You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-08-16 03:13:06 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000206
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00206
Metabolite Identification
Common NameN6-Acetyl-L-lysine
DescriptionN-acetyl-lysine is an acetylated amino acid. Post-translational lysine-acetylation is one of two major modifications of lysine residues in various proteins. Acetylation of specific lysine residues in the N-terminal domains of core histones is a biochemical marker of active genes. Acetylation is now known to play a major role in eukaryotic transcription. Specifically, acetyltransferase enzymes that act on particular lysine side chains of histones and other proteins are intimately involved in transcriptional activation. By modifying chromatin proteins and transcription-related factors, these acetylases are believed to regulate the transcription of many genes. The best-characterized mechanism is acetylation, catalyzed by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes. HATs function enzymatically by transferring an acetyl group from acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to the -amino group of certain lysine side chains within a histone's basic N-terminal tail region. Within a histone octamer, these regions extend out from the associated globular domains, and in the context of a nucleosome, they are believed to bind the DNA through charge interactions (positively charged histone tails associated with negatively charged DNA) or mediate interactions between nucleosomes. Lysine acetylation, which neutralizes part of a tail region's positive charge, is postulated to weaken histone-DNA or nucleosome-nucleosome interactions and/or signal a conformational change, thereby destabilizing nucleosome structure or arrangement and giving other nuclear factors, such as the transcription complex, more access to a genetic locus. In agreement with this is the fact that acetylated chromatin has long been associated with states of transcriptional activation. Specific recognition of N-acetyl-lysine is a conserved function of all bromodomains found in different proteins, recognized as an emerging intracellular signaling mechanism that plays critical roles in regulating gene transcription, cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, DNA repair, and cytoskeletal organization. (PMID 9169194 , 10827952 , 17340003 , 16247734 , 9478947 , 10839822 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2S)-6-(acetylamino)-2-Aminohexanoic acidChEBI
N(6)-ACETYLLYSINEChEBI
N(zeta)-AcetyllysineChEBI
N-epsilon-Acetyl-L-lysineChEBI
N-Epsilon-AcetyllysineChEBI
N(epsilon)-Acetyl-L-lysineChEBI
N(zeta)-Acetyl-L-lysineChEBI
(2S)-6-(acetylamino)-2-AminohexanoateGenerator
N(Z)-AcetyllysineGenerator
N(ζ)-acetyllysineGenerator
N(Z)-Acetyl-L-lysineGenerator
N(ζ)-acetyl-L-lysineGenerator
e-Acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
e-N-Acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
e-N-AcetyllysineHMDB
epsilon-Acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
epsilon-N-Acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
epsilon-N-AcetyllysineHMDB
L-e-N-AcetyllysineHMDB
L-epsilon-N-AcetyllysineHMDB
N-e-Acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
N-e-AcetyllysineHMDB
N6-AcetyllysineHMDB
Ne-acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
Ne-acetyllysineHMDB
Omega-N-acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
W-N-Acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
N(6)-AcetyllsineMeSH
Omega-acetyllsineMeSH
Chemical FormulaC8H16N2O3
Average Molecular Weight188.2242
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight188.116092388
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-6-acetamidohexanoic acid
Traditional NameN6-acetyllysine
CAS Registry Number692-04-6
SMILES
CC(=O)NCCCC[C@H](N)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C8H16N2O3/c1-6(11)10-5-3-2-4-7(9)8(12)13/h7H,2-5,9H2,1H3,(H,10,11)(H,12,13)/t7-/m0/s1
InChI KeyDTERQYGMUDWYAZ-ZETCQYMHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Protein synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point250 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility17.5 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.43ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.53ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92.42 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity47.