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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-10-23 17:19:56 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000300
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00300
Metabolite Identification
Common NameUracil
DescriptionUracil is a common naturally occurring pyrimidine found in RNA, it base pairs with adenine and is replaced by thymine in DNA. Methylation of uracil produces thymine. Uracil's use in the body is to help carry out the synthesis of many enzymes necessary for cell function through bonding with riboses and phosphates. Uracil serves as allosteric regulator and coenzyme for many important biochemical reactions. UDP and UTP regulate CPSase II activity in animals. UDP-glucose regulates the conversion of glucose to galactose in the liver and other tissues in the process of carbohydrate metabolism. Uracil is also involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides and the transportation of sugars containing aldehydes.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2,4(1H,3H)-PyrimidinedioneChEBI
2,4-DioxopyrimidineChEBI
2,4-PyrimidinedioneChEBI
UChEBI
UraChEBI
UrazilChEBI
2,4-DihydroxypyrimidineHMDB
2,4-PyrimidinediolHMDB
Hybar XHMDB
PirodHMDB
PyrodHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H4N2O2
Average Molecular Weight112.0868
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight112.027277382
IUPAC Name1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2,4-dione
Traditional Nameuracil
CAS Registry Number66-22-8
SMILES
O=C1NC=CC(=O)N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H4N2O2/c7-3-1-2-5-4(8)6-3/h1-2H,(H2,5,6,7,8)
InChI KeyISAKRJDGNUQOIC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidones. These are compounds that contain a pyrimidine ring, which bears a ketone. Pyrimidine is a 6-membered ring consisting of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen centers at the 1- and 3- ring positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentPyrimidones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pyrimidone
  • Hydropyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Urea
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Health condition:

    Vascular disorders:

Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Tissue and substructures:

  Organ and components:

Source:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Biochemical pathway:

Role

Industrial application:

  Pharmaceutical industry:

Indirect biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point330 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.6 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-1.07HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility26.5 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.2ALOGPS
logP-0.86ChemAxon
logS-0.63ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.77ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.2 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity25.97 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability9.37 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-5950000000-18425875415ad150c4fcView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-006t-9740000000-e884a4b98e7e9dc75e5fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-052e-7790000000-026cb6beb5cde6a61b80View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-02tc-9200000000-4a57c4e06fd552d6a9bfView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-03xu-9400000000-1c29f070a8135b06f88bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-5950000000-18425875415ad150c4fcView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-006t-9740000000-e884a4b98e7e9dc75e5fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-052e-7790000000-026cb6beb5cde6a61b80View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-6940000000-a726178341f6443e60ccView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03xu-9300000000-6a96f6ce1ef731689107View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-3900000000-e422eda255a4b6414f86View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-006y-9000000000-130eb5f4414426e03667View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9100000000-c096d08ca715d97cd732View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-60) , Positivesplash10-02tc-9200000000-83a0a6ad4fc1b407e570View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-03xu-9400000000-acd0cfd54af7d6a55283View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-309fe212c929f3c6a930View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-6900000000-55a7de75a40eab61da8bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-1c3caab26eb7e359db92View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-7494d4e611a73ecb79eaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-ed4046b040337db620d8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-ff54f3083ce4ccccfd95View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-6728c1eb6f68b40c09f8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-309fe212c929f3c6a930View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-03di-6900000000-55a7de75a40eab61da8bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-1c3caab26eb7e359db92View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-7494d4e611a73ecb79eaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-ed4046b040337db620d8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-6728c1eb6f68b40c09f8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-a21102c708f8d5eaf262View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-1900000000-0029cbdcaa1377a4d03eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0229-9400000000-c227e1deb392170cb323View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-3cf6f9fc3ab6890266acView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-4900000000-67a3d94ab649e28bda13View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-bbf50de54fc413b6588eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-98042b91f1087b0c2563View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03xu-9400000000-d7ffe72f606f1af3349bView in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Amniotic Fluid
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Beta Ureidopropionase DeficiencyPw000187Pw000187 greyscalePw000187 simpleNot Available
Beta-Alanine MetabolismPw000011Pw000011 greyscalePw000011 simpleMap00410
Carnosinuria, carnosinemiaPw000469Pw000469 greyscalePw000469 simpleNot Available
Dihydropyrimidinase DeficiencyPw000189Pw000189 greyscalePw000189 simpleNot Available
GABA-Transaminase DeficiencyPw000109Pw000109 greyscalePw000109 simpleNot Available
Displaying entries 1 - 5 of 9 in total
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Amniotic FluidDetected and Quantified0.87 +/- 0.69 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.17 (0.097-0.26) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.10 +/- 1.02 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.1 +/- 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedBoth
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified38.89 +/- 12.38 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.5 (2.37-3.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified8-78 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.13 +/- 5.43 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.81 +/- 5.09 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.29 +/- 5.78 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified<20.85 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.5 (2.6-22.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.021 +/- 9.32 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.99 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified2.25 +/- 0.98 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleMyalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedasymptomatic diverticulosis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedsymptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUnclassified IBD details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.0 (2.0-22.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothArgininemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified35.0 (20.0-50.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothArgininemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified265.0 (30.0-500.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothCarbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified100.0 (50.0-150.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothDihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.00 +/- 4.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothHypertension details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.00 +/- 4.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCerebral infarction details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.00 +/- 13.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothMalignancy details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.00 +/- 6.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothLiver dysfunction details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.24 +/- 7.24 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.6 +/- 2.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNephropathy details
UrineDetected and Quantified38.573 +/- 84.754 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Argininemia
    MetaGene
Canavan disease
  1. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. [PubMed:16139832 ]
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase Deficiency
    MetaGene
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency
    MetaGene
Hypertension
  1. Hayashi K, Kidouchi K, Sumi S, Mizokami M, Orito E, Kumada K, Ueda R, Wada Y: Possible prediction of adverse reactions to pyrimidine chemotherapy from urinary pyrimidine levels and a case of asymptomatic adult dihydropyrimidinuria. Clin Cancer Res. 1996 Dec;2(12):1937-41. [PubMed:9816152 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB03419
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB006426
KNApSAcK IDC00001513
Chemspider ID1141
KEGG Compound IDC00106
BioCyc IDURACIL
BiGG ID33879
Wikipedia LinkUracil
METLIN ID258
PubChem Compound1174
PDB IDURA
ChEBI ID17568
References
