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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-10-29 21:50:20 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00251
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTaurine
DescriptionTaurine is a sulfur amino acid like methionine, cystine, cysteine and homocysteine. It is a lesser-known amino acid because it is not incorporated into the structural building blocks of protein. Yet taurine is an essential amino acid in pre-term and newborn infants of humans and many other species. Adults can synthesize their own taurine, yet are probably dependent in part on dietary taurine. Taurine is abundant in the brain, heart, breast, gallbladder and kidney and has important roles in health and disease in these organs. Taurine has many diverse biological functions serving as a neurotransmitter in the brain, a stabilizer of cell membranes and a facilitator in the transport of ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Taurine is highly concentrated in animal and fish protein, which are good sources of dietary taurine. It can be synthesized by the body from cysteine when vitamin B6 is present. Deficiency of taurine occurs in premature infants and neonates fed formula milk, and in various disease states. Inborn errors of taurine metabolism have been described. OMIM 168605 , an unusual neuropsychiatric disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion through 3 generations of a family. Symptoms began late in the fifth decade in 6 affected persons and death occurred after 4 to 6 years. The earliest and most prominent symptom was mental depression not responsive to antidepressant drugs or electroconvulsive therapy. Sleep disturbances, exhaustion and marked weight loss were features. Parkinsonism developed later, and respiratory failure occurred terminally. OMIM 145350 describes congestive cardiomyopathy and markedly elevated urinary taurine levels (about 5 times normal). Other family members had late or holosystolic mitral valve prolapse and elevated urinary taurine values (about 2.5 times normal). In 2 with mitral valve prolapse, congestive cardiomyopathy eventually developed while the amounts of urinary taurine doubled. Taurine, after GABA, is the second most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Its inhibitory effect is one source of taurine's anticonvulsant and antianxiety properties. It also lowers glutamic acid in the brain, and preliminary clinical trials suggest taurine may be useful in some forms of epilepsy. Taurine in the brain is usually associated with zinc or manganese. The amino acids alanine and glutamic acid, as well as pantothenic acid, inhibit taurine metabolism while vitamins A and B6, zinc and manganese help build taurine. Cysteine and B6 are the nutrients most directly involved in taurine synthesis. Taurine levels have been found to decrease significantly in many depressed patients. One reason that the findings are not entirely clear is because taurine is often elevated in the blood of epileptics who need it. It is often difficult to distinguish compensatory changes in human biochemistry from true metabolic or deficiency disease. Low levels of taurine are found in retinitis pigmentosa. Taurine deficiency in experimental animals produces degeneration of light-sensitive cells. Therapeutic applications of taurine to eye disease are likely to be forthcoming. Taurine has many important metabolic roles. Supplements can stimulate prolactin and insulin release. The parathyroid gland makes a peptide hormone called glutataurine (glutamic acid-taurine), which further demonstrates taurine's role in endocrinology. Taurine increases bilirubin and cholesterol excretion in bile, critical to normal gallbladder function. It seems to inhibit the effect of morphine and potentiates the effects of opiate antagonists. Low plasma taurine levels have been found in a variety of conditions, i.e., depression, hypertension, hypothyroidism, gout, institutionalized patients, infertility, obesity, kidney failure and others. (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1-Aminoethane-2-sulfonate
  2. 1-Aminoethane-2-sulfonic acid
  3. 2-Aminoethanesulfonate
  4. 2-Aminoethanesulfonic acid
  5. 2-Aminoethylsulfonate
  6. 2-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
  7. 2-Sulfoethylamine
  8. Aminoethylsulfonate
  9. Aminoethylsulfonic acid
  10. b-Aminoethylsulfonate
  11. b-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
  12. beta-Aminoethylsulfonate
  13. beta-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
  14. Taurine
Chemical FormulaC2H7NO3S
Average Molecular Weight125.147
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight125.014663785
IUPAC Name2-aminoethane-1-sulfonic acid
Traditional Nametaurine
CAS Registry Number107-35-7
SMILES
NCCS(O)(=O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H7NO3S/c3-1-2-7(4,5)6/h1-3H2,(H,4,5,6)
InChI KeyXOAAWQZATWQOTB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassSulfonic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • Organic Compounds
  • Sulfonic Acids
  • Sulfonyls
  • zwitterion(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
Direct ParentSulfonic Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Essential amino acid
  • Osmolyte
  • Protein component
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point300 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility80.7 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility105 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.2ALOGPS
logP-2.6ChemAxon
logS-0.08ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-1.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.34ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.39ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity24.61ChemAxon
