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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-06-12 16:12:27 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00234
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTestosterone
DescriptionTestosterone is the most important androgen in potency and quantity. Testosterone is synthesized and released by the Leydig cells that lie between the tubules and comprise less than 5% of the total testicular volume. testosterone diffuses into the seminiferous tubules where it is essential for maintaining spermatogenesis. Some binds to an androgen-binding protein (ABP) that is produced by the Sertoli cells and is homologous to the sex-hormone binding globulin that transports testosterone in the general circulation. The ABP carries testosterone in the testicular fluid where it maintains the activity of the accessory sex glands and may also help to retain testosterone within the tubule and bind excess free hormone. Some testosterone is converted to estradiol by Sertoli cell-derived aromatase enzyme. Leydig cell steroidogenesis is controlled primarily by luteinizing hormone with negative feedback of testosterone on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The requirement of spermatogenesis for high local concentrations of testosterone means that loss of androgen production is likely to be accompanied by loss of spermatogenesis. Indeed, if testicular androgen production is inhibited by the administration of exogenous androgens then spermatogenesis ceases. This is the basis of using exogenous testosterone as a male contraceptive. testosterone is converted to dihydrotestosterone by 5a-reductase type 2 (EC 1.3.1.22, SRD5A2), the androgen with the highest affinity for the androgen receptor. SRD5A2 deficiency illustrates the importance of dihydrotestosterone for external virilization, as individuals with this condition have normal male internal structures but their external genitalia are of female appearance. There is now clear evidence that the human fetal testis and also the fetal adrenal gland is capable of testosterone biosynthesis during the first trimester. Regardless of the source of androgen production, the target tissue responds by male sexual differentiation of the external genitalia by the end of the first trimester. It is clear that testicular damage may result in loss of testosterone production or the loss of spermatogenesis or both. Loss of androgen production results in hypogonadism, the symptoms of which reflect the functions of testosterone. Male hypogonadism is defined as failure of the testes to produce normal amounts of testosterone, combined with signs and symptoms of androgen deficiency. Systemic testosterone levels fall by about 1% each year in men. Therefore, with increasing longevity and the aging of the population, the number of older men with testosterone deficiency will increase substantially over the next several decades. Serum testosterone levels decrease progressively in aging men, but the rate and magnitude of decrease vary considerably. Approximately 1% of healthy young men have total serum testosterone levels below normal; in contrast, approximately 20% of healthy men over age 60 years have serum testosterone levels below normal. (PMID: 17904450 , 17875487 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (+)-testosterone
  2. (+-)-8-iso-testosterone
  3. (+-)-retrotestosterone
  4. (+-)-testosterone
  5. (17b)-17-hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one
  6. 13-Iso-testosterone
  7. 17-Hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one
  8. 17-Hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one
  9. 17-Hydroxy-D4-androsten-3-one
  10. 17a-Hydroxy-(13a)-androst-4-en-3-one
  11. 17a-Hydroxy-13a-androst-4-en-3-one
  12. 17a-Hydroxy-14b-androst-4-en-3-one
  13. 17a-Hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one
  14. 17b-Hydroxy-(10a)-androst-4-en-3-one
  15. 17b-Hydroxy-(13a)-androst-4-en-3-one
  16. 17b-Hydroxy-(8a)-androst-4-en-3-one
  17. 17b-Hydroxy-(8a,10a)-androst-4-en-3-one
  18. 17b-Hydroxy-(9b)-androst-4-en-3-one
  19. 17b-Hydroxy-(9b,10a)-androst-4-en-3-one
  20. 17b-Hydroxy-13a-androst-4-en-3-one
  21. 17b-Hydroxy-8a-androst-4-en-3-one
  22. 17b-Hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-on
  23. 17b-Hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one
  24. 17b-Hydroxy-D4-androsten-3-one
  25. 17b-Hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one
  26. 17b-Hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3-one
  27. 17b-Testosterone
  28. 4-Androsten-3-one-17b-ol
  29. 8-Iso-testosterone
  30. 9b,10a-Testosterone
  31. 9b-Testosterone
  32. Androderm
  33. AndroGel
  34. Androlin
  35. Andronaq
  36. Andropatch
  37. Androst-4-en-17b-ol-3-one
  38. Androst-4-ene-17b-ol-3-one
  39. Andrusol
  40. Cristerona T
  41. D4-Androsten-17b-ol-3-one
