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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-08-06 20:27:15 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00220
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB60083
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePalmitic acid
DescriptionPalmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in animals and plants, a saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.(wikipedia) Biological Source: Occurs in the form of esters (glycerides) in oils and fats of vegetable and animal origin. Usually obtained from palm oil. Widely distributed in plants Use/Importance:. Palmitic acid is used in determination of water hardness Biological Use/Importance: Active ingredient of *Levovist*TM, used in echo enhancement in sonographic Doppler B-mode imaging. Ultrasound contrast medium (Dictionary of Organic Compounds).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1-Hexyldecanoate
  2. 1-Hexyldecanoic acid
  3. 1-Pentadecanecarboxylic acid
  4. C16 fatty acid
  5. Cetylic acid
  6. Edenor C16
  7. Emersol 140
  8. Emersol 143
  9. Glycon P-45
  10. Hexadecanoate
  11. Hexadecanoate (n-C16:0)
  12. Hexadecanoic acid
  13. Hexadecanoic acid palmitic acid
  14. Hexadecoate
  15. Hexadecoic acid
  16. Hexadecylic acid
  17. Hexaectylic acid
  18. Hydrofol
  19. Hydrofol acid 1690
  20. Hystrene 8016
  21. Hystrene 9016
  22. Industrene 4516
  23. Kortacid 1698
  24. Loxiol EP 278
  25. Lunac P 95
  26. Lunac P 95KC
  27. Lunac P 98
  28. N-Hexadecanoate
  29. N-Hexadecanoic acid
  30. N-Hexadecoate
  31. N-Hexadecoic acid
  32. Palmitate
  33. Palmitic acid
  34. Palmitinate
  35. Palmitinic acid
  36. Palmitinsaeure
  37. Palmitoate
  38. Palmitoic acid
  39. PAM
  40. Pentadecanecarboxylate
  41. Pentadecanecarboxylic acid
  42. PLM
  43. Prifac 2960
  44. Prifrac 2960
  45. Pristerene 4934
  46. Univol U332
Chemical FormulaC16H32O2
Average Molecular Weight256.4241
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight256.240230268
IUPAC Namehexadecanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Namepalmitic acid
CAS Registry Number57-10-3
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C16H32O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16(17)18/h2-15H2,1H3,(H,17,18)
InChI KeyIPCSVZSSVZVIGE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassLipids
ClassFatty Acids and Conjugates
Sub ClassStraight Chain Fatty Acids
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Organic Compounds
  • Saturated fatty acids(KEGG)
  • Straight chain fatty acids(KEGG)
  • Straight chain fatty acids(Lipidmaps)
  • long-chain fatty acid(ChEBI)
  • straight-chain saturated fatty acid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Carboxylic Acid
Direct ParentStraight Chain Fatty Acids
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point61.8 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility4e-05 mg/mLNot Available
LogP7.17SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.070E-04 g/LALOGPS
logP7.23ALOGPS
logP6.26ChemAxon
logS-5.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity77.08ChemAxon
Polarizability34.37ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Stratum Corneum
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Fatty Acid BiosynthesisSMP00456Not Available
Fatty Acid Elongation In MitochondriaSMP00054map00062
Fatty acid MetabolismSMP00051map00071
Glycerolipid MetabolismSMP00039map00561
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified122 +/- 48 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified66.010 +/- 9.879 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified25.0 +/- 2.8 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified25.5 +/- 2.8 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified26.7 +/- 4.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified63.8 +/- 0.400 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified30.49 +/- 2.64 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified18.0 +/- 12.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.8 (2.6-32.7) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.4 (0.1-7.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11 (6.0-23) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.30 +/- 0.09 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.2 (6.0-26.1) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.2 (0.8-8.2) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.4 (0.1-3.8) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.7(2.6-24.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB011679
KNApSAcK IDC00030479