Polarizability10.82ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Bile
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Keratinocyte
  • Kidney
  • Leukocyte
  • Liver
  • Lymphocyte
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Nervous Tissues
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Retina
  • Skeletal Muscle
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Bile Acid BiosynthesisSMP00035map00120
Taurine and Hypotaurine MetabolismSMP00021map00430
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BileDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified55.0 (42.0-69.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified104.0 +/- 62.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified162.0 +/- 60.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified141.0 +/- 57.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified91.0 +/- 3.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified61.0 +/- 17.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified42.0 +/- 12.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified6.6 +/- 1.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified8.24 (5.48-11.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified13.4 +/- 2.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified8.4 +/- 2.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified5.5 +/- 1.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified5.87 +/- 0.63 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified5.3 +/- 2.2 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified40.1 +/- 24.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified105.56 +/- 56.53 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified57.8 +/- 24.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified52 (10-268) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified66 (1-171) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified45 (<1-184) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified25 (<1-69) uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-418 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-56 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified54.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified100.00 (0.00-200.00) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.00-159.98 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified57.42 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified81 (13-251) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified36.07 +/- 29.16 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.8 (0.26-1.5) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified63.2 (21.1-105.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    BloodDetected and Quantified117.0 +/- 7.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Heart failure
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified5.80 (5.30-6.30) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified6.49 (4.60-8.38) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's Disease details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified8.0 +/- 4.3 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedLeukemia details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified10.4 +/- 11.1 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
    Leukemia
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified5.0 +/- 0.86 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)FemaleBreast cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPancreatic cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPeriodontal diseases details
    UrineDetected and Quantified863.5 (466.00-1261.00) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothMolybdenum cofactor deficiency details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.0027 - 0.075 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothADPKD details
    UrineDetected and Quantified67 +/- 50 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothLung cancer details
    UrineDetected and Quantified121.6 +/- 3.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both3-Hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL) deficency details
    UrineDetected and Quantified72.9 +/- 10.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPropionic acidemia details
    UrineDetected and Quantified98.3 +/- 7.1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothMaple syrup urine disease details
    UrineDetected and Quantified49.4 +/- 1.4 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAminoaciduria details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Epilepsy
    1. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
    Schizophrenia
    1. Do KQ, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Zollinger M, Gutteck-Amsler U, Cuenod M, Holsboer F: gamma-Glutamylglutamine and taurine concentrations are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug-naive patients with schizophrenic disorders. J Neurochem. 1995 Dec;65(6):2652-62. Pubmed: 7595563
    Heart failure
    1. Norrelund H, Wiggers H, Halbirk M, Frystyk J, Flyvbjerg A, Botker HE, Schmitz O, Jorgensen JO, Christiansen JS, Moller N: Abnormalities of whole body protein turnover, muscle metabolism and levels of metabolic hormones in patients with chronic heart failure. J Intern Med. 2006 Jul;260(1):11-21. Pubmed: 16789974
    Leukemia
    1. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239
    Lung Cancer
    1. Stretch C, Eastman T, Mandal R, Eisner R, Wishart DS, Mourtzakis M, Prado CM, Damaraju S, Ball RO, Greiner R, Baracos VE: Prediction of skeletal muscle and fat mass in patients with advanced cancer using a metabolomic approach. J Nutr. 2012 Jan;142(1):14-21. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.147751. Epub 2011 Dec 7. Pubmed: 22157537