  42. Epitestosteron
  43. Geno-cristaux Gremy
  44. Homosteron
  45. Homosterone
  46. Lumitestosteron
  47. Mertestate
  48. Neotestis
  49. Oreton
  50. Orquisteron
  51. Perandren
  52. Percutacrine androgenique
  53. Primotest
  54. Primoteston
  55. Rac-17b-hydroxy-(13a)androst-4-en-3-one
  56. Rac-17b-hydroxy-(8a)-androst-4-en-3-one
  57. Rac-17b-hydroxy-(9b,10a)androst-4-en-3-one
  58. Rac-17b-hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one
  59. Relibra
  60. Retrotestosterone
  61. Sustanon
  62. Sustanone
  63. Sustason 250
  64. Synandrol F
  65. Teslen
  66. Testandrone
  67. Testiculosterone
  68. Testim
  69. Testobase
  70. Testoderm
  71. Testogel
  72. Testolent
  73. Testolin
  74. Testopropon
  75. Testosteroid
  76. Testosteron
  77. Testoviron Schering
  78. Testoviron T
  79. Testro AQ
  80. Testrone
  81. Testryl
  82. Tostrelle
  83. Tostrex
  84. Viatrel
  85. Virormone
  86. Virosterone
Chemical FormulaC19H28O2
Average Molecular Weight288.4244
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight288.20893014
IUPAC Name(1S,2R,10R,11S,14S,15S)-14-hydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-6-en-5-one
Traditional IUPAC Nametestosterone
CAS Registry Number58-22-0
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@H](O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C19H28O2/c1-18-9-7-13(20)11-12(18)3-4-14-15-5-6-17(21)19(15,2)10-8-16(14)18/h11,14-17,21H,3-10H2,1-2H3/t14-,15-,16-,17-,18-,19-/m0/s1
InChI KeyMUMGGOZAMZWBJJ-DYKIIFRCSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassLipids
ClassSteroids and Steroid Derivatives
Sub ClassAndrogens and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Homopolycyclic Compounds
  • Hydroxysteroids
  • Ketosteroids
  • a hormone(Cyc)
Substituents
  • Cyclic Alcohol
  • Cyclohexane
  • Cyclohexene
  • Decaline
  • Ketone
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Sesquiterpene Backbone
Direct ParentAndrogens and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Hormones, Membrane component
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point155 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.0234 mg/mLNot Available
LogP3.32HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility0.033 g/LALOGPS
logP2.99ALOGPS
logP3.37ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)19.09ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)-0.88ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
polar surface area37.3ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity84.43ChemAxon
polarizability33.93ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Gonads
  • Hypothalamus
  • Muscle
  • Sperm
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismSMP00068map00150
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00125 +/- 0.00042 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.013 (0.0083-0.0286) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0094 +/- 0.0014 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.00101 (0.00002-0.002) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.00065 +/- 0.00012 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.00120 (0.00108-0.00133) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.000677 (0.000590-0.000764) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.07 +/- 0.19 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified9.31 (3.31-19.95) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleCadmium exposure details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.010 +/- 0.013 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)MaleHypogonadism details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified3.400e-05 +/- 1.665e-05 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedLeuprolide acetate-induced hypogonadism details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000497 +/- 0.000222 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedLeuprolide acetate-induced hypogonadism with testosterone replacment details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Cadmium exposure
  1. Zeng X, Lin T, Zhou Y, Kong Q: Alterations of serum hormone levels in male workers occupationally exposed to cadmium. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2002 Apr 12;65(7):513-21. Pubmed: 11939709
Hypogonadism
  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Testosterone
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00624
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB011544
KNApSAcK IDC00003675
Chemspider ID5791
KEGG Compound IDC00535
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID35280
Wikipedia LinkTestosterone
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00234
Metagene LinkHMDB00234
METLIN ID390
PubChem Compound6013
PDB IDTES
ChEBI ID17347
References