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability20.28 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0002-9610000000-6e30cfdb2a70cc49f983View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-004i-1900000000-e36d5532f4f0ed8ec34fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0002-9500000000-266c8b0fce84c71553b2View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0002-9500000000-266c8b0fce84c71553b2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004r-1900000000-4745f7cfa9eaaef208adView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-635805826359aa05ec7cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-8857489c6ac957c71a5dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-39f91157038523017046View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000j-0900000000-183e1f50c20603f14c03View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0002-1900000000-da02d0f8bd73b5b96b46View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4j-9400000000-8531cdbb4e8108dbec95View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-94d72f2c644db8c0b5cdView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-c6ff005564503774a853View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-3900000000-dffc604f608a010e711eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-d6bc330de42890c4c091View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-8d68337bf7a8db380cd7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-1400569a447d5f66c3a8View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot Available
Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified2.036-2.828 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified9.318 +/- 4.75 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
    UrineDetected and Quantified10.141 +/- 3.949 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Eosinophilic esophagitis
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease ReferencesNone
    Associated OMIM IDsNone
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB000476
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID83801
    KEGG Compound IDC02727
    BioCyc IDCPD-567
    BiGG IDNot Available
    Wikipedia LinkNot Available
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB0000206
    METLIN ID5216
    PubChem Compound92832
    PDB IDALY
    ChEBI ID17752
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceBenoiton, Leo; Leclerc, Jean. An improved synthesis of e-N-acetyl-L-lysine and similar compounds. Canadian Journal of Chemistry (1965), 43(4), 991-3.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Jacobson RH, Ladurner AG, King DS, Tjian R: Structure and function of a human TAFII250 double bromodomain module. Science. 2000 May 26;288(5470):1422-5. [PubMed:10827952 ]
    2. Armstrong MD, Robinow M: A case of hyperlysinemia: biochemical and clinical observations. Pediatrics. 1967 Apr;39(4):546-54. [PubMed:6022933 ]
    3. Crane-Robinson C, Hebbes TR, Clayton AL, Thorne AW: Chromosomal mapping of core histone acetylation by immunoselection. Methods. 1997 May;12(1):48-56. [PubMed:9169194 ]
    4. Jamonnak N, Fatkins DG, Wei L, Zheng W: N(epsilon)-methanesulfonyl-lysine as a non-hydrolyzable functional surrogate for N(epsilon)-acetyl-lysine. Org Biomol Chem. 2007 Mar 21;5(6):892-6. Epub 2007 Feb 5. [PubMed:17340003 ]
    5. Iwabata H, Yoshida M, Komatsu Y: Proteomic analysis of organ-specific post-translational lysine-acetylation and -methylation in mice by use of anti-acetyllysine and -methyllysine mouse monoclonal antibodies. Proteomics. 2005 Dec;5(18):4653-64. [PubMed:16247734 ]
    6. Hazen SL, d'Avignon A, Anderson MM, Hsu FF, Heinecke JW: Human neutrophils employ the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system to oxidize alpha-amino acids to a family of reactive aldehydes. Mechanistic studies identifying labile intermediates along the reaction pathway. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 27;273(9):4997-5005. [PubMed:9478947 ]
    7. Sterner DE, Berger SL: Acetylation of histones and transcription-related factors. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2000 Jun;64(2):435-59. [PubMed:10839822 ]

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate numerous substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines, with a preference for benzoyl-CoA over phenylacetyl-CoA as acyl donors. Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid.
    Gene Name:
    GLYAT
    Uniprot ID:
    Q6IB77
    Molecular weight:
    18506.33
    General function:
    Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glutamine. Can use phenylacetyl-CoA as an acyl donor.
    Gene Name:
    GLYATL1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q969I3
    Molecular weight:
    35100.895
    General function:
    Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine. Conjugates numerous substrates, such as arachidonoyl-CoA and saturated medium and long-chain acyl-CoAs ranging from chain-length C8:0-CoA to C18:0-CoA, to form a variety of N-acylglycines. Shows a preference for monounsaturated fatty acid oleoyl-CoA (C18:1-CoA) as an acyl donor. Does not exhibit any activity toward C22:6-CoA and chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA, nor toward serine or alanine.
    Gene Name:
    GLYATL2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8WU03
    Molecular weight:
    34277.055