Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Taurine (HMDB00251)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2005-11-16 08:48:42 -0700
Update Date 2013-02-08 17:08:10 -0700
HMDB ID HMDB00251
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Taurine
Description Taurine is a sulfur amino acid like methionine, cystine, cysteine and homocysteine. It is a lesser-known amino acid because it is not incorporated into the structural building blocks of protein. Yet taurine is an essential amino acid in pre-term and newborn infants of humans and many other species. Adults can synthesize their own taurine, yet are probably dependent in part on dietary taurine. Taurine is abundant in the brain, heart, breast, gallbladder and kidney and has important roles in health and disease in these organs. Taurine has many diverse biological functions serving as a neurotransmitter in the brain, a stabilizer of cell membranes and a facilitator in the transport of ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Taurine is highly concentrated in animal and fish protein, which are good sources of dietary taurine. It can be synthesized by the body from cysteine when vitamin B6 is present. Deficiency of taurine occurs in premature infants and neonates fed formula milk, and in various disease states. Inborn errors of taurine metabolism have been described. OMIM 168605 Link_out, an unusual neuropsychiatric disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion through 3 generations of a family. Symptoms began late in the fifth decade in 6 affected persons and death occurred after 4 to 6 years. The earliest and most prominent symptom was mental depression not responsive to antidepressant drugs or electroconvulsive therapy. Sleep disturbances, exhaustion and marked weight loss were features. Parkinsonism developed later, and respiratory failure occurred terminally. OMIM 145350 Link_outdescribes congestive cardiomyopathy and markedly elevated urinary taurine levels (about 5 times normal). Other family members had late or holosystolic mitral valve prolapse and elevated urinary taurine values (about 2.5 times normal). In 2 with mitral valve prolapse, congestive cardiomyopathy eventually developed while the amounts of urinary taurine doubled. Taurine, after GABA, is the second most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Its inhibitory effect is one source of taurine's anticonvulsant and antianxiety properties. It also lowers glutamic acid in the brain, and preliminary clinical trials suggest taurine may be useful in some forms of epilepsy. Taurine in the brain is usually associated with zinc or manganese. The amino acids alanine and glutamic acid, as well as pantothenic acid, inhibit taurine metabolism while vitamins A and B6, zinc and manganese help build taurine. Cysteine and B6 are the nutrients most directly involved in taurine synthesis. Taurine levels have been found to decrease significantly in many depressed patients. One reason that the findings are not entirely clear is because taurine is often elevated in the blood of epileptics who need it. It is often difficult to distinguish compensatory changes in human biochemistry from true metabolic or deficiency disease. Low levels of taurine are found in retinitis pigmentosa. Taurine deficiency in experimental animals produces degeneration of light-sensitive cells. Therapeutic applications of taurine to eye disease are likely to be forthcoming. Taurine has many important metabolic roles. Supplements can stimulate prolactin and insulin release. The parathyroid gland makes a peptide hormone called glutataurine (glutamic acid-taurine), which further demonstrates taurine's role in endocrinology. Taurine increases bilirubin and cholesterol excretion in bile, critical to normal gallbladder function. It seems to inhibit the effect of morphine and potentiates the effects of opiate antagonists. Low plasma taurine levels have been found in a variety of conditions, i.e., depression, hypertension, hypothyroidism, gout, institutionalized patients, infertility, obesity, kidney failure and others. (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/).