Synthesis ReferenceErcoli, Alberto; De Ruggieri, Pietro. An improved method of preparing testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and some of their esters. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1953), 75 650-3.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Kim YS, Zhang H, Kim HY: Profiling neurosteroids in cerebrospinal fluids and plasma by gas chromatography/electron capture negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 2000 Jan 15;277(2):187-95. Pubmed: 10625505
  2. Cutolo M, Sulli A, Capellino S, Villaggio B, Montagna P, Pizzorni C, Paolino S, Seriolo B, Felli L, Straub RH: Anti-TNF and sex hormones. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Jun;1069:391-400. Pubmed: 16855166
  3. Schwarz S, Pohl P: Steroid hormones and steroid hormone binding globulins in cerebrospinal fluid studied in individuals with intact and with disturbed blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Neuroendocrinology. 1992 Feb;55(2):174-82. Pubmed: 1620285
  4. Schaap LA, Pluijm SM, Smit JH, van Schoor NM, Visser M, Gooren LJ, Lips P: The association of sex hormone levels with poor mobility, low muscle strength and incidence of falls among older men and women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Aug;63(2):152-60. Pubmed: 16060908
  5. Archer JS, Love-Geffen TE, Herbst-Damm KL, Swinney DA, Chang JR: Effect of estradiol versus estradiol and testosterone on brain-activation patterns in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2006 May-Jun;13(3):528-37. Pubmed: 16735951
  6. Handelsman DJ: Clinical review: The rationale for banning human chorionic gonadotropin and estrogen blockers in sport. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 May;91(5):1646-53. Epub 2006 Feb 14. Pubmed: 16478815
  7. Duschek EJ, Gooren LJ, Netelenbos C: Comparison of effects of the rise in serum testosterone by raloxifene and oral testosterone on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. Maturitas. 2005 Jul 16;51(3):286-93. Pubmed: 15978972
  8. Huang I, Jones J, Khorram O: Human seminal plasma nitric oxide: correlation with sperm morphology and testosterone. Med Sci Monit. 2006 Mar;12(3):CR103-6. Epub 2006 Feb 23. Pubmed: 16501419
  9. Hussein A, Ozgok Y, Ross L, Niederberger C: Clomiphene administration for cases of nonobstructive azoospermia: a multicenter study. J Androl. 2005 Nov-Dec;26(6):787-91; discussion 792-3. Pubmed: 16291975
  10. Ahtiainen JP, Pakarinen A, Alen M, Kraemer WJ, Hakkinen K: Short vs. long rest period between the sets in hypertrophic resistance training: influence on muscle strength, size, and hormonal adaptations in trained men. J Strength Cond Res. 2005 Aug;19(3):572-82. Pubmed: 16095405
  11. Landman AD, Sanford LM, Howland BE, Dawes C, Pritchard ET: Testosterone in human saliva. Experientia. 1976;32(7):940-1. Pubmed: 954994
  12. Knickmeyer RC, Wheelwright S, Taylor K, Raggatt P, Hackett G, Baron-Cohen S: Gender-typed play and amniotic testosterone. Dev Psychol. 2005 May;41(3):517-28. Pubmed: 15910159
  13. Fejes I, Koloszar S, Szollosi J, Zavaczki Z, Pal A: Is semen quality affected by male body fat distribution? Andrologia. 2005 Oct;37(5):155-9. Pubmed: 16266392
  14. Jarow JP, Zirkin BR: The androgen microenvironment of the human testis and hormonal control of spermatogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Dec;1061:208-20. Pubmed: 16467270
  15. Rovensky J, Radikova Z, Imrich R, Greguska O, Vigas M, Macho L: Gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones in plasma and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Endocr Regul. 2004 Dec;38(4):143-9. Pubmed: 15841793
  16. Klimek M, Pabian W, Tomaszewska B, Kolodziejczyk J: Levels of plasma ACTH in men from infertile couples. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005 Aug;26(4):347-50. Pubmed: 16136011
  17. Shores MM, Matsumoto AM, Sloan KL, Kivlahan DR: Low serum testosterone and mortality in male veterans. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Aug 14-28;166(15):1660-5. Pubmed: 16908801
  18. Bhasin S, Cunningham GR, Hayes FJ, Matsumoto AM, Snyder PJ, Swerdloff RS, Montori VM: Testosterone therapy in adult men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun;91(6):1995-2010. Epub 2006 May 23. Pubmed: 16720669
  19. Jarow JP, Wright WW, Brown TR, Yan X, Zirkin BR: Bioactivity of androgens within the testes and serum of normal men. J Androl. 2005 May-Jun;26(3):343-8. Pubmed: 15867001
  20. Bridger T, MacDonald S, Baltzer F, Rodd C: Randomized placebo-controlled trial of metformin for adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Mar;160(3):241-6. Pubmed: 16520442
  21. Kazi M, Geraci SA, Koch CA: Considerations for the diagnosis and treatment of testosterone deficiency in elderly men. Am J Med. 2007 Oct;120(10):835-40. Pubmed: 17904450
  22. Krone N, Hanley NA, Arlt W: Age-specific changes in sex steroid biosynthesis and sex development. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Sep;21(3):393-401. Pubmed: 17875487
