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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-10-29 21:50:27 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00243
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePyruvic acid
DescriptionPyruvic acid is an intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed.) Biological Source: Intermediate in primary metabolism including fermentation processes. Present in muscle in redox equilibrium with Lactic acid. A common constituent, as a chiral cyclic acetal linked to saccharide residues, of bacterial polysaccharides. Isolated from cane sugar fermentation broth and peppermint. Constituent of Bauhinia purpurea, Cicer arietinum (chickpea), Delonix regia, Pisum sativum (pea) and Trigonella caerulea (sweet trefoil) Use/Importance: Reagent for regeneration of carbonyl compdounds from semicarbazones, phenylhydrazones and oximes. Flavoring ingredient (Dictionary of Organic Compounds).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 2-Oxopropanoate
  2. 2-Oxopropanoic acid
  3. 2-Oxopropionate
  4. 2-Oxopropionic acid
  5. a-Ketopropionate
  6. a-Ketopropionic acid
  7. Acetylformate
  8. Acetylformic acid
  9. alpha-Ketopropionate
  10. alpha-Ketopropionic acid
  11. BTS
  12. Pyroracemate
  13. Pyroracemic acid
  14. Pyruvate
Chemical FormulaC3H4O3
Average Molecular Weight88.0621
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight88.016043994
IUPAC Name2-oxopropanoic acid
Traditional Namepyruvic acid
CAS Registry Number127-17-3
SMILES
CC(=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H4O3/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h1H3,(H,5,6)
InChI KeyLCTONWCANYUPML-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassKeto-Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha Keto-Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • 2-oxo monocarboxylic acid(ChEBI)
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Oxo fatty acids(Lipidmaps)
Substituents
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Ketone
Direct ParentAlpha Keto-Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Microbial
Biofunction
  • Anti-oxidant
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism
  • Component of Butanoate metabolism
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Component of Propanoate metabolism
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Component of Pyruvate metabolism
  • Component of Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
  • Energy source
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point13.8 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility134 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.38ALOGPS
logP0.066ChemAxon
logS0.18ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.93ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.37ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity17.99ChemAxon
Polarizability7.32ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Brain
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Myocardium
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Alanine MetabolismSMP00055map00250
Amino Sugar MetabolismSMP00045map00520
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009map00910
Citric Acid CycleSMP00057map00020
Cysteine MetabolismSMP00013map00270
GluconeogenesisSMP00128map00010
Glucose-Alanine CycleSMP00127Not Available
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
GlycolysisSMP00040map00010
Pyruvaldehyde DegradationSMP00459Not Available
Pyruvate MetabolismSMP00060map00620
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaSMP00466Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059map00330
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified34.5 +/- 25.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified64 (22-258) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified81.0 +/- 34.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified76.0 +/- 10.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified63.0 +/- 25.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified75.5 (10.0-141.0) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified64 (28-145) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified64 (29-144) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified67 (27-164) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified64 (29-144) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified66 (34-117) uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified93.5 (27.0-160.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified77.0 (27.0-127) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified360 (350-370) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified153.0 (121.0-185.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified53 +/- 42 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified71.0 +/- 31.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified115.0 +/- 17.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified136.0 +/- 29.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified43.3 +/- 65.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified62.5 +/- 47.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified9 (<1-78) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified32 (<1-849) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified68.6 +/- 69.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified36 (9-395) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified15 (7-91) uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified16.0 +/- 18.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified5350 (100-10600) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified107.45 +/- 64.52 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-128 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-76 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified85.38 +/- 94.78 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.79 +/- 9.34 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.1 (1.0-3.7) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.27-79.53 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.21 +/- 1.37 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.7985 (0-3.597) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.4 (2.6-7.9) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.7 (0.8-6.