I1
                      Uniprot ID: Q96RQ9 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Putative L-aspartate dehydrogenase
                      Reactions:
                      L-Aspartic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) unknown Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)H details
                      Gene Name: ASPDH
                      Uniprot ID: A6ND91 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Putative aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic 2
                      Reactions:
                      L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
                      Gene Name: GOT1L1
                      Uniprot ID: Q8NHS2 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Aspartate aminotransferase
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: GIG18
                      Uniprot ID: Q2TU84 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Argininosuccinate synthase
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: ASS1
                      Uniprot ID: Q5T6L4 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: Aspartate--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
                      Reactions:
                      Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + tRNA(Asp) unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-aspartyl-tRNA(Asp) details
                      tRNA(Asp) + L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate unknown L-Aspartyl-tRNA(Asp) + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate details
                      Gene Name: DARS2
                      Uniprot ID: Q6PI48 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                      Name: N-acetylaspartate synthetase
                      Reactions:
                      Acetyl-CoA + L-Aspartic acid unknown Coenzyme A + N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid details
                      Gene Name: NAT8L
                      Uniprot ID: Q8N9F0 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Transporters
                      Name: Monocarboxylate transporter 10
                      Reactions: Not Available
                      Gene Name: SLC16A10
                      Uniprot ID: Q8TF71 Link_out
                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                      Gene Sequence: FASTA