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. 1-Aminoethane-2-sulfonate
  2. 1-Aminoethane-2-sulfonic acid
  3. 2-Aminoethanesulfonate
  4. 2-Aminoethanesulfonic acid
  5. 2-Aminoethylsulfonate
  6. 2-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
  7. 2-Sulfoethylamine
  8. Aminoethylsulfonate
  9. Aminoethylsulfonic acid
  10. b-Aminoethylsulfonate
  11. b-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
  12. beta-Aminoethylsulfonate
  13. beta-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
  14. Taurine
Chemical Formula C2H7NO3S
Average Molecular Weight 125.147
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 125.014663785
IUPAC Name 2-aminoethane-1-sulfonic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name taurine
CAS Registry Number 107-35-7
SMILES NCCS(O)(=O)=O
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C2H7NO3S/c3-1-2-7(4,5)6/h1-3H2,(H,4,5,6)
InChI Key XOAAWQZATWQOTB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Organic Acids and Derivatives
Class Sulfonic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class N/A
Other Descriptors
  • Organic Compounds
  • Sulfonic Acids
  • Sulfonyls
  • zwitterion(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
Direct Parent Sulfonic Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Essential amino acid
  • Osmolyte
  • Protein component
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 300 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 80.7 mg/mL Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
Water Solubility 105 g/L ALOGPS
LogP -2.19 ALOGPS
LogP -2.6 ChemAxon
LogS -0.08 ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic) -1.5 ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic) 9.34 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 4 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 2 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 80.39 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 2 ChemAxon
Refractivity 24.61 ChemAxon
Polarizability 10.82 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 0 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 0 ChemAxon
Spectra
13C NMR Spectrum
1H NMR Spectrum
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 10
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 25
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 40
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Bile
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Muscle
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Lymphocyte
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Erythrocyte
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Epidermis
  • Brain
  • Prostate
  • Nerve Cells
  • Platelet
  • Nervous Tissues
  • Retina
  • Keratinocyte
  • Leukocyte
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
Taurine and Hypotaurine Metabolism SMP00021 map00430 Link_out
Bile Acid Biosynthesis SMP00035 map00120 Link_out
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Bile Detected and Quantified
>10 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
55.0 (42.0-69.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
104.0 +/- 62.0 uM Children (1-13 year old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
162.0 +/- 60.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
141.0 +/- 57.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
91.0 +/- 3.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
61.0 +/- 17.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
42.0 +/- 12.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
6.6 +/- 1.7 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
8.24 (5.48-11.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
13.4 +/- 2.7 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
8.4 +/- 2.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
5.5 +/- 1.5 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
5.87 +/- 0.63 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
5.3 +/-  2.2  uM Not Specified Not Specified Normal
Saliva Detected and Quantified
1-418 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Comment normal
Saliva Detected and Quantified
1-56 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Comment normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
54.7 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
100.00 (0.00-200.00) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
4.00-159.98 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • David F. Put...
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
57.42 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Shaykhutdino...
Urine Detected and Quantified
81 (13-251) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.003 - 0.013 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Male Comment Normal
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Male Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
36.07 +/- 29.16 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.8 (0.26-1.5) umol/mmol creatinine Newborn (0-30 days old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Urine Detected and Quantified
63.2 (21.1-105.0) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 117.0 +/- 7.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Heart failure
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 5.80 (5.30-6.30) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Epilepsy
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 6.49 (4.60-8.38) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Parkinson's Disease
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 8.0 +/- 4.3 uM Children (1-13 year old) Not Specified Leukemia
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 10.4 +/- 11.1 uM Children (1-13 year old) Not Specified Comment Leukemia
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 5.0 +/- 0.86 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Schizophrenia
Urine Detected and Quantified 863.5 (466.00-1261.00) umol/mmol creatinine Children (1-13 year old) Both Molybdenium cofactor deficiency
