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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:02:26 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00256
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSqualene
DescriptionSqualene is a natural raw material found in human sebum (5%) and in shark-liver oil. An unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon (carotenoid) with six unconjugated double bonds. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Reference) Biological Source: Found in fish liver oils, yeast lipids and many vegetable oils, e.g. palm oil, cottonseed oil, rapeseed oil. Volatile component of scent material from Saguinus oedipus (cotton-top tamarin monkey) and Saguinus fuscicollis (saddle-back tamarin monkey). Component of adult human sebum principally responsible for the fixing of fingerprints (ChemNetBase) Squalene is a natural organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil, though there are botanical sources as well, including rice bran, wheat germ, and olives. All higher organisms produce squalene, including humans. It is a hydrocarbon and a triterpene. -- Wikipedia; Squalene is the biochemical precursor to the whole family of steroids. Oxidation of one of the terminal double bonds of squalene yields 2,3-squalene oxide which undergoes enzyme-catalyzed cyclization to afford lanosterol, which is then elaborated into cholesterol and other steroids. -- Wikipedia; Squalene is a low density compound often stored in the bodies of cartilaginous fishes such as sharks, which lack a swim bladder and must therefore reduce their body density with fats and oils. Squalene, which is stored mainly in the shark's liver, is lighter than water with a specific gravity of 0.855. -- Wikipedia Uses: Bactericide. Intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, rubber chemicals and coloring materials (Physical Constants of Chemical Substances).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(all-e)-2,6,10,15,19,23-Hexamethyl-2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaeneHMDB
(e,e,e,e)-SqualeneHMDB
2,6,10,15,19,23-Hexamethyl-2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaeneHMDB
all-trans-SqualeneHMDB
nikko Squalane exHMDB
SpinacenHMDB
SpinaceneHMDB
SqualenHMDB
trans-SqualeneHMDB
Chemical FormulaC30H50
Average Molecular Weight410.718
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight410.3912516
IUPAC Name(6Z,10E,14E,18E)-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosa-2,6,10,14,18,22-hexaene
Traditional Name(6Z,10E,14E,18E)-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosa-2,6,10,14,18,22-hexaene
CAS Registry Number111-02-4
SMILES
CC(C)=CCC\C(C)=C/CC\C(C)=C\CC\C=C(/C)CC\C=C(/C)CCC=C(C)C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C30H50/c1-25(2)15-11-19-29(7)23-13-21-27(5)17-9-10-18-28(6)22-14-24-30(8)20-12-16-26(3)4/h15-18,23-24H,9-14,19-22H2,1-8H3/b27-17+,28-18+,29-23-,30-24+
InChI KeyInChIKey=YYGNTYWPHWGJRM-FLHYQJCXSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyclic triterpenoids. These are triterpenoids that do not contain a cycle.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassTriterpenoids
Direct ParentAcyclic triterpenoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Acyclic triterpenoid
  • Acyclic olefin
  • Olefin
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Component of Terpenoid biosynthesis
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-75 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000502 mg/mLALOGPS
logP8.64ALOGPS
logP10.42ChemAxon
logS-5.9ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count15ChemAxon
Refractivity144.62 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability55.9 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-047r-1944600000-5faa7a5eb4804dfad261View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-4867900000-dcd3ba4f6ee550dc565bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-2944400000-8be7743f6b07ba138c24View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • Chylomicrons
  • Fibroblasts
  • Liver
  • Skin
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Alendronate pathwaySMP00095Not Available
Atorvastatin PathwaySMP00131Not Available
Cerivastatin PathwaySMP00111Not Available
CHILD SyndromeSMP00387Not Available
Cholesteryl ester storage diseaseSMP00508Not Available
Chondrodysplasia Punctata II, X Linked Dominant (CDPX2)SMP00388Not Available
DesmosterolosisSMP00386Not Available
Fluvastatin PathwaySMP00119Not Available
Hyper-IgD syndromeSMP00509Not Available
HypercholesterolemiaSMP00209Not Available
Ibandronate PathwaySMP00079Not Available
Lovastatin PathwaySMP00099Not Available
Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (Wolman Disease)SMP00319Not Available
Mevalonic aciduriaSMP00510Not Available
Pamidronate PathwaySMP00117Not Available
Pravastatin PathwaySMP00089Not Available
Risedronate PathwaySMP00112Not Available
Rosuvastatin PathwaySMP00092Not Available
Simvastatin Action PathwaySMP00082Not Available
Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS)SMP00389Not Available
Steroid BiosynthesisSMP00023map00100
Wolman diseaseSMP00511Not Available
Zoledronate PathwaySMP00107Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified2.22 +/- 0.063 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.58 +/- 0.063 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB015781
KNApSAcK IDC00003755
Chemspider ID10148626
KEGG Compound IDC00751
BioCyc IDSQUALENE
BiGG ID35878
Wikipedia LinkSqualene
