Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Pyruvic acid (HMDB00243)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2005-11-16 08:48:42 -0700
Update Date 2013-02-08 17:08:09 -0700
HMDB ID HMDB00243
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Pyruvic acid
Description Pyruvic acid is an intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed.) Biological Source: Intermediate in primary metabolism including fermentation processes. Present in muscle in redox equilibrium with Lactic acid. A common constituent, as a chiral cyclic acetal linked to saccharide residues, of bacterial polysaccharides. Isolated from cane sugar fermentation broth and peppermint. Constituent of Bauhinia purpurea, Cicer arietinum (chickpea), Delonix regia, Pisum sativum (pea) and Trigonella caerulea (sweet trefoil) Use/Importance: Reagent for regeneration of carbonyl compdounds from semicarbazones, phenylhydrazones and oximes. Flavoring ingredient (Dictionary of Organic Compounds).
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. 2-Oxopropanoate
  2. 2-Oxopropanoic acid
  3. 2-Oxopropionate
  4. 2-Oxopropionic acid
  5. a-Ketopropionate
  6. a-Ketopropionic acid
  7. Acetylformate
  8. Acetylformic acid
  9. alpha-Ketopropionate
  10. alpha-Ketopropionic acid
  11. BTS
  12. Pyroracemate
  13. Pyroracemic acid
  14. Pyruvate
Chemical Formula C3H4O3
Average Molecular Weight 88.0621
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 88.016043994
IUPAC Name 2-oxopropanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name pyruvic acid
CAS Registry Number 127-17-3
SMILES CC(=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C3H4O3/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h1H3,(H,5,6)
InChI Key LCTONWCANYUPML-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Organic Acids and Derivatives
Class Keto-Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class Alpha Keto-Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • 2-oxo monocarboxylic acid(ChEBI)
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Oxo fatty acids(Lipidmaps)
Substituents
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Ketone
Direct Parent Alpha Keto-Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Microbial
Biofunction
  • Anti-oxidant
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism
  • Component of Butanoate metabolism
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Component of Propanoate metabolism
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Component of Pyruvate metabolism
  • Component of Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Energy source
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
State Liquid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 13.8 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 1000.0 mg/mL Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
Water Solubility 134 g/L ALOGPS
LogP -0.38 ALOGPS
LogP 0.066 ChemAxon
LogS 0.18 ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic) 2.93 ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic) -9.6 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 3 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 1 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 54.37 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 1 ChemAxon
Refractivity 17.99 ChemAxon
Polarizability 7.32 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 0 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge -1 ChemAxon
Spectra
Gas-MS Spectrum
13C NMR Spectrum
1H NMR Spectrum
MS/MS Spectrum EI-B (HITACHI M-80B)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50
MS/MS Spectrum GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies )
MS/MS Spectrum GC-MS
MS/MS Spectrum GC-MS
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Muscle
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Fibroblasts
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Testes
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Thyroid Gland
  • Brain
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Spleen
  • Myocardium
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
Urea Cycle SMP00059 map00330 Link_out
Glucose-Alanine Cycle SMP00127 Not Available
Glycine and Serine Metabolism SMP00004 map00260 Link_out
Pyruvate Metabolism SMP00060 map00620 Link_out
Alanine Metabolism SMP00055 map00250 Link_out
Ammonia Recycling SMP00009 map00910 Link_out
Glycolysis SMP00040 map00010 Link_out
Citric Acid Cycle SMP00057 map00020 Link_out
Cysteine Metabolism SMP00013 map00270 Link_out
Gluconeogenesis SMP00128 map00010 Link_out
Pyruvaldehyde Degradation SMP00459 Not Available
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into Mitochondria SMP00466 Not Available
Amino Sugar Metabolism SMP00045 map00520 Link_out
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
34.5 +/- 25.2 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
64 (22-258) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
81.0 +/- 34.0 uM Newborn (0-30 days old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
76.0 +/- 10.0 uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
63.0 +/- 25.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
75.5 (10.0-141.0) uM Newborn (0-30 days old) Not Specified Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
64 (28-145) uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
64 (29-144) uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
67 (27-164) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
64 (29-144) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
66 (34-117) uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
93.5 (27.0-160.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cellular Cytoplasm Detected and Quantified
77.0 (27.0-127) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cellular Cytoplasm Detected and Quantified
360 (350-370) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
153.0 (121.0-185.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
53 +/- 42 uM Not Specified Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
71.0 +/- 31.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
115.0 +/- 17.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
136.0 +/- 29.0 uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Saliva Detected and Quantified
5350 (100-10600) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Saliva Detected and Quantified
1-128 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Comment normal
Saliva Detected and Quantified
1-76 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Comment normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
9.79 +/- 9.34 umol/mmol creatinine Infant (0-1 year old) Not Specified Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
2.1 (1.0-3.7) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
2.27-79.53 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • David F. Put...