Chemspider ID960
KEGG Compound IDC00249
BioCyc IDCPD-8475
BiGG ID34386
Wikipedia LinkPalmitic acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00220
Metagene LinkHMDB00220
METLIN ID187
PubChem Compound985
PDB IDPLM
ChEBI ID15756
References
Synthesis ReferenceXu, Yan; Ling, Li. A method for preparing conjugated linoleic acid and palmitic acid. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2005), 5 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  2. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. Pubmed: 8087979
  3. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. Pubmed: 8412012
  4. A J, Trygg J, Gullberg J, Johansson AI, Jonsson P, Antti H, Marklund SL, Moritz T: Extraction and GC/MS analysis of the human blood plasma metabolome. Anal Chem. 2005 Dec 15;77(24):8086-94. Pubmed: 16351159
  5. Cater NB, Denke MA: Behenic acid is a cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acid in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jan;73(1):41-4. Pubmed: 11124748
  6. Lloyd B, Halter RJ, Kuchan MJ, Baggs GE, Ryan AS, Masor ML: Formula tolerance in postbreastfed and exclusively formula-fed infants. Pediatrics. 1999 Jan;103(1):E7. Pubmed: 9917487
  7. Katsuta Y, Iida T, Inomata S, Denda M: Unsaturated fatty acids induce calcium influx into keratinocytes and cause abnormal differentiation of epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 May;124(5):1008-13. Pubmed: 15854043
  8. Mensink RP: Nutrition in lipid disorders. Ther Umsch. 1995 Aug;52(8):509-14. Pubmed: 7676394
  9. Mesiha MS, Ponnapula S, Plakogiannis F: Oral absorption of insulin encapsulated in artificial chyles of bile salts, palmitic acid and alpha-tocopherol dispersions. Int J Pharm. 2002 Dec 5;249(1-2):1-5. Pubmed: 12433429
  10. Dubinin DM, Naidina VP, Zaloguev SN: [Evaluation of human skin function in a sealed room by a chromatographic method] Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1985 Nov-Dec;19(6):69-73. Pubmed: 2868151
  11. Okun JG, Kolker S, Schulze A, Kohlmuller D, Olgemoller K, Lindner M, Hoffmann GF, Wanders RJ, Mayatepek E: A method for quantitative acylcarnitine profiling in human skin fibroblasts using unlabelled palmitic acid: diagnosis of fatty acid oxidation disorders and differentiation between biochemical phenotypes of MCAD deficiency. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Oct 10;1584(2-3):91-8. Pubmed: 12385891
  12. Otsuki T, Oku M: [A study on the effect of cortisol and progesterone on cytosolic arachidonic and palmitic acid concentrations in cultured human myometrial cells] Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 1995 Jun;47(6):531-8. Pubmed: 7608616
  13. Draisey TF, Gagneja GL, Thibert RJ: Pulmonary surfactant and amniotic fluid insulin. Obstet Gynecol. 1977 Aug;50(2):197-9. Pubmed: 577607
  14. Florentin E, Athias A, Lagrost L: Modulation of the activity of the human cholesteryl ester transfer protein by carboxylated derivatives. Evidence for 13-cis-retinoic acid as a potent activator of the protein's activity in plasma. Eur J Biochem. 1996 Sep 15;240(3):699-706. Pubmed: 8856073
  15. Urien S, Morin D, Tillement JP: Effect of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, albumin and palmitic acid on the brain and salivary gland extraction of warfarin in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989 Feb;248(2):781-5. Pubmed: 2918479
  16. Wang J, Zhu F, Pan G: [Diagnosis of chylous ascites with oral administration of 13C-palmitic acid] Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 1996 Jun;35(6):382-4. Pubmed: 9387625
  17. Ip MP, Draisey TF, Thibert RJ, Gagneja GL, Jasey GM: Fetal lung maturity, as assessed by gas-liquid chromatographic determination of phospholipid palmitic acid in amniotic fluid. Clin Chem. 1977 Jan;23(1):35-40. Pubmed: 832370
  18. Messner T, Erkstam UB, Gustafsson IB, Nilsson SB, Vessby B: Diet and dietary markers in Kiruna and Uppsala, Sweden--a comparison. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1997 Apr;56(1-2):21-9. Pubmed: 9300843
  19. Vessby B, Tengblad S, Lithell H: Insulin sensitivity is related to the fatty acid composition of serum lipids and skeletal muscle phospholipids in 70-year-old men. Diabetologia. 1994 Oct;37(10):1044-50. Pubmed: 7851683
  20. Liau YH, Slomiany BL, Slomiany A, Piasek A, Palmer D, Rosenthal WS: Identification of mucus glycoprotein fatty acyltransferase activity in human gastric mucosa. Digestion. 1985;32(1):57-62. Pubmed: 4018446
