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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:02:30 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00289
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameUric acid
DescriptionUric acid is a heterocyclic purine derivative that is the final oxidation product of purine metabolism. It is produced by the enzyme xanthine oxidase, which oxidizes oxypurines such as xanthine into uric acid. In most mammals, except humans and higher primates, the enzyme uricase further oxidizes uric acid to allantoin. Uric acid is also the end product of nitrogen metabolism in birds and reptiles. In such species, it is excreted in feces as a dry mass. Humans produce only small quantities of uric acid with excess accumulation leading to a type of arthritis known as gout. The loss of uricase in higher primates parallels the similar loss of the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid vitamin C. This may be because in higher primates uric acid partially replaces ascorbic acid.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1H-Purine-2,6,8-triolHMDB
2,6,8-TrihydroxypurineHMDB
2,6,8-TrioxopurineHMDB
2,6,8-TrioxypurineHMDB
LithateHMDB
Lithic acidHMDB
Purine-2,6,8(1H,3H,9H)-trioneHMDB
UrateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H4N4O3
Average Molecular Weight168.1103
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight168.028340014
IUPAC Name2,3,6,7,8,9-hexahydro-1H-purine-2,6,8-trione
Traditional Nameuric acid
CAS Registry Number69-93-2
SMILES
O=C1NC2=C(N1)C(=O)NC(=O)N2
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H4N4O3/c10-3-1-2(7-4(11)6-1)8-5(12)9-3/h(H4,6,7,8,9,10,11,12)
InChI KeyInChIKey=LEHOTFFKMJEONL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Xanthine
  • Purinone
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Urea
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Electron donor
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point> 300 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.06 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.17NAHUM,A & HORVATH,C (1980)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.76 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.1ALOGPS
logP-1.5ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area99.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity45.63 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.61 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0537-0913400000-bd24364053510c462adeView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-052f-0603900000-8c1224738bed2608c262View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0g59-5917000000-4b28946431495667844bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-0900000000-0525c12dc3951f55a2c8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-006w-9500000000-fe10d491ad634ca46332View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0gbd-9100000000-d48a3e7919c385949313View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-971b5c8c5d975d306fedView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-016r-1900000000-72edb3607fe9beb9b805View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0zgi-9500000000-753be769a0b48fc2960bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-a4f5b18495486c5a1d5aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01b9-1900000000-bc9e45f168dafb0d874cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-e01e386869d687364c61View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-002f-9200000000-e5abb655836214cc56b3View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Amniotic Fluid
  • Bile
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Erythrocyte
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Spleen
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)SMP00535Not Available
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencySMP00144Not Available
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencySMP00167Not Available
AICA-RibosiduriaSMP00168Not Available
Azathioprine PathwaySMP00427Not Available
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeSMP00365Not Available
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)SMP00364Not Available
Mercaptopurine PathwaySMP00428Not Available
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeSMP00536Not Available
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencySMP00203Not Available
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencySMP00537Not Available
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencySMP00210Not Available
Thioguanine PathwaySMP00430Not Available
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)SMP00220Not Available
Xanthinuria type ISMP00512Not Available
Xanthinuria type IISMP00513Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Amniotic FluidDetected and Quantified384.18 +/- 203.31 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BileDetected and Quantified260.0 +/- 63.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified377.6 +/- 82.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified494.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified372.0 (238.0-506.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • The Merck Manual,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified298.0 (149.0-446.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • The Merck Manual,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified271.95 +/- 43.13 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified256.8 +/- 7.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified240.91 +/- 82.68 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified166.56-755.46 uMNewborn (0 - <14 days old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified95.18-374.76 uMInfant (15 days - <1 year old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified107.073-291.48 uMChildren (1 - <12 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified154.66-350.96 uMAdolescent (12 - <19 years old)Female