  23. Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia in normal men. World Health Organization Task Force on methods for the regulation of male fertility. Lancet. 1990 Oct 20;336(8721):955-9. Pubmed: 1977002
  24. Hoberman JM, Yesalis CE: The history of synthetic testosterone. Sci Am. 1995 Feb;272(2):76-81. Pubmed: 7817189
  25. Freeman ER, Bloom DA, McGuire EJ: A brief history of testosterone. J Urol. 2001 Feb;165(2):371-3. Pubmed: 11176375

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 74 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular weight:
59681.27
References
  1. Sjoberg RL, Ducci F, Barr CS, Newman TK, Dell'osso L, Virkkunen M, Goldman D: A non-additive interaction of a functional MAO-A VNTR and testosterone predicts antisocial behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Jan;33(2):425-30. Epub 2007 Apr 11. Pubmed: 17429405
  2. Hoff KM: Interaction of testosterone with monoamineoxidase in mouse brain maturation. Gen Pharmacol. 1977;8(1):55-7. Pubmed: 590724
General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of estradiol and estrone. May play a role in the regulation of estrogen receptor activity by metabolizing free estradiol. Maximally sulfates beta-estradiol and estrone at concentrations of 20 nM. Also sulfates dehydroepiandrosterone, pregnenolone, ethinylestradiol, equalenin, diethylstilbesterol and 1-naphthol, at significantly higher concentrations; however, cortisol, testosterone and dopamine are not sulfated.
Gene Name:
SULT1E1
Uniprot ID:
P49888
Molecular weight:
35126.185
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ) and the oxidation of 9-alpha,11-beta-PGF2 to PGD2. Functions as a bi-directional 3-alpha-, 17-beta- and 20-alpha HSD. Can interconvert active androgens, estrogens and progestins with their cognate inactive metabolites. Preferentially transforms androstenedione (4-dione) to testosterone.
Gene Name:
AKR1C3
Uniprot ID:
P42330
Molecular weight:
36866.91
Reactions
Testosterone + NAD → Androstenedione + NADHdetails
Testosterone + NADP → Androstenedione + NADPHdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Capable of catalyzing the interconversion of testosterone and androstenedione, as well as estradiol and estrone. Also has 20-alpha-HSD activity. Uses NADH while EDH17B3 uses NADPH.
Gene Name:
HSD17B2
Uniprot ID:
P37059
Molecular weight:
42784.75
Reactions
Testosterone + NAD → Androstenedione + NADHdetails
Testosterone + NAD → Androstenedione + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme has glucuronidating capacity with steroid substrates such as 5-beta-androstane 3-alpha,17-beta-diol, estradiol, ADT, eugenol and bile acids. Only isoform 1 seems to be active.
Gene Name:
UGT2B28
Uniprot ID:
Q9BY64
Molecular weight:
38742.9
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
NAD-dependent 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with highest activity towards estradiol. Has very low activity towards testosterone. The heteroteramer with CBR4 has NADH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase activity. May play a role in biosynthesis of fatty acids in mitochondria.
Gene Name:
HSD17B8
Uniprot ID:
Q92506
Molecular weight:
26973.56
Reactions
Testosterone + NAD → Androstenedione + NADHdetails
Testosterone + NAD → Androstenedione + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
Gene Name:
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID:
P06133
Molecular weight:
60512.035
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular weight:
60024.535
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT2B10
Uniprot ID:
P36537
Molecular weight:
60773.485
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xenobiotic substrates, including simple phenolic compounds, 7-hydroxylated coumarins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and certain drugs and their hydroxylated metabolites. It also catalyzes the glucuronidation of endogenous estrogens and androgens.
Gene Name:
UGT2B15
Uniprot ID:
P54855
Molecular weight:
61035.815
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Active on odorants and seems to be involved in olfaction; it could help clear lipophilic odorant molecules from the sensory epithelium.
Gene Name:
UGT2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y4X1
Molecular weight:
60771.605
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW9
Molecular weight:
59741.035
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P35503
Molecular weight:
60337.835
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A10
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW8
Molecular weight:
59809.075
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The major substrates of this isozyme are eugenol > 4-methylumbelliferone > dihydrotestosterone (DHT) > androstane-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol) > testosterone > androsterone (ADT).