Synthesis ReferenceBurckhalter, J. H.; Scarborough, Homer C. The synthesis of uracils as anticonvulsants. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (1912-1977) (1955), 44 545-50.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sweatman BC, Farrant RD, Holmes E, Ghauri FY, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC: 600 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of human cerebrospinal fluid: effects of sample manipulation and assignment of resonances. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1993 Aug;11(8):651-64. [PubMed:8257730 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  3. Hofmann U, Schwab M, Seefried S, Marx C, Zanger UM, Eichelbaum M, Murdter TE: Sensitive method for the quantification of urinary pyrimidine metabolites in healthy adults by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 5;791(1-2):371-80. [PubMed:12798197 ]
  4. van Lenthe H, van Kuilenburg AB, Ito T, Bootsma AH, van Cruchten A, Wada Y, van Gennip AH: Defects in pyrimidine degradation identified by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of urine specimens or urine-soaked filter paper strips. Clin Chem. 2000 Dec;46(12):1916-22. [PubMed:11106323 ]
  5. Jiang H, Jiang J, Hu P, Hu Y: Measurement of endogenous uracil and dihydrouracil in plasma and urine of normal subjects by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Mar 25;769(1):169-76. [PubMed:11936689 ]
  6. Allgayer H, Kolb M, Stuber V, Kruis W: Effects of bile acids on base hydroxylation in a model of human colonic mucosal DNA. Cancer Detect Prev. 2002;26(1):85-9. [PubMed:12088208 ]
  7. Jakobs C, Sweetman L, Nyhan WL, Gruenke L, Craig JC, Wadman SK: Stable isotope dilution analysis of orotic acid and uracil in amniotic fluid. Clin Chim Acta. 1984 Nov 15;143(2):123-33. [PubMed:6391739 ]
  8. van Kuilenburg AB, van Lenthe H, Loffler M, van Gennip AH: Analysis of pyrimidine synthesis "de novo" intermediates in urine and dried urine filter- paper strips with HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2004 Nov;50(11):2117-24. Epub 2004 Sep 16. [PubMed:15375016 ]
  9. Spector T, Harrington JA, Porter DJ: 5-Ethynyluracil (776C85): inactivation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in vivo. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Dec 14;46(12):2243-8. [PubMed:8274158 ]
  10. Mani S, Kugler JW, Sciortino DF, Garcia JC, Ansari RH, Humerickhouse R, Michelassi F, Posner MC, Shulman KL, Schilsky RL, List M, Vokes EE, Benner S: Phase II trial of uracil/tegafur (UFT) plus leucovorin in patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma: a University of Chicago phase II consortium study. Ann Oncol. 1998 Sep;9(9):1035-7. [PubMed:9818081 ]
  11. Tomita T, Tajima T, Ishibashi M, Tagaya N, Aoki H, Itoh S, Kadowaki A, Kogure H, Tajima Y: [Study on the concentrations of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), tegafur (ET) and uracil in bile: comparison of UFT or FT]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1989 Dec;16(12):3755-62. [PubMed:2512859 ]
  12. Duthie SJ, McMillan P: Uracil misincorporation in human DNA detected using single cell gel electrophoresis. Carcinogenesis. 1997 Sep;18(9):1709-14. [PubMed:9328165 ]
  13. Bayer AS, Galpin JE, Theofilopoulos AN, Guze LB: Neurological disease associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonitis: demonstration of viable Mycoplasma pneumoniae in cerebrospinal fluid and blood by radioisotopic and immunofluorescent tissue culture techniques. Ann Intern Med. 1981 Jan;94(1):15-20. [PubMed:6778283 ]
  14. Feliu J, Mel R, Borrega P, Lopez Gomez L, Escudero P, Dorta J, Castro J, Vazquez-Estevez SE, Bolanos M, Espinosa E, Gonzalez Baron M: Phase II study of a fixed dose-rate infusion of gemcitabine associated with uracil/tegafur in advanced carcinoma of the pancreas. Ann Oncol. 2002 Nov;13(11):1756-62. [PubMed:12419748 ]
  15. Mashiyama ST, Courtemanche C, Elson-Schwab I, Crott J, Lee BL, Ong CN, Fenech M, Ames BN: Uracil in DNA, determined by an improved assay, is increased when deoxynucleosides are added to folate-deficient cultured human lymphocytes. Anal Biochem. 2004 Jul 1;330(1):58-69. [PubMed:15183762 ]
  16. DeAngelis LM, Kreis W, Chan K, Dantis E, Akerman S: Pharmacokinetics of ara-C and ara-U in plasma and CSF after high-dose administration of cytosine arabinoside. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1992;29(3):173-7. [PubMed:1733548 ]
  17. Stover PJ, Garza C: Bringing individuality to public health recommendations. J Nutr. 2002 Aug;132(8 Suppl):2476S-2480S. [PubMed:12163715 ]
  18. Duthie SJ, Hawdon A: DNA instability (strand breakage, uracil misincorporation, and defective repair) is increased by folic acid depletion in human lymphocytes in vitro. FASEB J. 1998 Nov;12(14):1491-7. [PubMed:9806758 ]
  19. Hanaue H, Kurosawa T, Kitano Y, Miyakawa S, Nemoto A, Yamamoto H, Asagoe T, Takada T, Yasuda H, Shikata J: Anticancer drug distribution in lymph and blood during adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery for gastric carcinoma. A study with a combined preparation of 1-(2-tetrahydrofuryl)-5-fluorouracil and uracil. Cancer. 1987 May 1;59(9):1571-6. [PubMed:3103905 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Involved in pyrimidine base degradation. Catalyzes the reduction of uracil and thymine. Also involved the degradation of the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil.
Gene Name:
DPYD
Uniprot ID:
Q12882
Molecular weight:
111400.32
Reactions
Dihydrouracil + NADP → Uracil + NADPHdetails
Dihydrouracil + NADP → Uracil + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate.
Gene Name:
PNP
Uniprot ID:
P00491
Molecular weight:
32117.69
Reactions
Deoxyuridine + Phosphoric acid → Uracil + Deoxyribose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
May have a role in maintaining the integrity of the blood vessels. Has growth promoting activity on endothelial cells, angiogenic activity in vivo and chemotactic activity on endothelial cells in vitro. Catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of thymidine. The produced molecules are then utilized as carbon and energy sources or in the rescue of pyrimidine bases for nucleotide synthesis.
Gene Name:
TYMP
Uniprot ID:
P19971
Molecular weight:
49954.965
Reactions
Deoxyuridine + Phosphoric acid → Uracil + Deoxyribose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring pentosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible phosphorylytic cleavage of uridine and deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose- or deoxyribose-1-phosphate. The produced molecules are then utilized as carbon and energy sources or in the rescue of pyrimidine bases for nucleotide synthesis.
Gene Name:
UPP1
Uniprot ID:
Q16831
Molecular weight:
33934.005
Reactions
Uridine + Phosphoric acid → Uracil + Ribose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring pentosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible phosphorylytic cleavage of uridine and deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose- or deoxyribose-1-phosphate. The produced molecules are then utilized as carbon and energy sources or in the rescue of pyrimidine bases for nucleotide synthesis. Shows substrate specificity and accept uridine, deoxyuridine, and thymidine as well as the two pyrimidine nucleoside analogs 5-fluorouridine and 5-fluoro-2(')-deoxyuridine as substrates.
Gene Name:
UPP2
Uniprot ID:
O95045
Molecular weight:
41601.795
Reactions
Uridine + Phosphoric acid → Uracil + Ribose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May contribute to UTP accumulation needed for blast transformation and proliferation.
Gene Name:
UCKL1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NWZ5
Molecular weight:
59465.77
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in nucleoside metabolic process
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
UPRT
Uniprot ID:
Q96BW1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Uridine 5'-monophosphate + Pyrophosphate → Uracil + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Dual specificity receptor for uracil nucleotides and cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). Signals through G(i) and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. May mediate brain damage by nucleotides and CysLTs following ischemia
Gene Name:
GPR17
Uniprot ID:
Q13304
Molecular weight:
40989.0