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified21.2 (8.8-59.3) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified28.6 (12.9-43.0) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.4 (5.3-22.1) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.2 (4.7-40.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified38.50 (18.32 – 69.64) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Lorena Ivona ŞTEF...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.13 (0.54-8.67) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.68 (0.62-3.30) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified50.2 +/- 40 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHeart Transplant details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified140 (130-150) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAnoxia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified195.0 (175.0-215.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Meningitis
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified149.14 +/- 172.29 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified72.05 +/- 29.52 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified138.32 +/- 112.14 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.2 (0.10-0.30) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria (TYPE II), X-LINKED details
UrineDetected and Quantified45.58 (18.06 – 104.62) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothType 1 diabetes Mellitus
    • Lorena Ivona ŞTEF...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Anoxia
  1. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834
Meningitis
  1. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. Pubmed: 15627241
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type II, X-linked
  1. MetaGene
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 302060 (3-methylglutaconic aciduria type II, X-linked)
DrugBank IDDB00119
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB008293
KNApSAcK IDC00001200
Chemspider ID1031
KEGG Compound IDC00022
BioCyc IDPYRUVATE
BiGG ID33546
Wikipedia LinkPyruvic acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00243
Metagene LinkHMDB00243
METLIN ID117
PubChem Compound1060
PDB IDPYR
ChEBI ID32816
References
Synthesis ReferenceXiang, Wei; Okita, Motomu. Preparation of pyruvic acid. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (2003), 5 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Tsuchiya H, Hashizume I, Tokunaga T, Tatsumi M, Takagi N, Hayashi T: High-performance liquid chromatography of alpha-keto acids in human saliva. Arch Oral Biol. 1983;28(11):989-92. Pubmed: 6581765
  2. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. Pubmed: 8087979
  3. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. Pubmed: 8412012
  4. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
  5. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. Pubmed: 15627241
  6. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2(1):18. Pubmed: 15882454
  7. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834
  8. Foster KJ, Alberti KG, Hinks L, Lloyd B, Postle A, Smythe P, Turnell DC, Walton R: Blood intermediary metabolite and insulin concentrations after an overnight fast: reference ranges for adults, and interrelations. Clin Chem. 1978 Sep;24(9):1568-72. Pubmed: 688619
  9. Nielsen J, Ytrebo LM, Borud O: Lactate and pyruvate concentrations in capillary blood from newborns. Acta Paediatr. 1994 Sep;83(9):920-2. Pubmed: 7819686
  10. Ka T, Yamamoto T, Moriwaki Y, Kaya M, Tsujita J, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Fukuchi M, Hada T: Effect of exercise and beer on the plasma concentration and urinary excretion of purine bases. J Rheumatol. 2003 May;30(5):1036-42. Pubmed: 12734903
  11. Talseth T, Haegele KD, McNay JL, Skrdlant HB, Clementi WA, Shepherd AM: Pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects in rabbits of a major hydralazine metabolite, the hydralazine pyruvic-acid hydrazone. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1979 Dec;211(3):509-13. Pubmed: 512915
  12. Reece PA, Cozamanis I, Zacest R: Selective high-performance liquid chromatographic assays for hydralazine and its metabolites in plasma of man. J Chromatogr. 1980 Mar 14;181(3-4):427-40. Pubmed: 7391156
  13. Meijer-Severs GJ, Van Santen E, Meijer BC: Short-chain fatty acid and organic acid concentrations in feces of healthy human volunteers and their correlations with anaerobe cultural counts during systemic ceftriaxone administration. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1990 Jul;25(7):698-704. Pubmed: 2396083
  14. Elling D, Bader K: [Biochemical changes in cervix mucus in stepwise malignant transformation of cervix epithelium] Zentralbl Gynakol. 1990;112(9):555-60. Pubmed: 2378186
  15. Mongan PD, Capacchione J, West S, Karaian J, Dubois D, Keneally R, Sharma P: Pyruvate improves redox status and decreases indicators of hepatic apoptosis during hemorrhagic shock in swine. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002 Oct;283(4):H1634-44. Epub 2002 Jun 20. Pubmed: 12234818

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 59 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHB
Uniprot ID:
P11177
Molecular weight:
39233.1
Reactions
Pyruvic acid + [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] lipoyllysine → [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2)details
Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine → [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
References
  1. Kumar V, Rangaraj N, Shivaji S: Activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase A (PDHA) in hamster spermatozoa correlates positively with hyperactivation and is associated with sperm capacitation. Biol Reprod. 2006 Nov;75(5):767-77. Epub 2006 Jul 19. Pubmed: 16855207
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes a 2-step reaction, involving the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the covalently attached biotin in the first step and the transfer of the carboxyl group to pyruvate in the second. Catalyzes in a tissue specific manner, the initial reactions of glucose (liver, kidney) and lipid (adipose tissue, liver, brain) synthesis from pyruvate.