Urine Detected and Quantified 0.0027 - 0.075 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both ADPKD
Urine Detected and Quantified 67 +/- 50 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Lung cancer
Urine Detected and Quantified 121.6 +/- 3.5 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both 3-Hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL) deficency
Urine Detected and Quantified 72.9 +/- 10.7 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Propionic acidemia
Urine Detected and Quantified 98.3 +/- 7.1 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Maple syrup urine disease
Urine Detected and Quantified 49.4 +/- 1.4 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Aminoaciduria
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Epilepsy
  • Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292 Link_out
      Parkinson's disease
      • Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. Pubmed: 12834252 Link_out
          Lung Cancer
          • Stretch C, Eastman T, Mandal R, Eisner R, Wishart DS, Mourtzakis M, Prado CM, Damaraju S, Ball RO, Greiner R, Baracos VE: Prediction of skeletal muscle and fat mass in patients with advanced cancer using a metabolomic approach. J Nutr. 2012 Jan;142(1):14-21. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.147751. Epub 2011 Dec 7. Pubmed: 22157537 Link_out
              Leukemia
              • Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239 Link_out
                  Heart failure
                  • Norrelund H, Wiggers H, Halbirk M, Frystyk J, Flyvbjerg A, Botker HE, Schmitz O, Jorgensen JO, Christiansen JS, Moller N: Abnormalities of whole body protein turnover, muscle metabolism and levels of metabolic hormones in patients with chronic heart failure. J Intern Med. 2006 Jul;260(1):11-21. Pubmed: 16789974 Link_out
                      Schizophrenia
                      • Do KQ, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Zollinger M, Gutteck-Amsler U, Cuenod M, Holsboer F: gamma-Glutamylglutamine and taurine concentrations are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug-naive patients with schizophrenic disorders. J Neurochem. 1995 Dec;65(6):2652-62. Pubmed: 7595563 Link_out
                          Sulfite oxidase deficiency
                              Associated OMIM IDs
                              DrugBank ID DB01956 Link_out
                              DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
                              Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
                              Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
                              FoodDB ID FDB003191
                              KNApSAcK ID Not Available
                              Chemspider ID 1091 Link_out
                              KEGG Compound ID C00245 Link_out
                              BioCyc ID Not Available
                              BiGG ID 34373 Link_out
                              Wikipedia Link Taurine Link_out
                              NuGOwiki Link HMDB00251 Link_out
                              Metagene Link HMDB00251 Link_out
                              METLIN ID 31 Link_out
                              PubChem Compound 1123 Link_out
                              PDB ID TAU Link_out
                              ChEBI ID 15891 Link_out
                              References
                              Synthesis Reference Hu, Libo; Zhu, Hui; Du, Da-Ming; Xu, Jiaxi. Efficient synthesis of taurine and structurally diverse substituted taurines from aziridines. Journal of Organic Chemistry (2007), 72(12), 4543-4546.
                              Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
                              General References
                              1. Vinton NE, Laidlaw SA, Ament ME, Kopple JD: Taurine concentrations in plasma, blood cells, and urine of children undergoing long-term total parenteral nutrition. Pediatr Res. 1987 Apr;21(4):399-403. Pubmed: 3106924 Link_out
                              2. Gonzalez-Quevedo A, Obregon F, Fernandez R, Santiesteban R, Serrano C, Lima L: Amino acid levels and ratios in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with optic neuropathy in Cuba. Nutr Neurosci. 2001;4(1):51-62. Pubmed: 11842876 Link_out
                              3. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239 Link_out
                              4. Schneider SM, Joly F, Gehrardt MF, Badran AM, Myara A, Thuillier F, Coudray-Lucas C, Cynober L, Trivin F, Messing B: Taurine status and response to intravenous taurine supplementation in adults with short-bowel syndrome undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition: a pilot study. Br J Nutr. 2006 Aug;96(2):365-70. Pubmed: 16923232 Link_out
                              5. McCarty MF: Complementary vascular-protective actions of magnesium and taurine: a rationale for magnesium taurate. Med Hypotheses. 1996 Feb;46(2):89-100. Pubmed: 8692051 Link_out
                              6. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216 Link_out
                              7. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292 Link_out
                              8. Kopple JD, Vinton NE, Laidlaw SA, Ament ME: Effect of intravenous taurine supplementation on plasma, blood cell, and urine taurine concentrations in adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 Nov;52(5):846-53. Pubmed: 2122710 Link_out
                              9. McMahon GP, O'Kennedy R, Kelly MT: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of taurine in human plasma using pre-column extraction and derivatization. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1996 Jun;14(8-10):1287-94. Pubmed: 8818047 Link_out