  21. Thiele I, Swainston N, Fleming RM, Hoppe A, Sahoo S, Aurich MK, Haraldsdottir H, Mo ML, Rolfsson O, Stobbe MD, Thorleifsson SG, Agren R, Bolling C, Bordel S, Chavali AK, Dobson P, Dunn WB, Endler L, Hala D, Hucka M, Hull D, Jameson D, Jamshidi N, Jonsson JJ, Juty N, Keating S, Nookaew I, Le Novere N, Malys N, Mazein A, Papin JA, Price ND, Selkov E Sr, Sigurdsson MI, Simeonidis E, Sonnenschein N, Smallbone K, Sorokin A, van Beek JH, Weichart D, Goryanin I, Nielsen J, Westerhoff HV, Kell DB, Mendes P, Palsson BO: A community-driven global reconstruction of human metabolism. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 Mar 3. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2488. Pubmed: 23455439

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 86 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities and an acyl carrier protein.
Gene Name:
FASN
Uniprot ID:
P49327
Molecular weight:
273424.06
Reactions
Hexadecanoyl-[acp] + Water → Acyl-carrier protein + Palmitic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes fatty acids from S-acylated cysteine residues in proteins such as trimeric G alpha proteins or HRAS. Has depalmitoylating activity and also low lysophospholipase activity.
Gene Name:
LYPLA1
Uniprot ID:
O75608
Molecular weight:
24669.355
Reactions
Palmitoyl-protein + Water → Palmitic acid + proteindetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. This isozyme hydrolyzes more efficiently L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine than L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylcholine, L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylethanolamine, or L-alpha-1-stearoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylinositol. May be involved in the production of lung surfactant, the remodeling or regulation of cardiac muscle.
Gene Name:
PLA2G5
Uniprot ID:
P39877
Molecular weight:
15674.065
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Hydrolyzes phosphatidylglycerol versus phosphatidylcholine with a 15-fold preference.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2F
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZM2
Molecular weight:
23256.29
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Selectively hydrolyzes arachidonyl phospholipids in the sn-2 position releasing arachidonic acid. Together with its lysophospholipid activity, it is implicated in the initiation of the inflammatory response.
Gene Name:
PLA2G4A
Uniprot ID:
P47712
Molecular weight:
85210.19
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
PLA2G1B
Uniprot ID:
P04054
Molecular weight:
16359.535
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Has a powerful potency for releasing arachidonic acid from cell membrane phospholipids. Prefers phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine liposomes to those of phosphatidylserine.
Gene Name:
PLA2G10
Uniprot ID:
O15496
Molecular weight:
18153.04
General function:
Involved in sugar binding
Specific function:
Has lysophospholipase activity.
Gene Name:
LGALS13
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHV8
Molecular weight:
16118.44
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Has a preference for arachidonic-containing phospholipids.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2E
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZK7
Molecular weight:
15988.525
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
May hydrolyze fatty acids from S-acylated cysteine residues in proteins such as trimeric G alpha proteins or HRAS. Has lysophospholipase activity (By similarity). Deacylates GAP43.
Gene Name:
LYPLA2
Uniprot ID:
O95372
Molecular weight:
24736.71
Reactions
Palmitoyl-protein + Water → Palmitic acid + proteindetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Does not exhibit detectable activity toward sn-2-arachidonoyl- or linoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine or -phosphatidylethanolamine.
Gene Name:
PLA2G12A
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZM1
Molecular weight:
21066.99
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the release of fatty acids from phospholipids. It has been implicated in normal phospholipid remodeling, nitric oxide-induced or vasopressin-induced arachidonic acid release and in leukotriene and prostaglandin production. May participate in fas mediated apoptosis and in regulating transmembrane ion flux in glucose-stimulated B-cells. Has a role in cardiolipin (CL) deacylation. Required for both speed and directionality of monocyte MCP1/CCL2-induced chemotaxis through regulation of F-actin polymerization at the pseudopods. Isoform ankyrin-iPLA2-1 and isoform ankyrin-iPLA2-2, which lack the catalytic domain, are probably involved in the negative regulation of iPLA2 activity.