Gene Name:
UGT2B17
Uniprot ID:
O75795
Molecular weight:
61094.915
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular weight:
60750.215
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A5
Uniprot ID:
P35504
Molecular weight:
60070.565
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT2B11
Uniprot ID:
O75310
Molecular weight:
61037.8
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW7
Molecular weight:
59818.315
Reactions
Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Can convert androstan-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol) to androsterone in vitro, suggesting that it may participate in androgen metabolism during steroidogenesis. May act by metabolizing compounds that stimulate steroid synthesis and/or by generating metabolites that inhibit it. Has no activity toward DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone), or A-dione (4-androste-3,17-dione), and only a slight activity toward testosterone to A-dione. Tumor-associated antigen in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
Gene Name:
HSD17B11
Uniprot ID:
Q8NBQ5
Molecular weight:
32935.525
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Efficiently catalyzes the reduction of progesterone, androstenedione, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone to 5-beta-reduced metabolites. The bile acid intermediates 7-alpha,12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one can also act as substrates.
Gene Name:
AKR1D1
Uniprot ID:
P51857
Molecular weight:
32889.38
Reactions
5b-Dihydrotestosterone + NADP → Testosterone + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Converts testosterone (T) into 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and progesterone or corticosterone into their corresponding 5-alpha-3-oxosteroids. It plays a central role in sexual differentiation and androgen physiology.
Gene Name:
SRD5A2
Uniprot ID:
P31213
Molecular weight:
28407.035
Reactions
Dihydrotestosterone + Acceptor → Testosterone + Reduced acceptordetails
General function:
Involved in 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Converts testosterone into 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone and progesterone or corticosterone into their corresponding 5-alpha-3-oxosteroids. It plays a central role in sexual differentiation and androgen physiology.
Gene Name:
SRD5A1
Uniprot ID:
P18405
Molecular weight:
29458.18
Reactions
Dihydrotestosterone + Acceptor → Testosterone + Reduced acceptordetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.
Gene Name:
CYP11A1
Uniprot ID:
P05108
Molecular weight:
60101.87
References
  1. Kostic TS, Stojkov NJ, Bjelic MM, Mihajlovic AI, Janjic MM, Andric SA: Pharmacological doses of testosterone upregulated androgen receptor and 3-Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta-5-delta-4 isomerase and impaired leydig cells steroidogenesis in adult rats. Toxicol Sci. 2011 Jun;121(2):397-407. Epub 2011 Apr 6. Pubmed: 21427060
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Catalyzes isomerization reactions that contribute to the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. Efficiently catalyze obligatory double-bond isomerizations of delta(5)-androstene-3,17-dione and delta(5)-pregnene-3,20-dione, precursors to testosterone and progesterone, respectively.
Gene Name:
GSTA3
Uniprot ID:
Q16772
Molecular weight:
25301.355
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Favors the reduction of androstenedione to testosterone. Uses NADPH while the two other EDH17B enzymes use NADH.
Gene Name:
HSD17B3
Uniprot ID:
P37058
Molecular weight:
34515.345
Reactions
Testosterone + NADP → Androstenedione + NADPHdetails
Testosterone + NADP → Androstenedione + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
  2. Zhang T, Zhu Y, Gunaratna C: Rapid and quantitative determination of metabolites from multiple cytochrome P450 probe substrates by gradient liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Nov 25;780(2):371-9. Pubmed: 12401364
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits low testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name:
CYP3A43
Uniprot ID:
Q9HB55
Molecular weight:
57756.285
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Participates in the metabolism of an as-yet-unknown biologically active molecule that is a participant in eye development.
Gene Name:
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q16678
Molecular weight:
60845.33
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID:
P33260
Molecular weight:
55710.075
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
May be involved in the metabolism of various pneumotoxicants including naphthalene. Is able to dealkylate ethoxycoumarin, propoxycoumarin, and pentoxyresorufin but possesses no activity toward ethoxyresorufin and only trace dearylation activity toward benzyloxyresorufin. Bioactivates 3-methylindole (3MI) by dehydrogenation to the putative electrophile 3-methylene-indolenine.