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
4.21 +/- 1.37 umol/mmol creatinine Children (1-13 year old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Urine Detected and Quantified
1.7985 (0-3.597) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
5.4 (2.6-7.9) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
2.7 (0.8-6.4) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Male Comment Normal
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Male Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
21.2 (8.8-59.3) umol/mmol creatinine Newborn (0-30 days old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
28.6 (12.9-43.0) umol/mmol creatinine Infant (0-1 year old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
12.4 (5.3-22.1) umol/mmol creatinine Children (1-13 year old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
10.2 (4.7-40.5) umol/mmol creatinine Adolescent (13-18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
38.50 (18.32 – 69.64) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Lorena Ivona...
Urine Detected and Quantified
2.13 (0.54-8.67) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
1.68 (0.62-3.30) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
7 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 50.2 +/- 40 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Heart Transplant
Cellular Cytoplasm Detected and Quantified 140 (130-150) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Anoxia
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 195.0 (175.0-215.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Meningitis
Urine Detected and Quantified 0.2 (0.10-0.30) umol/mmol creatinine Children (1-13 year old) Both 3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria (TYPE II), X-LINKED
Urine Detected and Quantified 45.58 (18.06 – 104.62) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Type 1 diabetes Mellitus
  • Lorena Ivona...
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Anoxia
  • Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834 Link_out
      Meningitis
      • Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. Pubmed: 15627241 Link_out
          3-methylglutaconic aciduria type II, X-linked
              Associated OMIM IDs
              • 302060 Link_out (3-methylglutaconic aciduria type II, X-linked)
              DrugBank ID DB00119 Link_out
              DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
              Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
              Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
              FoodDB ID FDB008293
              KNApSAcK ID C00001200 Link_out
              Chemspider ID 1031 Link_out
              KEGG Compound ID C00022 Link_out
              BioCyc ID PYRUVATE Link_out
              BiGG ID 33546 Link_out
              Wikipedia Link Pyruvic acid Link_out
              NuGOwiki Link HMDB00243 Link_out
              Metagene Link HMDB00243 Link_out
              METLIN ID 117 Link_out
              PubChem Compound 1060 Link_out
              PDB ID PYR Link_out
              ChEBI ID 32816 Link_out
              References
              Synthesis Reference Xiang, Wei; Okita, Motomu. Preparation of pyruvic acid. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (2003), 5 pp.
              Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
              General References
              1. Nielsen J, Ytrebo LM, Borud O: Lactate and pyruvate concentrations in capillary blood from newborns. Acta Paediatr. 1994 Sep;83(9):920-2. Pubmed: 7819686 Link_out
              2. Ka T, Yamamoto T, Moriwaki Y, Kaya M, Tsujita J, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Fukuchi M, Hada T: Effect of exercise and beer on the plasma concentration and urinary excretion of purine bases. J Rheumatol. 2003 May;30(5):1036-42. Pubmed: 12734903 Link_out
              3. Talseth T, Haegele KD, McNay JL, Skrdlant HB, Clementi WA, Shepherd AM: Pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects in rabbits of a major hydralazine metabolite, the hydralazine pyruvic-acid hydrazone. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1979 Dec;211(3):509-13. Pubmed: 512915 Link_out
              4. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. Pubmed: 15627241 Link_out
              5. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834 Link_out
              6. Reece PA, Cozamanis I, Zacest R: Selective high-performance liquid chromatographic assays for hydralazine and its metabolites in plasma of man. J Chromatogr. 1980 Mar 14;181(3-4):427-40. Pubmed: 7391156 Link_out
              7. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. Pubmed: 8087979 Link_out
              8. Meijer-Severs GJ, Van Santen E, Meijer BC: Short-chain fatty acid and organic acid concentrations in feces of healthy human volunteers and their correlations with anaerobe cultural counts during systemic ceftriaxone administration. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1990 Jul;25(7):698-704. Pubmed: 2396083 Link_out
              9. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436 Link_out
              10. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2(1):18. Pubmed: 15882454 Link_out
              11. Elling D, Bader K: [Biochemical changes in cervix mucus in stepwise malignant transformation of cervix epithelium] Zentralbl Gynakol. 1990;112(9):555-60. Pubmed: 2378186 Link_out
              12. Mongan PD, Capacchione J, West S, Karaian J, Dubois D, Keneally R, Sharma P: Pyruvate improves redox status and decreases indicators of hepatic apoptosis during hemorrhagic shock in swine. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002 Oct;283(4):H1634-44. Epub 2002 Jun 20. Pubmed: 12234818 Link_out
              13. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. Pubmed: 8412012 Link_out
              14. Foster KJ, Alberti KG, Hinks L, Lloyd B, Postle A, Smythe P, Turnell DC, Walton R: Blood intermediary metabolite and insulin concentrations after an overnight fast: reference ranges for adults, and interrelations. Clin Chem. 1978 Sep;24(9):1568-72. Pubmed: 688619 Link_out
              15. Tsuchiya H, Hashizume I, Tokunaga T, Tatsumi M, Takagi N, Hayashi T: High-performance liquid chromatography of alpha-keto acids in human saliva. Arch Oral Biol. 1983;28(11):989-92. Pubmed: 6581765 Link_out

              Enzymes

              Show all enzymes and transporters Important Only showing the first 50 enzymes. There are 53 enzymes in total.

              Name: Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, mitochondrial
              Reactions:
              Pyruvic acid + [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] lipoyllysine unknown [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2) details
              Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate unknown 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxide details
              Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine unknown [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxide details
              Gene Name: PDHB
              Uniprot ID: P11177 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial
              Reactions:
              Adenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid + Carbonic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Oxalacetic acid details
              Gene Name: PC
              Uniprot ID: P11498 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, somatic form, mitochondrial
              Reactions:
              Pyruvic acid + [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] lipoyllysine unknown [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2) details
              Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate unknown 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxide details
              Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine unknown [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxide details
              Gene Name: PDHA1
              Uniprot ID: P08559 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, testis-specific form, mitochondrial
              Reactions:
              Pyruvic acid + [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] lipoyllysine unknown [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2) details
              Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate unknown 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxide details
              Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine unknown [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxide details
              Gene Name: PDHA2
              Uniprot ID: P29803 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: DLD
              Uniprot ID: P09622 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, mitochondrial
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: DLAT
              Uniprot ID: P10515 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: D-amino-acid oxidase
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: DAO
              Uniprot ID: P14920 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ABAT
              Uniprot ID: P80404 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial
              Reactions:
              L-Alanine + Glyoxylic acid unknown Pyruvic acid + Glycine details
              (R)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + Pyruvic acid unknown 2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoic acid + L-Alanine details