Gene Name:
PC
Uniprot ID:
P11498
Molecular weight:
129632.565
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid + Carbonic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Oxalacetic aciddetails
References
  1. Jitrapakdee S, Vidal-Puig A, Wallace JC: Anaplerotic roles of pyruvate carboxylase in mammalian tissues. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006 Apr;63(7-8):843-54. Pubmed: 16505973
  2. Simpson NE, Khokhlova N, Oca-Cossio JA, Constantinidis I: Insights into the role of anaplerosis in insulin secretion: A 13C NMR study. Diabetologia. 2006 Jun;49(6):1338-48. Epub 2006 Mar 31. Pubmed: 16575559
  3. Jensen MV, Joseph JW, Ilkayeva O, Burgess S, Lu D, Ronnebaum SM, Odegaard M, Becker TC, Sherry AD, Newgard CB: Compensatory responses to pyruvate carboxylase suppression in islet beta-cells. Preservation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 4;281(31):22342-51. Epub 2006 Jun 1. Pubmed: 16740637
  4. Ikeda K, Yukihiro Hiraoka B, Iwai H, Matsumoto T, Mineki R, Taka H, Takamori K, Ogawa H, Yamakura F: Detection of 6-nitrotryptophan in proteins by Western blot analysis and its application for peroxynitrite-treated PC12 cells. Nitric Oxide. 2007 Feb;16(1):18-28. Epub 2006 May 4. Pubmed: 16765071
  5. Liu L, Li Y, Zhu Y, Du G, Chen J: Redistribution of carbon flux in Torulopsis glabrata by altering vitamin and calcium level. Metab Eng. 2007 Jan;9(1):21-9. Epub 2006 Aug 12. Pubmed: 17008113
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA1
Uniprot ID:
P08559
Molecular weight:
43295.255
Reactions
Pyruvic acid + [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] lipoyllysine → [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2)details
Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine → [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA2
Uniprot ID:
P29803
Molecular weight:
42932.855
Reactions
Pyruvic acid + [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] lipoyllysine → [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2)details
Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine → [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the glycine cleavage system as well as of the alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. Involved in the hyperactivation of spermatazoa during capacitation and in the spermatazoal acrosome reaction.
Gene Name:
DLD
Uniprot ID:
P09622
Molecular weight:
54176.91
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
DLAT
Uniprot ID:
P10515
Molecular weight:
68996.03
General function:
Involved in D-amino-acid oxidase activity
Specific function:
Regulates the level of the neuromodulator D-serine in the brain. Has high activity towards D-DOPA and contributes to dopamine synthesis. Could act as a detoxifying agent which removes D-amino acids accumulated during aging. Acts on a variety of D-amino acids with a preference for those having small hydrophobic side chains followed by those bearing polar, aromatic, and basic groups. Does not act on acidic amino acids.
Gene Name:
DAO
Uniprot ID:
P14920
Molecular weight:
39473.75
General function:
Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine.
Gene Name:
ABAT
Uniprot ID:
P80404
Molecular weight:
56438.405
References
  1. Andersen G, Andersen B, Dobritzsch D, Schnackerz KD, Piskur J: A gene duplication led to specialized gamma-aminobutyrate and beta-alanine aminotransferase in yeast. FEBS J. 2007 Apr;274(7):1804-17. Epub 2007 Mar 12. Pubmed: 17355287
  2. Schmidt C, Hofmann U, Kohlmuller D, Murdter T, Zanger UM, Schwab M, Hoffmann GF: Comprehensive analysis of pyrimidine metabolism in 450 children with unspecific neurological symptoms using high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(6):1109-22. Pubmed: 16435204
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed: 11752352
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
Can metabolize asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) via transamination to alpha-keto-delta-(NN-dimethylguanidino) valeric acid (DMGV). ADMA is a potent inhibitor of nitric-oxide (NO) synthase, and this activity provides mechanism through which the kidney regulates blood pressure.