Gene Name:
CYP2F1
Uniprot ID:
P24903
Molecular weight:
55500.64
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP4X1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N118
Molecular weight:
58874.62
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular weight:
58164.815
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Active in the metabolic activation of hexamethylphosphoramide, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2'-methoxyacetophenone, N-nitrosomethylphenylamine, and the tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Possesses phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A13
Uniprot ID:
Q16696
Molecular weight:
56687.095
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP4B1
Uniprot ID:
P13584
Molecular weight:
58990.64
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP4Z1
Uniprot ID:
Q86W10
Molecular weight:
59085.45
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular weight:
57882.48
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has a potential importance for extrahepatic xenobiotic metabolism.
Gene Name:
CYP2S1
Uniprot ID:
Q96SQ9
Molecular weight:
55816.205
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly via a NADPH-dependent olefin epoxidation to all four regioisomeric cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. One of the predominant enzymes responsible for the epoxidation of endogenous cardiac arachidonic acid pools.
Gene Name:
CYP2J2
Uniprot ID:
P51589
Molecular weight:
57610.165

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Katoh M, Nakajima M, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T: Inhibitory effects of CYP3A4 substrates and their metabolites on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2001 Feb;12(4):505-13. Pubmed: 11231118
  2. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. Pubmed: 11602674
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from the brain. May be involved in brain-to-blood efflux. Appears to play a major role in the multidrug resistance phenotype of several cancer cell lines. When overexpressed, the transfected cells become resistant to mitoxantrone, daunorubicin and doxorubicin, display diminished intracellular accumulation of daunorubicin, and manifest an ATP- dependent increase in the efflux of rhodamine 123
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular weight:
72313.5
References
  1. Janvilisri T, Venter H, Shahi S, Reuter G, Balakrishnan L, van Veen HW: Sterol transport by the human breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) expressed in Lactococcus lactis. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 6;278(23):20645-51. Epub 2003 Mar 28. Pubmed: 12668685
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET)
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular weight:
62154.5
References
  1. Tzvetkov MV, Vormfelde SV, Balen D, Meineke I, Schmidt T, Sehrt D, Sabolic I, Koepsell H, Brockmoller J: The effects of genetic polymorphisms in the organic cation transporters OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 on the renal clearance of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Sep;86(3):299-306. Epub 2009 Jun 17. Pubmed: 19536068
General function:
Involved in bile acid:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presence of sodium.
Gene Name:
SLC10A1
Uniprot ID:
Q14973
Molecular weight:
38118.64
References
  1. Schroeder A, Eckhardt U, Stieger B, Tynes R, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Substrate specificity of the rat liver Na(+)-bile salt cotransporter in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in CHO cells. Am J Physiol. 1998 Feb;274(2 Pt 1):G370-5. Pubmed: 9486191
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)- N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and metformin. The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine, NMDA receptor antagonists, atropine, prazosin, cimetidine, TEA and NMN, guanidine, cimetidine, choline, procainamide, quinine, tetrabutylammonium, and tetrapentylammonium. Translocates organic cations in an electrogenic and pH-independent manner. Translocates organic cations across the plasma membrane in both directions. Transports the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Transports pramipexole across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The choline transport is activated by MMTS. Regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways including inhibition by protein kinase A activation, and endogenously activation by the calmodulin complex, the calmodulin- dependent kinase II and LCK tyrosine kinase
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular weight:
61187.4
References
  1. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. Pubmed: 9830022
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular weight:
74144.1
References
  1. Lu R, Kanai N, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Schuster VL: Regulation of renal oatp mRNA expression by testosterone. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F332-7. Pubmed: 8779895
  2. Kanai N, Lu R, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Vore M, Schuster VL: Estradiol 17 beta-D-glucuronide is a high-affinity substrate for oatp organic anion transporter. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F326-31. Pubmed: 8779894
  3. Bossuyt X, Muller M, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Polyspecific drug and steroid clearance by an organic anion transporter of mammalian liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):891-6. Pubmed: 8786566
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain
Gene Name:
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID:
O75751
Molecular weight:
61279.5
References
  1. Tzvetkov MV, Vormfelde SV, Balen D, Meineke I, Schmidt T, Sehrt D, Sabolic I, Koepsell H, Brockmoller J: The effects of genetic polymorphisms in the organic cation transporters OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 on the renal clearance of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Sep;86(3):299-306. Epub 2009 Jun 17. Pubmed: 19536068
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha- ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular weight:
60025.0
References
  1. Kobayashi Y, Hirokawa N, Ohshiro N, Sekine T, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Differential gene expression of organic anion transporters in male and female rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jan 11;290(1):482-7. Pubmed: 11779196

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 74 proteins in total.