Gene Name:
PLA2G6
Uniprot ID:
O60733
Molecular weight:
84092.635
General function:
Involved in sugar binding
Specific function:
May have both lysophospholipase and carbohydrate-binding activities.
Gene Name:
CLC
Uniprot ID:
Q05315
Molecular weight:
16452.785
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
Thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes including eicosanoid biosynthesis. Catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2A
Uniprot ID:
P14555
Molecular weight:
16082.525
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine is more efficiently hydrolyzed than the other phospholipids examined.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2D
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNK4
Molecular weight:
16546.1
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PNLIP
Uniprot ID:
P16233
Molecular weight:
51156.48
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hepatic lipase has the capacity to catalyze hydrolysis of phospholipids, mono-, di-, and triglycerides, and acyl-CoA thioesters. It is an important enzyme in HDL metabolism. Hepatic lipase binds heparin.
Gene Name:
LIPC
Uniprot ID:
P11150
Molecular weight:
55914.1
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
May function as inhibitor of dietary triglyceride digestion. Lacks detectable lipase activity towards triglycerides, diglycerides, phosphatidylcholine, galactolipids or cholesterol esters (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PNLIPRP1
Uniprot ID:
P54315
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Multifunctional enzyme which has both triacylglycerol lipase and acylglycerol O-acyltransferase activities.
Gene Name:
PNPLA3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NST1
Molecular weight:
52864.64
General function:
Involved in lipid metabolic process
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LIPF
Uniprot ID:
P07098
Molecular weight:
45237.375
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has phospholipase and triglyceride lipase activities. Hydrolyzes high density lipoproteins (HDL) more efficiently than other lipoproteins. Binds heparin.
Gene Name:
LIPG
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5X9
Molecular weight:
56794.275
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes fat and vitamin absorption. Acts in concert with pancreatic lipase and colipase for the complete digestion of dietary triglycerides.
Gene Name:
CEL
Uniprot ID:
P19835
Molecular weight:
79666.385
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Lipase with broad substrate specificity. Can hydrolyze both phospholipids and galactolipids. Acts preferentially on monoglycerides, phospholipids and galactolipids. Contributes to milk fat hydrolysis.
Gene Name:
PNLIPRP2
Uniprot ID:
P54317
Molecular weight:
52077.475
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The primary function of this lipase is the hydrolysis of triglycerides of circulating chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Binding to heparin sulfate proteogylcans at the cell surface is vital to the function. The apolipoprotein, APOC2, acts as a coactivator of LPL activity in the presence of lipids on the luminal surface of vascular endothelium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
LPL
Uniprot ID:
P06858
Molecular weight:
53162.07
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Hydrolyzes aromatic and aliphatic esters, but has no catalytic activity toward amides or a fatty acyl-CoA ester. Hydrolyzes the methyl ester group of cocaine to form benzoylecgonine. Catalyzes the transesterification of cocaine to form cocaethylene. Displays fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity, catalyzing the ethyl esterification of oleic acid to ethyloleate.
Gene Name:
CES1
Uniprot ID:
P23141
Molecular weight:
62520.62
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Shows high catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis of cocaine, 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate, heroin and 6-monoacetylmorphine.
Gene Name:
CES2
Uniprot ID:
O00748
Molecular weight:
68898.39
General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular weight:
68417.575
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Has a preference for arachidonic acid at the sn-2 position of phosphatidylcholine as compared with palmitic acid.
Gene Name:
PLA2G4C
Uniprot ID:
Q9UP65
Molecular weight:
60938.07
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
In adipose tissue and heart, it primarily hydrolyzes stored triglycerides to free fatty acids, while in steroidogenic tissues, it principally converts cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol for steroid hormone production.