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified154.66-452.084 uMAdolescent (12 - <19 years old)Male
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified329.0 +/- 129.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified302.0 +/- 60.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified234.0 +/- 52.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified15.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified16.0 (4.2-28.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified22.0 (6.6-37.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified29.3 (11.9-46.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified<1.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified184 +/- 22 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified178 +/- 19 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified162 +/- 17 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified186 (93-329) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified206.5 +/- 87.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified166.45 +/- 31.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified23.81-398.74 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified118.09 +/- 114.57 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified524.75 +/- 249.57 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified337.84 +/- 29.75 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified209.55 +/- 104.52 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified197.00 (98.6-293.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified188.0 (78.9-296.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified400.0 +/- 103.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Diabetes
details
BloodDetected and Quantified368.2 +/- 115.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Diabetes
details
BloodDetected and Quantified426.0 +/- 107.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Impaired glucose tolerance
details
BloodDetected and Quantified347.5 +/- 105.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Impaired glucose tolerance
details
BloodDetected and Quantified493.72 +/- 77.33 uMAdult (>18 years old)Bothuremia details
BloodDetected and Quantified1797.90 +/- 895.44 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
gastric cancer
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
superficial gastric cancer
details
BloodDetected and Quantified476.00 (357.00-714.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGOUT details
BloodDetected and Quantified600-1000 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothLesch-Nyhan syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified193.89 +/- 49.05 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified178.9 +/- 107.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCryptococcus meningitis details
BloodDetected and Quantified612 +/- 36 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCachexia details
BloodDetected and Quantified654.6 (595.00-714.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothLesch-Nyhan syndrome details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified24.0 (20.1-27.9) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDegenerative disc disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified125.0 (35.5-215.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Meningitis
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified22.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAdenylosuccinate lyase (ASDL) deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified1244.00 (565.5-1923.00) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothSulfite oxidase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified248.8 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothMolybdenum cofactor deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified1554.14 +/- 748.85 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency
  1. Marinaki AM, Champion M, Kurian MA, Simmonds HA, Marie S, Vincent MF, van den Berghe G, Duley JA, Fairbanks LD: Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency--first British case. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004 Oct;23(8-9):1231-3. [15571235 ]
Bacterial meningitis
  1. Peng F, Zhang B, Zhong X, Li J, Xu G, Hu X, Qiu W, Pei Z: Serum uric acid levels of patients with multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases. Mult Scler. 2008 Mar;14(2):188-96. Epub 2007 Oct 17. [17942520 ]
Cachexia
  1. Doehner W, Rauchhaus M, Florea VG, Sharma R, Bolger AP, Davos CH, Coats AJ, Anker SD: Uric acid in cachectic and noncachectic patients with chronic heart failure: relationship to leg vascular resistance. Am Heart J. 2001 May;141(5):792-9. [11320368 ]
Canavan disease
  1. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. [16139832 ]
Degenerative disc disease
  1. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [6656991 ]
Diabetes mellitus type 2
