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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-05-13 23:07:27 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00257
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameThiosulfate
DescriptionThiosulfate occurs naturally in hot springs and geysers, and is produced by certain biochemical processes. In the body, thiosulfate converts small amounts of cyanide ion into harmless products and plays a role in the biosynthesis of cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid that locks proteins into their correct three-dimensional shapes. Thiosulfate is not found in large quantities in nature. Solutions of thiosulfate break down into sulfur, sulfites, and sulfates when exposed to acids, light, metal ions, and bacteria. Thiosulfate is sometimes used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning. It reacts with cyanide to produce sulfite and thiocyanate ions: CN- + S2O32- SCN- + SO32- This reaction is catalyzed by an enzyme produced by cell mitochondria to neutralize small quantities of ingested cyanide (which occurs naturally in cassava root, lima beans, and almonds!). Thiosulfate is an intermediate in several biochemical pathways, including the synthesis of L-cysteine. Thiosulfate is manufactured by some cells by oxidation of elemental sulfur and by degradation of L-cysteine. Use: Photography (fixing agent to dissolve unchanged silver salts from exposed negatives), chrome tanning, removing chlorine in bleaching and papermaking, extraction of silver from its ores, dechlorination of water, mordant, reagent, bleaching, reducing agent in chrome dyeing, sequestrant in salt (up to 0.1%), antidote for cyanide poisoning. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary) Source/Synthesis: Synthesis by dehydration of the pentahydrate at 105 degree. Alternatively formed by reaction of S2Cl2 with Na2O2 or by reduction of Na2S2O4 with sodium amalgam Use/Importance: Commercially available Biological Use/Importance: Cyanide antidote often administered with other antidotes, antifungal agent (ChemNetBase) Sodium thiosulfate is a common analytical reagent used in iodometric titration to analyze chlorine, bromine, and sulfide. Other uses are in bleaching paper pulp, bleaching straw, ivory, and bones, for removing chlorine from solutions, silver extraction from its ores, a mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and as an antidote to cyanide poisoning. Another major application is in photography, where it is used as a fixer to dissolve unchanged silver salts from exposed negatives. (Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Hyposulfite
  2. S-Hydril
  3. Sodium hyposulfite
  4. Sodium oxide sulfide (Na2S2O3)
  5. Sodium thiosulfate
  6. Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3)
  7. Sodium thiosulfate anhydrous
  8. Sodium thiosulphate
  9. Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3)
  10. Sodium thiosulphate anhydrous
  11. Sulfactol
  12. Thiosulfate
  13. Thiosulfate ion
  14. Thiosulfuric acid
  15. Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3)
  16. Thiosulphate
  17. Thiosulphate ion
Chemical FormulaO3S2
Average Molecular Weight112.128
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight111.928885246
IUPAC Namesulfanidesulfonate
Traditional IUPAC Namethiosulphate
CAS Registry Number14383-50-7
SMILES
[O-]S([S-])(=O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/H2O3S2/c1-5(2,3)4/h(H2,1,2,3,4)/p-2
InChI KeyDHCDFWKWKRSZHF-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Non-metal Compounds
ClassNon-metal Oxoanionic Compounds
Sub ClassNon-metal Thiosulfates
Other Descriptors
  • inorganic anion(ChEBI)
  • sulfur oxide(ChEBI)
  • sulfur oxoanion(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentNon-metal Thiosulfates
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point48 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility861 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.096ChemAxon
pKa (strongest acidic)-2.3ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count3ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area57.2ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity19.52ChemAxon
polarizability7.69ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS/MS
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Bile
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Stratum Corneum
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BileDetected and Quantified1215 +/- 261 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified100.8 +/- 9.811 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.5 (0.0-3.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.09 +/- 0.84 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.646 +/- 0.118 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified150.0 (110.0-230.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHydrogen sulfide fatal poisoning details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Hydrogen sulfide poisoning