Gene Name:
LIPE
Uniprot ID:
Q05469
Molecular weight:
116596.715
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Shows an 11-fold preference for phosphatidylglycerol over phosphatidylcholine (PC). Preferential cleavage: 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) > 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-PC > 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-PC > 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-PE. Plays a role in ciliogenesis.
Gene Name:
PLA2G3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZ20
Molecular weight:
57166.51
General function:
Involved in thiolester hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl-CoA thioester, either in peroxisomes (primary bile acids deriving from the cholesterol pathway), or cytoplasmic at the endoplasmic reticulum (secondary bile acids). May catalyze the conjugation of primary or secondary bile acids, or both. The conjugation increases the detergent properties of bile acids in the intestine, which facilitates lipid and fat-soluble vitamin absorption. In turn, bile acids are deconjugated by bacteria in the intestine and are recycled back to the liver for reconjugation (secondary bile acids). May also act as an acyl-CoA thioesterase that regulates intracellular levels of free fatty acids. In vitro, catalyzes the hydrolysis of long- and very long-chain saturated acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), and conjugates glycine to these acyl-CoAs.
Gene Name:
BAAT
Uniprot ID:
Q14032
Molecular weight:
46298.865
Reactions
hexadecanoyl-CoA + Water → Coenzyme A + Palmitic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in acylphosphatase activity
Specific function:
Its physiological role is not yet clear.
Gene Name:
ACYP2
Uniprot ID:
P14621
Molecular weight:
11139.52
General function:
Involved in acylphosphatase activity
Specific function:
Its physiological role is not yet clear.
Gene Name:
ACYP1
Uniprot ID:
P07311
Molecular weight:
11260.84
General function:
Involved in metallopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the hydrolysis of N-acylated or N-acetylated amino acids (except L-aspartate).
Gene Name:
ACY1
Uniprot ID:
Q03154
Molecular weight:
45884.705
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
Specific function:
Catalyzes the deacetylation of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) to produce acetate and L-aspartate. NAA occurs in high concentration in brain and its hydrolysis NAA plays a significant part in the maintenance of intact white matter. In other tissues it act as a scavenger of NAA from body fluids.
Gene Name:
ASPA
Uniprot ID:
P45381
Molecular weight:
35734.79
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
Specific function:
Plays an important role in deacetylating mercapturic acids in kidney proximal tubules (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACY3
Uniprot ID:
Q96HD9
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Activation of long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. Preferentially uses arachidonate and eicosapentaenoate as substrates.
Gene Name:
ACSL4
Uniprot ID:
O60488
Molecular weight:
74435.495
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Palmitic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Activation of long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. Preferentially uses palmitoleate, oleate and linoleate.
Gene Name:
ACSL1
Uniprot ID:
P33121
Molecular weight:
77942.685
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Palmitic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Activation of long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. Plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism in brain and the acyl-CoAs produced may be utilized exclusively for the synthesis of the brain lipid.
Gene Name:
ACSL6
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKU0
Molecular weight:
80609.765
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Palmitic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) activate long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. ACSL5 may activate fatty acids from exogenous sources for the synthesis of triacylglycerol destined for intracellular storage (By similarity). Utilizes a wide range of saturated fatty acids with a preference for C16-C18 unsaturated fatty acids (By similarity). It was suggested that it may also stimulate fatty acid oxidation (By similarity). At the villus tip of the crypt-villus axis of the small intestine may sensitize epithelial cells to apoptosis specifically triggered by the death ligand TRAIL. May have a role in the survival of glioma cells.
Gene Name:
ACSL5
Uniprot ID:
Q9ULC5
Molecular weight:
82262.19
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Palmitic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) activates long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. ACSL3 mediates hepatic lipogenesis (By similarity). Preferentially uses myristate, laurate, arachidonate and eicosapentaenoate as substrates (By similarity). Has mainly an anabolic role in energy metabolism. Required for the incorporation of fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid located on the surface of VLDL (very low density lipoproteins).
