|Creation Date||2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC|
|Update Date||2013-02-09 00:08:07 UTC|
|Secondary Accession Numbers||None|
|Description||Phenol, is a toxic, colourless crystalline solid with a sweet tarry odor that resembles a hospital smell. It is commonly used as an antiseptic and disinfectant. It is active against a wide range of micro-organisms including some fungi and viruses, but is only slowly effective against spores. It has been used to disinfect skin and to relieve itching. Phenol is also used in the preparation of cosmetics including sunscreens, hair dyes, and skin lightening preparations. It is also used in the production of drugs (it is the starting material in the industrial production of aspirin), weedkillers, and synthetic resins. Phenol can be found in areas with high levels of motor traffic, therefore, people living in crowded urban areas are frequently exposed to traffic-derived phenol vapor. The average (mean +/- SD) phenol concentration in urine among normal individuals living in urban areas is 7.4 +/- 2.2 mg/g of creatinine. Exposure of the skin to concentrated phenol solutions causes chemical burns which may be severe; in laboratories where it is used, it is usually recommended that polyethylene glycol solution is kept available for washing off splashes. Notwithstanding the effects of concentrated solutions, it is also used in cosmetic surgery as an exfoliant, to remove layers of dead skin (Wikipedia). In some bacteria phenol can be directly synthesized from tyrosine via the enzyme tyrosine phenol-lyase [EC:220.127.116.11].|
- Acide carbolique
- Campho-phenique cold sore gel
- Campho-phenique gel
- Campho-phenique liquid
- Carbolic acid
- Carbolic acid liquid
- Carbolic oil
- Carbolicum acidum
- Cepastat lozenges
- Cuticura pain relieving ointment
- Liquefied phenol
- Liquid phenol
- Liquified phenol
- Monohydroxy benzene
- Phenic acid
- Phenic alcohol
- Phenol alcohol
- Phenol homopolymer
- Phenol liquid
- Phenol molten
- Phenol polymer-bound
- Phenol solution
- Phenol synthetic
- Phenolated water
- Phenolated water for disinfection
- Phenylic acid
- Phenylic alcohol
- Synthetic phenol
- Tea polyphenol
|Average Molecular Weight||94.1112|
|Monoisotopic Molecular Weight||94.041864814|
|Traditional IUPAC Name||phenol|
|CAS Registry Number||108-95-2|
|Super Class||Aromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds|
|Class||Phenols and Derivatives|
- Organic Compounds
- a phenol(Cyc)
|Direct Parent||Phenols and Derivatives|
|Status||Detected and Quantified|
|Cellular locations||Not Available|
|Melting Point||40.9 °C||Not Available|
|Boiling Point||Not Available||Not Available|
|Water Solubility||82.8 mg/mL at 25 °C||Not Available|
|LogP||1.46||HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)|
- Jones AL, Hagen M, Coughtrie MW, Roberts RC, Glatt H: Human platelet phenolsulfotransferases: cDNA cloning, stable expression in V79 cells and identification of a novel allelic variant of the phenol-sulfating form. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Mar 17;208(2):855-62.
- Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6.
- Kilic SS, Aydin S, Kilic N, Erman F, Aydin S, Celik I: Serum arylesterase and paraoxonase activity in patients with chronic hepatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Dec 14;11(46):7351-4.
- Tanaka T, Kasai K, Kita T, Tanaka N: Distribution of phenol in a fatal poisoning case determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Forensic Sci. 1998 Sep;43(5):1086-8.
- McDonald TA, Holland NT, Skibola C, Duramad P, Smith MT: Hypothesis: phenol and hydroquinone derived mainly from diet and gastrointestinal flora activity are causal factors in leukemia. Leukemia. 2001 Jan;15(1):10-20.
- Blades KJ, Patel S: The dynamics of tear flow within a phenol red impregnated thread. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1996 Sep;16(5):409-15.
- Miller WL, Doughty MJ, Narayanan S, Leach NE, Tran A, Gaume AL, Bergmanson JP: A comparison of tear volume (by tear meniscus height and phenol red thread test) and tear fluid osmolality measures in non-lens wearers and in contact lens wearers. Eye Contact Lens. 2004 Jul;30(3):132-7.
- Hume R, Barker EV, Coughtrie MW: Differential expression and immunohistochemical localisation of the phenol and hydroxysteroid sulphotransferase enzyme families in the developing lung. Histochem Cell Biol. 1996 Feb;105(2):147-52.
- Slatkin NE, Rhiner M: Phenol saddle blocks for intractable pain at end of life: report of four cases and literature review. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2003 Jan-Feb;20(1):62-6.
- Bauer M, Patzelt D: A method for simultaneous RNA and DNA isolation from dried blood and semen stains. Forensic Sci Int. 2003 Sep 9;136(1-3):76-8.
- Norberg J, Emneus JA, Jonsson JA, Mathiasson L, Burestedt E, Knutsson M, Marko-Varga G: On-line supported liquid membrane-liquid chromatography with a phenol oxidase-based biosensor as a selective detection unit for the determination of phenols in blood plasma. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1997 Nov 7;701(1):39-46.
- Tucker IG: A method to study the kinetics of oral mucosal drug absorption from solutions. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1988 Oct;40(10):679-83.
- Achterrath-Tuckermann U, Saano V, Minker E, Stroman F, Arny I, Joki S, Nuutinen J, Szelenyi I: Influence of azelastine and some selected drugs on mucociliary clearance. Lung. 1992;170(4):201-9.
- Tatsumi H, Shimada N, Kuramoto R, Mochizuki Y, Nishizima M, Arai M, Osanai K, Ishihara K, Goso K, Hotta K: [The phenol turbidity test for measurement of pulmonary surfactants in amniotic fluid--rapid test for fetal lung maturity (author's transl)] Acta Obstet Gynaecol Jpn. 1981 May;33(5):643-50.
- Bartholomew LE, Bartholomew FN: Antigenic bacterial polysaccharide in rheumatoid synovial effusions. Arthritis Rheum. 1979 Sep;22(9):969-77.
- Le Poole IC, Yang F, Brown TL, Cornelius J, Babcock GF, Das PK, Boissy RE: Altered gene expression in melanocytes exposed to 4-tertiary butyl phenol (4-TBP): upregulation of the A2b adenosine receptor 1. J Invest Dermatol. 1999 Nov;113(5):725-31.
- Bukowska B, Kowalska S: Phenol and catechol induce prehemolytic and hemolytic changes in human erythrocytes. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Aug 30;152(1):73-84.
- Asai Y, Ohyama Y, Taiji Y, Makimura Y, Tamai R, Hashimoto M, Ogawa T: Treponema medium glycoconjugate inhibits activation of human gingival fibroblasts stimulated with phenol-water extracts of periodontopathic bacteria. J Dent Res. 2005 May;84(5):456-61.