Gene Name:
AGXT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYV1
Molecular weight:
57155.905
Reactions
L-Alanine + Glyoxylic acid → Pyruvic acid + Glycinedetails
(R)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + Pyruvic acid → 2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoic acid + L-Alaninedetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
  3. Tamaki N, Fujimoto S, Mizota C, Kaneko M, Kikugawa M: Inhibitory effect of 6-azauracil on beta-alanine metabolism in rat. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1989 Oct;35(5):451-61. Pubmed: 2632679
General function:
Involved in adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMD1
Uniprot ID:
P17707
Molecular weight:
21301.015
General function:
Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Metabolizes the cysteine conjugates of certain halogenated alkenes and alkanes to form reactive metabolites. Catalyzes the beta-elimination of S-conjugates and Se-conjugates of L-(seleno)cysteine, resulting in the cleavage of the C-S or C-Se bond.
Gene Name:
CCBL1
Uniprot ID:
Q16773
Molecular weight:
47874.765
Reactions
RS-CH(2)-CH(NH(3)(+))COO(-) + Water → RSH + Ammonia + Pyruvic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the last step in the trans-sulfuration pathway from methionine to cysteine. Has broad substrate specificity. Converts cystathionine to cysteine, ammonia and 2-oxobutanoate. Converts two cysteine molecules to lanthionine and hydrogen sulfide. Can also accept homocysteine as substrate. Specificity depends on the levels of the endogenous substrates. Generates the endogenous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and so contributes to the regulation of blood pressure. Acts as a cysteine-protein sulfhydrase by mediating sulfhydration of target proteins: sulfhydration consists of converting -SH groups into -SSH on specific cysteine residues of target proteins such as GAPDH, PTPN1 and NF-kappa-B subunit RELA, thereby regulating their function.
Gene Name:
CTH
Uniprot ID:
P32929
Molecular weight:
41259.91
Reactions
L-Cysteine + Water → Hydrogen sulfide + Pyruvic acid + Ammoniadetails
L-Cystine + Water → Pyruvic acid + Ammonia + Thiocysteinedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SDS
Uniprot ID:
P20132
Molecular weight:
34625.105
Reactions
L-Serine → Pyruvic acid + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADCY7
Uniprot ID:
P51828
Molecular weight:
120307.175
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calmodulin-insensitive adenylyl cyclase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY4
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFM4
Molecular weight:
119792.94
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
Membrane-bound, calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY6
Uniprot ID:
O43306
Molecular weight:
130614.095
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADCY5
Uniprot ID:
O95622
Molecular weight:
102605.37
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calcium-stimulable adenylyl cyclase. May be involved in learning, in memory and in drug dependence (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY8
Uniprot ID:
P40145
Molecular weight:
140120.79
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
May play a fundamental role in situations where fine interplay between intracellular calcium and cAMP determines the cellular function. May be a physiologically relevant docking site for calcineurin (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY9
Uniprot ID:
O60503
Molecular weight:
150699.36
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
Mediates odorant detection (possibly) via modulation of intracellular cAMP concentration.
Gene Name:
ADCY3
Uniprot ID:
O60266
Molecular weight:
128958.905
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase. May be involved in regulatory processes in the central nervous system. It may play a role in memory acquisition and learning.
Gene Name:
ADCY1
Uniprot ID:
Q08828
Molecular weight:
123438.85
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general role in caspase independent cell death of tumor cells. The ratio betwween the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic ATP production. The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for tumor cell proliferation and survival.