  1. Kage S, Ikeda H, Ikeda N, Tsujita A, Kudo K: Fatal hydrogen sulfide poisoning at a dye works. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2004 Jul;6(3):182-6. Pubmed: 15231289
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021921
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID1054
KEGG Compound IDC00320
BioCyc IDS2O3
BiGG ID34610
Wikipedia LinkThiosulfate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00257
Metagene LinkHMDB00257
METLIN ID5260
PubChem Compound1084
PDB IDTHJ
ChEBI ID16094
References
Synthesis ReferenceSerikova, E. A.; Racheva, I. V. Method for producing sodium thiosulfate. U.S.S.R. (1986), CODEN: URXXAF SU 1279954 A1 19861230 Patent written in Russian.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Willis CL, Cummings JH, Neale G, Gibson GR: Nutritional aspects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in the human large intestine. Curr Microbiol. 1997 Nov;35(5):294-8. Pubmed: 9462959
  2. Chatterjee BD, De PK, Sen T: Sucrose teepol tellurite agar: a new selective indicator medium for isolation of Vibrio species. J Infect Dis. 1977 Apr;135(4):654-8. Pubmed: 856920
  3. Rikimaru T, Kondo M, Kajimura K, Hashimoto K, Oyamada K, Sagawa K, Tanoue S, Oizumi K: Bactericidal activities of commonly used antiseptics against multidrug-resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis. Dermatology. 2002;204 Suppl 1:15-20. Pubmed: 12011515
  4. Maddocks JL, MacLachlan J: Application of new fluorescent thiol reagent to diagnosis of homocystinuria. Lancet. 1991 Oct 26;338(8774):1043-4. Pubmed: 1681358
  5. Ivankovich AD, Braverman B, Stephens TS, Shulman M, Heyman HJ: Sodium thiosulfate disposition in humans: relation to sodium nitroprusside toxicity. Anesthesiology. 1983 Jan;58(1):11-7. Pubmed: 6600205
  6. Kage S, Nagata T, Kudo K: Determination of thiosulfate in body fluids by GC and GC/MS. J Anal Toxicol. 1991 May-Jun;15(3):148-50. Pubmed: 1943059
  7. Rikimaru T, Kondo M, Kondo S, Oizumi K: Bactericidal activities of povidone-iodine against Mycobacterium. Dermatology. 1997;195 Suppl 2:104-6. Pubmed: 9403266
  8. Zewert TE, Pliquett UF, Vanbever R, Langer R, Weaver JC: Creation of transdermal pathways for macromolecule transport by skin electroporation and a low toxicity, pathway-enlarging molecule. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg. 1999 Oct;49(1):11-20. Pubmed: 10619443
  9. Freyberg RH, Block WD, Levey S: METABOLISM, TOXICITY AND MANNER OF ACTION OF GOLD COMPOUNDS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF ARTHRITIS. I. HUMAN PLASMA AND SYNOVIAL FLUID CONCENTRATION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF GOLD DURING AND FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH GOLD SODIUM THIOMALATE, GOLD SODIUM THIOSULFATE, AND COLLOIDAL GOLD SULFIDE. J Clin Invest. 1941 Jul;20(4):401-12. Pubmed: 16694848
  10. Westerlund J, Pudek M, Schreiber WE: A rapid and accurate spectrofluorometric method for quantification and screening of urinary porphyrins. Clin Chem. 1988 Feb;34(2):345-51. Pubmed: 3342508
  11. Yatzidis H: Gestational urinary hyperthiosulfaturia protects hypercalciuric normal pregnant women from nephrolithiasis. Int Urol Nephrol. 2004;36(3):445-9. Pubmed: 15783122
  12. Rennels MB, Levine MM, Daya V, Angle P, Young C: Selective vs. nonselective media and direct plating vs. enrichment technique in isolation of Vibrio cholerae: recommendations for clinical laboratories. J Infect Dis. 1980 Sep;142(3):328-31. Pubmed: 7003031

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in thiosulfate sulfurtransferase activity
Specific function:
Transfer of a sulfur ion to cyanide or to other thiol compounds. Also has weak rhodanese activity. May have a role in cyanide degradation or in thiosulfate biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
MPST
Uniprot ID:
P25325
Molecular weight:
33178.15
Reactions
Thiosulfate + Hydrogen cyanide → Sulfurous acid + Thiocyanatedetails
3-Mercaptopyruvic acid + Sulfurous acid → Thiosulfate + Pyruvic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
UMPS
Uniprot ID:
P11172
Molecular weight:
52221.075
General function:
Involved in thiosulfate sulfurtransferase activity
Specific function:
Formation of iron-sulfur complexes, cyanide detoxification or modification of sulfur-containing enzymes. Other thiol compounds, besides cyanide, can act as sulfur ion acceptors. Also has weak mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST) activity (By similarity). Together with MRPL18, acts as a mitochondrial import factor for the cytosolic 5S rRNA. Only the nascent unfolded cytoplasmic form is able to bind to the 5S rRNA.
Gene Name:
TST
Uniprot ID:
Q16762
Molecular weight:
33428.69
Reactions
Thiosulfate + Hydrogen cyanide → Sulfurous acid + Thiocyanatedetails
3-Mercaptopyruvic acid + Sulfurous acid → Thiosulfate + Pyruvic aciddetails
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Possible role in tumorgenesis
Gene Name:
TSTD1
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFU3
Molecular weight:
12530.1