    Parkinson's disease
    1. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. Pubmed: 12834252
    Sulfite oxidase deficiency
    1. MetaGene
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDDB01956
    DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB003191
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID1091
    KEGG Compound IDC00245
    BioCyc IDNot Available
    BiGG ID34373
    Wikipedia LinkTaurine
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00251
    Metagene LinkHMDB00251
    METLIN ID31
    PubChem Compound1123
    PDB IDTAU
    ChEBI ID15891
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceHu, Libo; Zhu, Hui; Du, Da-Ming; Xu, Jiaxi. Efficient synthesis of taurine and structurally diverse substituted taurines from aziridines. Journal of Organic Chemistry (2007), 72(12), 4543-4546.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
    2. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. Pubmed: 12834252
    3. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. Pubmed: 6198473
    4. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239
    5. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216
    6. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
    7. Khan SA, Cox IJ, Hamilton G, Thomas HC, Taylor-Robinson SD: In vivo and in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a tool for investigating hepatobiliary disease: a review of H and P MRS applications. Liver Int. 2005 Apr;25(2):273-81. Pubmed: 15780050
    8. Vinton NE, Laidlaw SA, Ament ME, Kopple JD: Taurine concentrations in plasma, blood cells, and urine of children undergoing long-term total parenteral nutrition. Pediatr Res. 1987 Apr;21(4):399-403. Pubmed: 3106924
    9. Gonzalez-Quevedo A, Obregon F, Fernandez R, Santiesteban R, Serrano C, Lima L: Amino acid levels and ratios in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with optic neuropathy in Cuba. Nutr Neurosci. 2001;4(1):51-62. Pubmed: 11842876
    10. Schneider SM, Joly F, Gehrardt MF, Badran AM, Myara A, Thuillier F, Coudray-Lucas C, Cynober L, Trivin F, Messing B: Taurine status and response to intravenous taurine supplementation in adults with short-bowel syndrome undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition: a pilot study. Br J Nutr. 2006 Aug;96(2):365-70. Pubmed: 16923232
    11. McCarty MF: Complementary vascular-protective actions of magnesium and taurine: a rationale for magnesium taurate. Med Hypotheses. 1996 Feb;46(2):89-100. Pubmed: 8692051
    12. Kopple JD, Vinton NE, Laidlaw SA, Ament ME: Effect of intravenous taurine supplementation on plasma, blood cell, and urine taurine concentrations in adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 Nov;52(5):846-53. Pubmed: 2122710
    13. McMahon GP, O'Kennedy R, Kelly MT: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of taurine in human plasma using pre-column extraction and derivatization. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1996 Jun;14(8-10):1287-94. Pubmed: 8818047
    14. Stover JF, Morganti-Kosmann MC, Lenzlinger PM, Stocker R, Kempski OS, Kossmann T: Glutamate and taurine are increased in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of severely brain-injured patients. J Neurotrauma. 1999 Feb;16(2):135-42. Pubmed: 10098958
    15. Learn DB, Fried VA, Thomas EL: Taurine and hypotaurine content of human leukocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 1990 Aug;48(2):174-82. Pubmed: 2370482
    16. Miglis M, Wilder D, Reid T, Bakaltcheva I: Effect of taurine on platelets and the plasma coagulation system. Platelets. 2002 Feb;13(1):5-10. Pubmed: 11918831
    17. Axelson M, Ellis E, Mork B, Garmark K, Abrahamsson A, Bjorkhem I, Ericzon BG, Einarsson C: Bile acid synthesis in cultured human hepatocytes: support for an alternative biosynthetic pathway to cholic acid. Hepatology. 2000 Jun;31(6):1305-12. Pubmed: 10827156
    18. Hu S, Zhao X, Yin S, Meng J: [A study on the mechanism of taurine postponing the aging process of human fetal brain neural cells] Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 1997 Mar;26(2):98-101. Pubmed: 10325611
    19. Goodman HO, Shihabi Z, Oles KS: Antiepileptic drugs and plasma and platelet taurine in epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1989 Mar-Apr;30(2):201-7. Pubmed: 2494044
    20. Sturman JA, Messing JM, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF, Neuringer MD: Tissue taurine content and conjugated bile acid composition of rhesus monkey infants fed a human infant soy-protein formula with or without taurine supplementation for 3 months. Neurochem Res. 1988 Apr;13(4):311-6. Pubmed: 3393260
    21. Gonzalez-Quevedo A, Obregon F, Santiesteban Freixas R, Fernandez R, Lima L: [Amino acids as biochemical markers in epidemic and endemic optic neuropathies] Rev Cubana Med Trop. 1998;50 Suppl:241-4. Pubmed: 10349454

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in thiolester hydrolase activity
    Specific function:
    Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl-CoA thioester, either in peroxisomes (primary bile acids deriving from the cholesterol pathway), or cytoplasmic at the endoplasmic reticulum (secondary bile acids). May catalyze the conjugation of primary or secondary bile acids, or both. The conjugation increases the detergent properties of bile acids in the intestine, which facilitates lipid and fat-soluble vitamin absorption. In turn, bile acids are deconjugated by bacteria in the intestine and are recycled back to the liver for reconjugation (secondary bile acids). May also act as an acyl-CoA thioesterase that regulates intracellular levels of free fatty acids. In vitro, catalyzes the hydrolysis of long- and very long-chain saturated acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), and conjugates glycine to these acyl-CoAs.