Gene Name:
PKM
Uniprot ID:
P14618
Molecular weight:
65930.14
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid → ADP + Phosphoenolpyruvic aciddetails
Guanosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoenolpyruvic aciddetails
Deoxyadenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid → dADP + Phosphoenolpyruvic aciddetails
dGTP + Pyruvic acid → dGDP + Phosphoenolpyruvic aciddetails
Nucleoside triphosphate + Pyruvic acid → NDP + Phosphoenolpyruvic aciddetails
References
  1. Li Y, Chang Y, Zhang L, Feng Q, Liu Z, Zhang Y, Zuo J, Meng Y, Fang F: High glucose upregulates pantothenate kinase 4 (PanK4) and thus affects M2-type pyruvate kinase (Pkm2). Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Sep;277(1-2):117-25. Pubmed: 16132722
  2. Stetak A, Veress R, Ovadi J, Csermely P, Keri G, Ullrich A: Nuclear translocation of the tumor marker pyruvate kinase M2 induces programmed cell death. Cancer Res. 2007 Feb 15;67(4):1602-8. Pubmed: 17308100
  3. Vlaeminck-Guillem V, Safi R, Guillem P, Leteurtre E, Duterque-Coquillaud M, Laudet V: Thyroid hormone receptor expression in the obligatory paedomorphic salamander Necturus maculosus. Int J Dev Biol. 2006;50(6):553-60. Pubmed: 16741870
  4. Weinberger R, Appel B, Stein A, Metz Y, Neheman A, Barak M: The pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (Tu M2-PK) as a tumour marker for renal cell carcinoma. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2007 Jul;16(4):333-7. Pubmed: 17587357
  5. Staib P, Hoffmann M, Schinkothe T: Plasma levels of tumor M2-pyruvate kinase should not be used as a tumor marker for hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(1):28-31. Pubmed: 16375581
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Plays a key role in glycolysis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PKLR
Uniprot ID:
P30613
Molecular weight:
61829.575
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid → ADP + Phosphoenolpyruvic aciddetails
Guanosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoenolpyruvic aciddetails
Deoxyadenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid → dADP + Phosphoenolpyruvic aciddetails
dGTP + Pyruvic acid → dGDP + Phosphoenolpyruvic aciddetails
Nucleoside triphosphate + Pyruvic acid → NDP + Phosphoenolpyruvic aciddetails
References
  1. Percy MJ, van Wijk R, Haggan S, Savage GA, Boyd K, Dempsey S, Hamilton J, Kettle P, Kyle A, Shepherd CW, van Solinge WW, Lappin TR, McMullin MF: Pyruvate kinase deficient hemolytic anemia in the Northern Irish population. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2007 Sep-Oct;39(2):189-94. Epub 2007 Jun 15. Pubmed: 17574881
  2. Meza NW, Quintana-Bustamante O, Puyet A, Rio P, Navarro S, Diez A, Bueren JA, Bautista JM, Segovia JC: In vitro and in vivo expression of human erythrocyte pyruvate kinase in erythroid cells: a gene therapy approach. Hum Gene Ther. 2007 Jun;18(6):502-14. Pubmed: 17547515
  3. Rajaseger G, Lim CL, Lee KW, Arjunan P, Jia L, Moochhala S: Profiling of hepatocellular proteins by 1D PAGE-MALDI/MS/MS in a rat heat stress model. Front Biosci. 2006 Sep 1;11:2924-8. Pubmed: 16720364
  4. Xu J, Christian B, Jump DB: Regulation of rat hepatic L-pyruvate kinase promoter composition and activity by glucose, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jul 7;281(27):18351-62. Epub 2006 Apr 27. Pubmed: 16644726
  5. Suzuki T, Kawamoto M, Murai A, Muramatsu T: Identification of the regulatory region of the L-type pyruvate kinase gene in mouse liver by hydrodynamics-based gene transfection. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1):16-20. Pubmed: 16365052
General function:
Involved in thiosulfate sulfurtransferase activity
Specific function:
Transfer of a sulfur ion to cyanide or to other thiol compounds. Also has weak rhodanese activity. May have a role in cyanide degradation or in thiosulfate biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
MPST
Uniprot ID:
P25325
Molecular weight:
33178.15
Reactions
3-Mercaptopyruvic acid + Hydrogen cyanide → Pyruvic acid + Thiocyanatedetails
3-Mercaptopyruvic acid + Sulfurous acid → Thiosulfate + Pyruvic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AGXT
Uniprot ID:
P21549
Molecular weight:
43009.535
Reactions
L-Serine + Pyruvic acid → Hydroxypyruvic acid + L-Alaninedetails
L-Alanine + Glyoxylic acid → Pyruvic acid + Glycinedetails
General function:
Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting with precursors transported from skeletal muscles (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GPT
Uniprot ID:
P24298
Molecular weight:
54636.415
Reactions
L-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME1
Uniprot ID:
P48163
Molecular weight:
64149.075
Reactions
L-Malic acid + NADP → Pyruvic acid + CO(2) + NADPHdetails
Oxalacetic acid → Pyruvic acid + CO(2)details
L-Malic acid + NADP → Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME3
Uniprot ID:
Q16798
Molecular weight:
67067.875
Reactions
L-Malic acid + NADP → Pyruvic acid + CO(2) + NADPHdetails
Oxalacetic acid → Pyruvic acid + CO(2)details
L-Malic acid + NADP → Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME2
Uniprot ID:
P23368
Molecular weight:
53585.73
Reactions
L-Malic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + CO(2) + NADHdetails
Oxalacetic acid → Pyruvic acid + CO(2)details
L-Malic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of histamine from histidine.