                              10. Stover JF, Morganti-Kosmann MC, Lenzlinger PM, Stocker R, Kempski OS, Kossmann T: Glutamate and taurine are increased in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of severely brain-injured patients. J Neurotrauma. 1999 Feb;16(2):135-42. Pubmed: 10098958 Link_out
                              11. Learn DB, Fried VA, Thomas EL: Taurine and hypotaurine content of human leukocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 1990 Aug;48(2):174-82. Pubmed: 2370482 Link_out
                              12. Miglis M, Wilder D, Reid T, Bakaltcheva I: Effect of taurine on platelets and the plasma coagulation system. Platelets. 2002 Feb;13(1):5-10. Pubmed: 11918831 Link_out
                              13. Axelson M, Ellis E, Mork B, Garmark K, Abrahamsson A, Bjorkhem I, Ericzon BG, Einarsson C: Bile acid synthesis in cultured human hepatocytes: support for an alternative biosynthetic pathway to cholic acid. Hepatology. 2000 Jun;31(6):1305-12. Pubmed: 10827156 Link_out
                              14. Hu S, Zhao X, Yin S, Meng J: [A study on the mechanism of taurine postponing the aging process of human fetal brain neural cells] Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 1997 Mar;26(2):98-101. Pubmed: 10325611 Link_out
                              15. Goodman HO, Shihabi Z, Oles KS: Antiepileptic drugs and plasma and platelet taurine in epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1989 Mar-Apr;30(2):201-7. Pubmed: 2494044 Link_out
                              16. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. Pubmed: 12834252 Link_out
                              17. Sturman JA, Messing JM, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF, Neuringer MD: Tissue taurine content and conjugated bile acid composition of rhesus monkey infants fed a human infant soy-protein formula with or without taurine supplementation for 3 months. Neurochem Res. 1988 Apr;13(4):311-6. Pubmed: 3393260 Link_out
                              18. Khan SA, Cox IJ, Hamilton G, Thomas HC, Taylor-Robinson SD: In vivo and in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a tool for investigating hepatobiliary disease: a review of H and P MRS applications. Liver Int. 2005 Apr;25(2):273-81. Pubmed: 15780050 Link_out
                              19. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. Pubmed: 6198473 Link_out
                              20. Gonzalez-Quevedo A, Obregon F, Santiesteban Freixas R, Fernandez R, Lima L: [Amino acids as biochemical markers in epidemic and endemic optic neuropathies] Rev Cubana Med Trop. 1998;50 Suppl:241-4. Pubmed: 10349454 Link_out
                              21. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411 Link_out

                              Enzymes
                              Name: Bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase
                              Reactions:
                              Choloyl-CoA + Taurine unknown Coenzyme A + Taurocholic acid details
                              Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA + Taurine unknown Taurochenodesoxycholic acid + Coenzyme A details
                              Gene Name: BAAT
                              Uniprot ID: Q14032 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate decarboxylase 2
                              Reactions:
                              Cysteic acid unknown Taurine + Carbon dioxide details
                              Gene Name: GAD2
                              Uniprot ID: Q05329 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glutamate decarboxylase 1
                              Reactions:
                              Cysteic acid unknown Taurine + Carbon dioxide details
                              Gene Name: GAD1
                              Uniprot ID: Q99259 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 1
                              Reactions:
                              (5-L-Glutamyl)-peptide + Taurine unknown Peptide + 5-L-Glutamyl-taurine details
                              Gene Name: GGT1
                              Uniprot ID: P19440 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Gamma-glutamyltransferase 7
                              Reactions:
                              (5-L-Glutamyl)-peptide + Taurine unknown Peptide + 5-L-Glutamyl-taurine details
                              Gene Name: GGT7
                              Uniprot ID: Q9UJ14 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase
                              Reactions:
                              Cysteic acid unknown Taurine + Carbon dioxide details
                              Gene Name: CSAD
                              Uniprot ID: Q9Y600 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Sodium- and chloride-dependent taurine transporter
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: SLC6A6
                              Uniprot ID: P31641 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Gamma-glutamyltransferase 6
                              Reactions:
                              (5-L-Glutamyl)-peptide + Taurine unknown Peptide + 5-L-Glutamyl-taurine details
                              Gene Name: GGT6
                              Uniprot ID: Q6P531 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: GLRA1
                              Uniprot ID: P23415 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: GGT7 protein
                              Reactions: Not Available
                              Gene Name: GGT7
                              Uniprot ID: A0PJJ9 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA
                              Name: Gamma-glutamyltransferase 5
                              Reactions:
                              (5-L-Glutamyl)-peptide + Taurine unknown Peptide + 5-L-Glutamyl-taurine details
                              Gene Name: GGT5
                              Uniprot ID: P36269 Link_out
                              Protein Sequence: FASTA
                              Gene Sequence: FASTA