    Gene Name:
    BAAT
    Uniprot ID:
    Q14032
    Molecular weight:
    46298.865
    Reactions
    Choloyl-CoA + Taurine → Coenzyme A + Taurocholic aciddetails
    Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA + Taurine → Taurochenodesoxycholic acid + Coenzyme Adetails
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the production of GABA.
    Gene Name:
    GAD2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q05329
    Molecular weight:
    65410.77
    Reactions
    Cysteic acid → Taurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the production of GABA.
    Gene Name:
    GAD1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q99259
    Molecular weight:
    66896.065
    Reactions
    Cysteic acid → Taurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Initiates extracellular glutathione (GSH) breakdown, provides cells with a local cysteine supply and contributes to maintain intracellular GSH level. It is part of the cell antioxidant defense mechanism. Catalyzes the transfer of the glutamyl moiety of glutathione to amino acids and dipeptide acceptors. Alternatively, glutathione can be hydrolyzed to give Cys-Gly and gamma glutamate. Isoform 3 seems to be inactive.
    Gene Name:
    GGT1
    Uniprot ID:
    P19440
    Molecular weight:
    61409.67
    Reactions
    (5-L-Glutamyl)-peptide + Taurine → Peptide + 5-L-Glutamyl-taurinedetails
    General function:
    Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Cleaves glutathione conjugates (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    GGT7
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UJ14
    Molecular weight:
    70466.015
    Reactions
    (5-L-Glutamyl)-peptide + Taurine → Peptide + 5-L-Glutamyl-taurinedetails
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    CSAD
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9Y600
    Molecular weight:
    55022.79
    Reactions
    Cysteic acid → Taurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
    Specific function:
    Required for the uptake of taurine. Transports both taurine and beta-alanine which requires sodium ions. Chloride ions are necessary for optimal uptake.
    Gene Name:
    SLC6A6
    Uniprot ID:
    P31641
    Molecular weight:
    69829.405
    General function:
    Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Cleaves glutathione conjugates (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    GGT6
    Uniprot ID:
    Q6P531
    Molecular weight:
    50508.83
    Reactions
    (5-L-Glutamyl)-peptide + Taurine → Peptide + 5-L-Glutamyl-taurinedetails
    General function:
    Involved in ion transport
    Specific function:
    The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing)
    Gene Name:
    GLRA1
    Uniprot ID:
    P23415
    Molecular weight:
    52623.4
    General function:
    Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    GGT7
    Uniprot ID:
    A0PJJ9
    Molecular weight:
    62565.3
    General function:
    Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Cleaves the gamma-glutamyl peptide bond of glutathione conjugates, but maybe not glutathione itself. Converts leukotriene C4 (LTC4) to leukotriene D4 (LTD4).
    Gene Name:
    GGT5
    Uniprot ID:
    P36269
    Molecular weight:
    62331.75
    Reactions
    (5-L-Glutamyl)-peptide + Taurine → Peptide + 5-L-Glutamyl-taurinedetails