Gene Name:
HDC
Uniprot ID:
P19113
Molecular weight:
74139.825
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Displays an lactate dehydrogenase activity. Significantly increases the transcriptional activity of JUN, when overexpressed.
Gene Name:
LDHAL6A
Uniprot ID:
Q6ZMR3
Molecular weight:
36507.015
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calmodulin-insensitive adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADCY2
Uniprot ID:
Q08462
Molecular weight:
123602.25
General function:
Involved in thiosulfate sulfurtransferase activity
Specific function:
Formation of iron-sulfur complexes, cyanide detoxification or modification of sulfur-containing enzymes. Other thiol compounds, besides cyanide, can act as sulfur ion acceptors. Also has weak mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST) activity (By similarity). Together with MRPL18, acts as a mitochondrial import factor for the cytosolic 5S rRNA. Only the nascent unfolded cytoplasmic form is able to bind to the 5S rRNA.
Gene Name:
TST
Uniprot ID:
Q16762
Molecular weight:
33428.69
Reactions
3-Mercaptopyruvic acid + Sulfurous acid → Thiosulfate + Pyruvic aciddetails
Hydrogen cyanide + 3-Mercaptopyruvic acid → Thiocyanate + Pyruvic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
Gene Name:
SLC16A8
Uniprot ID:
O95907
Molecular weight:
52318.2
References
  1. Jansen S, Esmaeilpour T, Pantaleon M, Kaye PL: Glucose affects monocarboxylate cotransporter (MCT) 1 expression during mouse preimplantation development. Reproduction. 2006 Mar;131(3):469-79. Pubmed: 16514190
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
Gene Name:
SLC16A6
Uniprot ID:
O15403
Molecular weight:
57392.8
References
  1. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. Pubmed: 16604139
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
Gene Name:
SLC16A5
Uniprot ID:
O15375
Molecular weight:
54993.0
References
  1. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. Pubmed: 16604139
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
Gene Name:
SLC16A4
Uniprot ID:
O15374
Molecular weight:
54021.4
References
  1. Kay HH, Zhu S, Tsoi S: Hypoxia and lactate production in trophoblast cells. Placenta. 2007 Aug-Sep;28(8-9):854-60. Epub 2007 Feb 2. Pubmed: 17275903
  2. Han M, Trotta P, Coleman C, Linask KK: MCT-4, A511/Basigin and EF5 expression patterns during early chick cardiomyogenesis indicate cardiac cell differentiation occurs in a hypoxic environment. Dev Dyn. 2006 Jan;235(1):124-31. Pubmed: 16110503
  3. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. Pubmed: 16604139
  4. Pierre K, Pellerin L: Monocarboxylate transporters in the central nervous system: distribution, regulation and function. J Neurochem. 2005 Jul;94(1):1-14. Pubmed: 15953344
  5. Shimada A, Nakagawa Y, Morishige H, Yamamoto A, Fujita T: Functional characteristics of H+ -dependent nicotinate transport in primary cultures of astrocytes from rat cerebral cortex. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jan 16;392(3):207-12. Epub 2005 Oct 5. Pubmed: 16213084
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PISD
Uniprot ID:
Q9UG56
Molecular weight:
43046.33
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHB
Uniprot ID:
P07195
Molecular weight:
36638.225
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Possible role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
LDHC
Uniprot ID:
P07864
Molecular weight:
36310.965
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHA
Uniprot ID:
P00338
Molecular weight:
30204.975
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHAL6B
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYZ2
Molecular weight:
41942.53
Reactions
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADHdetails
L-Lactic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHD
Uniprot ID:
Q86WU2
Molecular weight:
54870.18
Reactions
D-Lactic acid + ferricytochrome c → Pyruvic acid + ferrocytochrome c + Hydrogen Iondetails
D-Lactic acid + Ferricytochrome c → Pyruvic acid + Ferrocytochrome c + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate.