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00256
Metagene LinkHMDB00256
METLIN ID197
PubChem Compound11975273
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15440
References
Synthesis ReferencePeng, Wanxi; Li, Kaifu. Method of preparation of squalene. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2006), 9pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Strauss JS, Stranieri AM, Farrell LN, Downing DT: The effect of marked inhibition of sebum production with 13cis-retinoic acid on skin surface lipid composition. J Invest Dermatol. 1980 Feb;74(2):66-7. [6444323 ]
  2. Grimes DS, Hindle E, Dyer T: Sunlight, cholesterol and coronary heart disease. QJM. 1996 Aug;89(8):579-89. [8935479 ]
  3. Relas H, Gylling H, Miettinen TA: Dietary squalene increases cholesterol synthesis measured with serum non-cholesterol sterols after a single oral dose in humans. Atherosclerosis. 2000 Oct;152(2):377-83. [10998465 ]
  4. Nikkila K, Hockerstedt K, Miettinen TA: Serum and hepatic cholestanol, squalene and noncholesterol sterols in man: a study on liver transplantation. Hepatology. 1992 May;15(5):863-70. [1568728 ]
  5. Gylling H, Relas H, Miettinen HE, Radhakrishnan R, Miettinen TA: Delayed postprandial retinyl palmitate and squalene removal in a patient heterozygous for apolipoprotein A-IFIN mutation (Leu 159-->Arg) and low HDL cholesterol level without coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis. 1996 Dec 20;127(2):239-43. [9125314 ]
  6. Rajaratnam RA, Gylling H, Miettinen TA: Independent association of serum squalene and noncholesterol sterols with coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Apr;35(5):1185-91. [10758959 ]
  7. Rajaratnam RA, Gylling H, Miettinen TA: Serum squalene in postmenopausal women without and with coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis. 1999 Sep;146(1):61-4. [10487487 ]
  8. Thiele JJ, Weber SU, Packer L: Sebaceous gland secretion is a major physiologic route of vitamin E delivery to skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1999 Dec;113(6):1006-10. [10594744 ]
  9. Relas H, Gylling H, Miettinen TA: Effect of stanol ester on postabsorptive squalene and retinyl palmitate. Metabolism. 2000 Apr;49(4):473-8. [10778871 ]
  10. Gylling H, Vuoristo M, Farkkila M, Miettinen TA: The metabolism of cholestanol in primary biliary cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 1996 Apr;24(4):444-51. [8738731 ]
  11. Chiba K, Yoshizawa K, Makino I, Kawakami K, Onoue M: Changes in the levels of glutathione after cellular and cutaneous damage induced by squalene monohydroperoxide. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2001;15(3):150-8. [11424225 ]
  12. Nosaka Y, Yamanishi Y, Hirayama C: Biliary squalene levels in hepatobiliary disease. Gastroenterol Jpn. 1985 Aug;20(4):338-43. [4054510 ]
  13. Kohno Y, Egawa Y, Itoh S, Nagaoka S, Takahashi M, Mukai K: Kinetic study of quenching reaction of singlet oxygen and scavenging reaction of free radical by squalene in n-butanol. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Apr 28;1256(1):52-6. [7742356 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first oxygenation step in sterol biosynthesis and is suggested to be one of the rate-limiting enzymes in this pathway.
Gene Name:
SQLE
Uniprot ID:
Q14534
Molecular weight:
63922.505
Reactions
Squalene + NADPH + Oxygen → (3S)-2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene + NADP + Waterdetails
Squalene + Reduced acceptor + Oxygen → (3S)-2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene + Acceptor + Waterdetails
Squalene + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → (3S)-2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene + NADP + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
FDFT1
Uniprot ID:
P37268
Molecular weight:
48114.87
Reactions
Farnesyl pyrophosphate + NAD(P)H → Squalene + Pyrophosphate + NAD(P)(+)details
Presqualene diphosphate + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → Pyrophosphate + Squalene + NADPdetails
Farnesyl pyrophosphate + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → Squalene + Pyrophosphate + NADPdetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The heterodimer formed with SPTLC2 or SPTLC3 constitutes the catalytic core. The composition of the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) complex determines the substrate preference. The SPTLC1-SPTLC2-SPTSSA complex shows a strong preference for C16-CoA substrate, while the SPTLC1-SPTLC3-SPTSSA isozyme uses both C14-CoA and C16-CoA as substrates, with a slight preference for C14-CoA. The SPTLC1-SPTLC2-SPTSSB complex shows a strong preference for C18-CoA substrate, while the SPTLC1-SPTLC3-SPTSSB isozyme displays an ability to use a broader range of acyl-CoAs, without apparent preference.
Gene Name:
SPTLC1
Uniprot ID:
O15269
Molecular weight:
52743.41
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
DKFZp686B0215
Uniprot ID:
Q5HYI4
Molecular weight:
63793.4
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Probable hydrophobic ligand-binding protein; may play a role in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like tocopherol, squalene and phospholipids
Gene Name:
SEC14L3
Uniprot ID:
Q9UDX4
Molecular weight:
46047.8
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Probable hydrophobic ligand-binding protein; may play a role in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like tocopherol, squalene and phospholipids
Gene Name:
SEC14L4
Uniprot ID:
Q9UDX3
Molecular weight:
46643.4