Gene Name:
ACSL3
Uniprot ID:
O95573
Molecular weight:
80419.415
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Palmitic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA thioesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), providing the potential to regulate intracellular levels of acyl-CoAs, free fatty acids and CoASH. May play an important physiological function in brain. May play a regulatory role by modulating the cellular levels of fatty acyl-CoA ligands for certain transcription factors as well as the substrates for fatty acid metabolizing enzymes, contributing to lipid homeostasis. Has broad specificity, active towards fatty acyl-CoAs with chain-lengths of C8-C18. Has a maximal activity toward palmitoyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ACOT7
Uniprot ID:
O00154
Molecular weight:
40454.945
Reactions
hexadecanoyl-CoA + Water → Coenzyme A + Palmitic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in thiolester hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA thioesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), providing the potential to regulate intracellular levels of acyl-CoAs, free fatty acids and CoASH. Displays high levels of activity on medium- and long chain acyl CoAs.
Gene Name:
ACOT2
Uniprot ID:
P49753
Molecular weight:
53218.02
Reactions
hexadecanoyl-CoA + Water → Coenzyme A + Palmitic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in thiolester hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA thioesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), providing the potential to regulate intracellular levels of acyl-CoAs, free fatty acids and CoASH (By similarity). Succinyl-CoA thioesterase that also hydrolyzes long chain saturated and unsaturated monocarboxylic acyl-CoAs.
Gene Name:
ACOT4
Uniprot ID:
Q8N9L9
Molecular weight:
46326.09
Reactions
hexadecanoyl-CoA + Water → Coenzyme A + Palmitic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA thioesterase activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA thioesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), providing the potential to regulate intracellular levels of acyl-CoAs, free fatty acids and CoASH. May mediate Nef-induced down-regulation of CD4. Major thioesterase in peroxisomes. Competes with BAAT (Bile acid CoA: amino acid N-acyltransferase) for bile acid-CoA substrate (such as chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA). Shows a preference for medium-length fatty acyl-CoAs (By similarity). May be involved in the metabolic regulation of peroxisome proliferation.
Gene Name:
ACOT8
Uniprot ID:
O14734
Molecular weight:
35914.02
General function:
Involved in palmitoyl-(protein) hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Removes thioester-linked fatty acyl groups such as palmitate from modified cysteine residues in proteins or peptides during lysosomal degradation. Prefers acyl chain lengths of 14 to 18 carbons.
Gene Name:
PPT1
Uniprot ID:
P50897
Molecular weight:
34193.245
Reactions
Palmitoyl-[protein] + Water → Palmitic acid + [protein]details
hexadecanoyl-CoA + Water → Coenzyme A + Palmitic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in palmitoyl-(protein) hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Removes thioester-linked fatty acyl groups from various substrates including S-palmitoyl-CoA. Has the highest S-thioesterase activity for the acyl groups palmitic and myristic acid followed by other short- and long-chain acyl substrates. However, because of structural constraints, is unable to remove palmitate from peptides or proteins.
Gene Name:
PPT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UMR5
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
hexadecanoyl-CoA + Water → Coenzyme A + Palmitic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in lipid metabolic process
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the sphingolipid ceramide into sphingosine and free fatty acid.
Gene Name:
ASAH1
Uniprot ID:
Q13510
Molecular weight:
44045.27
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
May play a role as a corepressor for homeodomain transcription factors. Phosphorylates DAXX in response to stress, and mediates its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. May be involved in malignant squamous cell tumor formation
Gene Name:
HIPK1
Uniprot ID:
Q86Z02
Molecular weight:
130841.6
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to a promoter element in the gene for acyl-CoA oxidase and activates its transcription. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular weight:
57619.6

Transporters

General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in translocation of long-chain fatty acids (LFCA) across the plasma membrane. The LFCA import appears to be hormone-regulated in a tissue-specific manner. In adipocytes, but not myocytes, insulin induces a rapid translocation of FATP1 from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane, paralleled by increased LFCA uptake. May act directly as a bona fide transporter, or alternatively, in a cytoplasmic or membrane- associated multimeric protein complex to trap and draw fatty acids towards accumulation. Plays a pivotal role in regulating available LFCA substrates from exogenous sources in tissues undergoing high levels of beta-oxidation or triglyceride synthesis. May be involved in regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Has acyl-CoA ligase activity for long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acids
Gene Name:
SLC27A1
Uniprot ID:
Q6PCB7
Molecular weight:
71107.5

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 86 proteins in total.