              Gene Name: AGXT2
              Uniprot ID: Q9BYV1 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: AMD1
              Uniprot ID: P17707 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 1
              Reactions:
              RS-CH(2)-CH(NH(3)(+))COO(-) + Water unknown RSH + Ammonia + Pyruvic acid details
              Gene Name: CCBL1
              Uniprot ID: Q16773 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Cystathionine gamma-lyase
              Reactions:
              L-Cysteine + Water unknown Hydrogen sulfide + Pyruvic acid + Ammonia details
              L-Cystine + Water unknown Pyruvic acid + Ammonia + Thiocysteine details
              Gene Name: CTH
              Uniprot ID: P32929 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: L-serine dehydratase/L-threonine deaminase
              Reactions:
              L-Serine unknown Pyruvic acid + Ammonia details
              Gene Name: SDS
              Uniprot ID: P20132 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Adenylate cyclase type 7
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ADCY7
              Uniprot ID: P51828 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Adenylate cyclase type 4
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ADCY4
              Uniprot ID: Q8NFM4 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Adenylate cyclase type 6
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ADCY6
              Uniprot ID: O43306 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Adenylate cyclase type 5
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ADCY5
              Uniprot ID: O95622 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Adenylate cyclase type 8
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ADCY8
              Uniprot ID: P40145 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Adenylate cyclase type 9
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ADCY9
              Uniprot ID: O60503 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Adenylate cyclase type 3
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ADCY3
              Uniprot ID: O60266 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Adenylate cyclase type 1
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ADCY1
              Uniprot ID: Q08828 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2
              Reactions:
              Adenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
              Guanosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid unknown Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
              Deoxyadenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid unknown dADP + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
              dGTP + Pyruvic acid unknown dGDP + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
              Nucleoside triphosphate + Pyruvic acid unknown NDP + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
              Gene Name: PKM
              Uniprot ID: P14618 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Pyruvate kinase isozymes R/L
              Reactions:
              Adenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid unknown ADP + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
              Guanosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid unknown Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
              Deoxyadenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid unknown dADP + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
              dGTP + Pyruvic acid unknown dGDP + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
              Nucleoside triphosphate + Pyruvic acid unknown NDP + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
              Gene Name: PKLR
              Uniprot ID: P30613 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase
              Reactions:
              3-Mercaptopyruvic acid + Hydrogen cyanide unknown Pyruvic acid + Thiocyanate details
              3-Mercaptopyruvic acid + Sulfurous acid unknown Thiosulfate + Pyruvic acid details
              Gene Name: MPST
              Uniprot ID: P25325 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase
              Reactions:
              L-Serine + Pyruvic acid unknown Hydroxypyruvic acid + L-Alanine details
              L-Alanine + Glyoxylic acid unknown Pyruvic acid + Glycine details
              Gene Name: AGXT
              Uniprot ID: P21549 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Alanine aminotransferase 1
              Reactions:
              L-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
              Gene Name: GPT
              Uniprot ID: P24298 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: NADP-dependent malic enzyme
              Reactions:
              L-Malic acid + NADP unknown Pyruvic acid + CO(2) + NADPH details
              Oxalacetic acid unknown Pyruvic acid + CO(2) details
              L-Malic acid + NADP unknown Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
              Gene Name: ME1
              Uniprot ID: P48163 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: NADP-dependent malic enzyme, mitochondrial
              Reactions:
              L-Malic acid + NADP unknown Pyruvic acid + CO(2) + NADPH details
              Oxalacetic acid unknown Pyruvic acid + CO(2) details
              L-Malic acid + NADP unknown Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
              Gene Name: ME3
              Uniprot ID: Q16798 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: NAD-dependent malic enzyme, mitochondrial
              Reactions:
              L-Malic acid + NAD unknown Pyruvic acid + CO(2) + NADH details
              Oxalacetic acid unknown Pyruvic acid + CO(2) details
              L-Malic acid + NAD unknown Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
              Gene Name: ME2
              Uniprot ID: P23368 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Histidine decarboxylase
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: HDC
              Uniprot ID: P19113 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: L-lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6A