  1. Costa A, Iguala I, Bedini J, Quinto L, Conget I: Uric acid concentration in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship to components of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2002 Mar;51(3):372-5. [11887176 ]
Impaired glucose tolerance
  1. Costa A, Iguala I, Bedini J, Quinto L, Conget I: Uric acid concentration in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship to components of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2002 Mar;51(3):372-5. [11887176 ]
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
  1. Nyhan WL: Lesch-Nyhan Disease. J Hist Neurosci. 2005 Mar;14(1):1-10. [15804753 ]
  2. MetaGene [Link]
Meningitis
  1. Kastenbauer S, Koedel U, Becker BF, Pfister HW: Oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis in humans. Neurology. 2002 Jan 22;58(2):186-91. [11805243 ]
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Toncev G, Milicic B, Toncev S, Samardzic G: Serum uric acid levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with activity of disease and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Eur J Neurol. 2002 May;9(3):221-6. [11985629 ]
Sulfite oxidase deficiency
  1. MetaGene [Link]
Gout
  1. MetaGene [Link]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB01696
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00498
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB015350
KNApSAcK IDC00007301
Chemspider ID1142
KEGG Compound IDC00366
BioCyc IDURATE
BiGG ID34768
Wikipedia LinkUric acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00289
Metagene LinkHMDB00289
METLIN ID88
PubChem Compound1175
PDB IDURC
ChEBI ID17775
References
Synthesis ReferenceBrenner-Holzach, O.; Leuthardt, F. Uric acid formation from glucose carbon in Drosophila melanogaster. Preliminary report. Helvetica Chimica Acta (1963), 46(4), 1426-8.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  2. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [6656991 ]
  3. Kastenbauer S, Koedel U, Becker BF, Pfister HW: Oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis in humans. Neurology. 2002 Jan 22;58(2):186-91. [11805243 ]
  4. Kanbay M, Akcay A, Huddam B, Usluogullari CA, Arat Z, Ozdemir FN, Haberal M: Influence of cyclosporine and tacrolimus on serum uric acid levels in stable kidney transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2005 Sep;37(7):3119-20. [16213325 ]
  5. Marinaki AM, Champion M, Kurian MA, Simmonds HA, Marie S, Vincent MF, van den Berghe G, Duley JA, Fairbanks LD: Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency--first British case. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004 Oct;23(8-9):1231-3. [15571235 ]
  6. Hanvivadhanakul P, Akkasilpa S, Deesomchok U: Efficacy of benzbromarone compared to allopurinol in lowering serum uric acid level in hyperuricemic patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2002 Jun;85 Suppl 1:S40-7. [12188443 ]
  7. Kirschbaum B: Correlation studies of plasma paraoxonase activity and uric acid concentration with AAPH-Induced erythrocyte hemolysis in hemodialysis patients. Artif Organs. 2004 Mar;28(3):259-64. [15046624 ]
  8. Sysyn GD, Rozycki HJ: Lack of prognostic significance of early elevated serum uric acid levels in low birthweight infants. Biol Neonate. 2003;83(4):253-7. [12743454 ]
  9. Tumgor G, Arikan C, Kilic M, Aydogdu S: Frequency of hyperuricemia and effect of calcineurin inhibitors on serum uric acid levels in liver transplanted children. Pediatr Transplant. 2006 Sep;10(6):665-8. [16911488 ]
  10. Srinivasan S, Kalaiselvi P, Sakthivel R, Pragasam V, Muthu V, Varalakshmi P: Uric acid: an abettor or protector in calcium oxalate urolithiasis? Biochemical study in stone formers. Clin Chim Acta. 2005 Mar;353(1-2):45-51. [15698589 ]
  11. Puig JG, Torres R, Ruilope LM: AT1 blockers and uric acid metabolism: are there relevant differences? J Hypertens Suppl. 2002 Jun;20(5):S29-31. [12184060 ]
  12. Alderman M, Aiyer KJ: Uric acid: role in cardiovascular disease and effects of losartan. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Mar;20(3):369-79. [15025846 ]
  13. Iwai N, Mino Y, Hosoyamada M, Tago N, Kokubo Y, Endou H: A high prevalence of renal hypouricemia caused by inactive SLC22A12 in Japanese. Kidney Int. 2004 Sep;66(3):935-44. [15327384 ]
  14. Williams KP, Galerneau F: The role of serum uric acid as a prognostic indicator of the severity of maternal and fetal complications in hypertensive pregnancies. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2002 Aug;24(8):628-32. [12196841 ]
  15. Inoue K, Namiki T, Iwasaki Y, Yoshimura Y, Nakazawa H: Determination of uric acid in human saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Feb 25;785(1):57-63. [12535838 ]
  16. Cacabelos R, Fernandez-Novoa L, Corzo L, Pichel V, Lombardi V, Kubota Y: Genomics and phenotypic profiles in dementia: implications for pharmacological treatment. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Jul-Aug;26(6):421-44. [15349138 ]
  17. Simkin PA, Hoover PL, Paxson CS, Wilson WF: Uric acid excretion: quantitative assessment from spot, midmorning serum and urine samples. Ann Intern Med. 1979 Jul;91(1):44-7. [464453 ]
  18. Mazzali M: Uric acid and transplantation. Semin Nephrol. 2005 Jan;25(1):50-5. [15660335 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular weight:
146422.99
Reactions
Xanthine + Water + Oxygen → Uric acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Xanthine + NAD + Water → Uric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Gene Name:
PYGL
Uniprot ID:
P06737
Molecular weight:
93133.25
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]