Gene Name:
GPT2
Uniprot ID:
Q8TD30
Molecular weight:
46982.6
Reactions
L-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the decomposition of L-selenocysteine to L-alanine and elemental selenium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCLY
Uniprot ID:
Q96I15
Molecular weight:
48793.15
Reactions
Se-Methylselenocysteine + Water → Pyruvic acid + Ammonia + Methaneselenoldetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the cleavage of N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) to form pyruvate and N-acetylmannosamine via a Schiff base intermediate. It prevents sialic acids from being recycled and returning to the cell surface. Involved in the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) degradation pathway. Although human is not able to catalyze formation of Neu5Gc due to the inactive CMAHP enzyme, Neu5Gc is present in food and must be degraded (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NPL
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXD5
Molecular weight:
33116.95
Reactions
N-Acetylneuraminic acid → N-Acetylmannosamine + Pyruvic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ILVBL
Uniprot ID:
A1L0T0
Molecular weight:
67867.2
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME3
Uniprot ID:
Q8TBJ0
Molecular weight:
66924.7
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Probable mitochondrial acylpyruvase which is able to hydrolyze acetylpyruvate and fumarylpyruvate in vitro.
Gene Name:
FAHD1
Uniprot ID:
Q6P587
Molecular weight:
27128.185
Reactions
A 3-acylpyruvate + Water → a carboxylate + Pyruvic aciddetails
3-Fumarylpyruvate + Water → Fumaric acid + Pyruvic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). May catalyze the beta-elimination of S-conjugates and Se-conjugates of L-(seleno)cysteine, resulting in the cleavage of the C-S or C-Se bond (By similarity). Has transaminase activity towards L-kynurenine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, serine, cysteine, methionine, histidine, glutamine and asparagine with glyoxylate as an amino group acceptor (in vitro). Has lower activity with 2-oxoglutarate as amino group acceptor (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CCBL2
Uniprot ID:
Q6YP21
Molecular weight:
51399.855
Reactions
RS-CH(2)-CH(NH(3)(+))COO(-) + Water → RSH + Ammonia + Pyruvic aciddetails

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
Gene Name:
SLC16A3
Uniprot ID:
O15427
Molecular weight:
49468.9
References
  1. Shimada A, Nakagawa Y, Morishige H, Yamamoto A, Fujita T: Functional characteristics of H+ -dependent nicotinate transport in primary cultures of astrocytes from rat cerebral cortex. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jan 16;392(3):207-12. Epub 2005 Oct 5. Pubmed: 16213084
  2. Manning Fox JE, Meredith D, Halestrap AP: Characterisation of human monocarboxylate transporter 4 substantiates its role in lactic acid efflux from skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2000 Dec 1;529 Pt 2:285-93. Pubmed: 11101640
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular weight:
53957.7
References
  1. Duerr JM, Tucker K: Pyruvate transport in isolated cardiac mitochondria from two species of amphibian exhibiting dissimilar aerobic scope: Bufo marinus and Rana catesbeiana. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2007 Aug 1;307(8):425-38. Pubmed: 17583564
  2. Han M, Trotta P, Coleman C, Linask KK: MCT-4, A511/Basigin and EF5 expression patterns during early chick cardiomyogenesis indicate cardiac cell differentiation occurs in a hypoxic environment. Dev Dyn. 2006 Jan;235(1):124-31. Pubmed: 16110503
  3. Shimoyama Y, Akihara Y, Kirat D, Iwano H, Hirayama K, Kagawa Y, Ohmachi T, Matsuda K, Okamoto M, Kadosawa T, Yokota H, Taniyama H: Expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 in oral and ocular canine melanocytic tumors. Vet Pathol. 2007 Jul;44(4):449-57. Pubmed: 17606506
  4. Shimada A, Nakagawa Y, Morishige H, Yamamoto A, Fujita T: Functional characteristics of H+ -dependent nicotinate transport in primary cultures of astrocytes from rat cerebral cortex. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jan 16;392(3):207-12. Epub 2005 Oct 5. Pubmed: 16213084
  5. Philp A, Macdonald AL, Watt PW: Lactate--a signal coordinating cell and systemic function. J Exp Biol. 2005 Dec;208(Pt 24):4561-75. Pubmed: 16326938
  6. Broer S, Rahman B, Pellegri G, Pellerin L, Martin JL, Verleysdonk S, Hamprecht B, Magistretti PJ: Comparison of lactate transport in astroglial cells and monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT 1) expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes. Expression of two different monocarboxylate transporters in astroglial cells and neurons. J Biol Chem. 1997 Nov 28;272(48):30096-102. Pubmed: 9374487
  7. Broer S, Schneider HP, Broer A, Rahman B, Hamprecht B, Deitmer JW: Characterization of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by changes in cytosolic pH. Biochem J. 1998 Jul 1;333 ( Pt 1):167-74. Pubmed: 9639576
  8. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. Pubmed: 9786900
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Stimulates cellular uptake of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) and diidothyronine. Does not transport Leu, Phe, Trp or Tyr
Gene Name:
SLC16A2
Uniprot ID:
P36021
Molecular weight:
59510.9
References
  1. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. Pubmed: 16604139
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate. MCT2 is a high affinity pyruvate transporter
Gene Name:
SLC16A7
Uniprot ID:
O60669
Molecular weight:
52185.7
References
  1. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. Pubmed: 16604139
  2. Hinoi E, Takarada T, Tsuchihashi Y, Fujimori S, Moriguchi N, Wang L, Uno K, Yoneda Y: A molecular mechanism of pyruvate protection against cytotoxicity of reactive oxygen species in osteoblasts. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;70(3):925-35. Epub 2006 Jun 9. Pubmed: 16766717
  3. Yoshida Y, Holloway GP, Ljubicic V, Hatta H, Spriet LL, Hood DA, Bonen A: Negligible direct lactate oxidation in subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria obtained from red and white rat skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2007 Aug 1;582(Pt 3):1317-35. Epub 2007 Jun 7. Pubmed: 17556391
  4. de Laplanche E, Gouget K, Cleris G, Dragounoff F, Demont J, Morales A, Bezin L, Godinot C, Perriere G, Mouchiroud D, Simonnet H: Physiological oxygenation status is required for fully differentiated phenotype in kidney cortex proximal tubules. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006 Oct;291(4):F750-60. Epub 2006 Apr 4. Pubmed: 16597615
  5. Pierre K, Pellerin L: Monocarboxylate transporters in the central nervous system: distribution, regulation and function. J Neurochem. 2005 Jul;94(1):1-14. Pubmed: 15953344
  6. Broer S, Broer A, Schneider HP, Stegen C, Halestrap AP, Deitmer JW: Characterization of the high-affinity monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Biochem J. 1999 Aug 1;341 ( Pt 3):529-35. Pubmed: 10417314
  7. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. Pubmed: 9786900
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular weight:
55492.1
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. Pubmed: 11278508
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. Pubmed: 11827462
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
May mediate the release of newly synthesized prostaglandins from cells, the transepithelial transport of prostaglandins, and the clearance of prostaglandins from the circulation. Transports PGD2, as well as PGE1, PGE2 and PGF2A
Gene Name:
SLCO2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q92959
Molecular weight:
70117.0
References
  1. Chan BS, Endo S, Kanai N, Schuster VL: Identification of lactate as a driving force for prostanoid transport by prostaglandin transporter PGT. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002 Jun;282(6):F1097-102. Pubmed: 11997326

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 59 proteins in total.