              Reactions:
              L-Lactic acid + NAD unknown Pyruvic acid + NADH details
              L-Lactic acid + NAD unknown Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
              Gene Name: LDHAL6A
              Uniprot ID: Q6ZMR3 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Adenylate cyclase type 2
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ADCY2
              Uniprot ID: Q08462 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Thiosulfate sulfurtransferase
              Reactions:
              3-Mercaptopyruvic acid + Sulfurous acid unknown Thiosulfate + Pyruvic acid details
              Hydrogen cyanide + 3-Mercaptopyruvic acid unknown Thiocyanate + Pyruvic acid details
              Gene Name: TST
              Uniprot ID: Q16762 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Monocarboxylate transporter 3
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: SLC16A8
              Uniprot ID: O95907 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Monocarboxylate transporter 7
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: SLC16A6
              Uniprot ID: O15403 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Monocarboxylate transporter 6
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: SLC16A5
              Uniprot ID: O15375 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Monocarboxylate transporter 5
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: SLC16A4
              Uniprot ID: O15374 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Phosphatidylserine decarboxylase proenzyme
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: PISD
              Uniprot ID: Q9UG56 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain
              Reactions:
              L-Lactic acid + NAD unknown Pyruvic acid + NADH details
              L-Lactic acid + NAD unknown Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
              Gene Name: LDHB
              Uniprot ID: P07195 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: L-lactate dehydrogenase C chain
              Reactions:
              L-Lactic acid + NAD unknown Pyruvic acid + NADH details
              L-Lactic acid + NAD unknown Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
              Gene Name: LDHC
              Uniprot ID: P07864 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
              Reactions:
              L-Lactic acid + NAD unknown Pyruvic acid + NADH details
              L-Lactic acid + NAD unknown Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
              Gene Name: LDHA
              Uniprot ID: P00338 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: L-lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6B
              Reactions:
              L-Lactic acid + NAD unknown Pyruvic acid + NADH details
              L-Lactic acid + NAD unknown Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
              Gene Name: LDHAL6B
              Uniprot ID: Q9BYZ2 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Probable D-lactate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
              Reactions:
              D-Lactic acid + ferricytochrome c unknown Pyruvic acid + ferrocytochrome c + Hydrogen Ion details
              D-Lactic acid + Ferricytochrome c unknown Pyruvic acid + Ferrocytochrome c + Hydrogen Ion details
              Gene Name: LDHD
              Uniprot ID: Q86WU2 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Alanine aminotransferase 2
              Reactions:
              L-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
              Gene Name: GPT2
              Uniprot ID: Q8TD30 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Selenocysteine lyase
              Reactions:
              Se-Methylselenocysteine + Water unknown Pyruvic acid + Ammonia + Methaneselenol details
              Gene Name: SCLY
              Uniprot ID: Q96I15 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: N-acetylneuraminate lyase
              Reactions:
              N-Acetylneuraminic acid unknown N-Acetylmannosamine + Pyruvic acid details
              Gene Name: NPL
              Uniprot ID: Q9BXD5 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Acetolactate synthase-like protein
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ILVBL
              Uniprot ID: A1L0T0 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Malic enzyme
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ME3
              Uniprot ID: Q8TBJ0 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Acylpyruvase FAHD1, mitochondrial
              Reactions:
              A 3-acylpyruvate + Water unknown a carboxylate + Pyruvic acid details
              3-Fumarylpyruvate + Water unknown Fumaric acid + Pyruvic acid details
              Gene Name: FAHD1
              Uniprot ID: Q6P587 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 3
              Reactions:
              RS-CH(2)-CH(NH(3)(+))COO(-) + Water unknown RSH + Ammonia + Pyruvic acid details
              Gene Name: CCBL2
              Uniprot ID: Q6YP21 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Transporters
              Name: Monocarboxylate transporter 4
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: SLC16A3
              Uniprot ID: O15427 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Monocarboxylate transporter 1
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: SLC16A1
              Uniprot ID: P53985 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Monocarboxylate transporter 8
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: SLC16A2
              Uniprot ID: P36021 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Monocarboxylate transporter 2
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: SLC16A7
              Uniprot ID: O60669 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Monocarboxylate transporter 10
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: SLC16A10
              Uniprot ID: Q8TF71 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: SLCO2A1
              Uniprot ID: Q92959 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA