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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:25:56 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00359
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01974
Metabolite Identification
Common Name3a,7a-Dihydroxycoprostanic acid
Description3a,7a-Dihydroxycoprostanic acid is a bile acid excreted in small amounts in the urine of healthy subjects (PMID 864325 ). 3a,7a-Dihydroxycoprostanic acid is the precursor to chenodeoxycholic acid. A bile acid. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, depends only on presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The unique detergent properties of bile acids are essential for the digestion and intestinal absorption of hydrophobic nutrients. Bile acids have potent toxic properties (e.g., membrane disruption) and there are a plethora of mechanisms to limit their accumulation in blood and tissues.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-oate
  2. 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-oic acid
  3. 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoate
  4. 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoic acid
  5. 3a,7a-Dihydroxycoprostanate
  6. 3a,7a-Dihydroxycoprostanic acid
  7. 3a,7a-Hydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-oate
  8. 3a,7a-Hydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-oic acid
  9. 3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oate
  10. 3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oic acid
  11. 3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanate
  12. 3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanic acid
  13. 3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoate
  14. 3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoic acid
Chemical FormulaC27H46O4
Average Molecular Weight434.6517
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight434.33960996
IUPAC Name(6R)-6-[(1S,2S,5R,7S,9R,11S,14R,15R)-5,9-dihydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadecan-14-yl]-2-methylheptanoic acid
Traditional Name(6R)-6-[(1S,2S,5R,7S,9R,11S,14R,15R)-5,9-dihydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadecan-14-yl]-2-methylheptanoic acid
CAS Registry Number17974-66-2
SMILES
[H][C@@]1(CC[C@@]2([H])C3[C@H](O)C[C@]4([H])C[C@H](O)CC[C@]4(C)[C@@]3([H])CC[C@]12C)[C@H](C)CCCC(C)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C27H46O4/c1-16(6-5-7-17(2)25(30)31)20-8-9-21-24-22(11-13-27(20,21)4)26(3)12-10-19(28)14-18(26)15-23(24)29/h16-24,28-29H,5-15H2,1-4H3,(H,30,31)/t16-,17?,18+,19-,20-,21+,22+,23-,24?,26+,27-/m1/s1
InChI KeyITZYGDKGRKKBSN-KLYSAGIUSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassLipids
ClassSteroids and Steroid Derivatives
Sub ClassCholesterols and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Homopolycyclic Compounds
Substituents
  • 3 Hydroxy Steroid
  • 7 Hydroxy Steroid
  • Bicyclohexane
  • Bile Acid, Alcohol, Or Derivative
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Cyclic Alcohol
  • Cyclohexane
  • Decaline
  • Dihydroxy Bile Acid, Alcohol, Or Derivative
  • Hydroxy Bile Acid, Alcohol, Or Derivative
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Sesterterpene
Direct ParentCholesterols and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusExpected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fat solubilization and Waste products
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0044ALOGPS
logP4.02ALOGPS
logP5.15ChemAxon
logS-5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.76 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity123.05 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability52.53 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Bile Acid BiosynthesisSMP00035map00120
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021979
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00359
Metagene LinkHMDB00359
METLIN ID5348
PubChem Compound53477686
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceHanson, Russell Floyd. Isolation, identification, formation, and metabolism of 3a, 7a-hydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-oic acid in man. (1972), 73 pp. CAN 78:27152 AN 1973:27152
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Alme B, Bremmelgaard A, Sjovall J, Thomassen P: Analysis of metabolic profiles of bile acids in urine using a lipophilic anion exchanger and computerized gas-liquid chromatorgaphy-mass spectrometry. J Lipid Res. 1977 May;18(3):339-62. Pubmed: 864325

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH2
Uniprot ID:
P05091
Molecular weight:
56380.93
General function:
Involved in thiolester hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl-CoA thioester, either in peroxisomes (primary bile acids deriving from the cholesterol pathway), or cytoplasmic at the endoplasmic reticulum (secondary bile acids). May catalyze the conjugation of primary or secondary bile acids, or both. The conjugation increases the detergent properties of bile acids in the intestine, which facilitates lipid and fat-soluble vitamin absorption. In turn, bile acids are deconjugated by bacteria in the intestine and are recycled back to the liver for reconjugation (secondary bile acids). May also act as an acyl-CoA thioesterase that regulates intracellular levels of free fatty acids. In vitro, catalyzes the hydrolysis of long- and very long-chain saturated acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), and conjugates glycine to these acyl-CoAs.
Gene Name:
BAAT
Uniprot ID:
Q14032
Molecular weight:
46298.865
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA synthetase involved in bile acid metabolism. Proposed to catalyze the first step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi by activating them to their CoA thioesters. Seems to activate secondary bile acids entering the liver from the enterohepatic circulation. In vitro, also activates 3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-trihydroxy-5-beta-cholestanate (THCA), the C27 precursor of cholic acid deriving from the de novo synthesis from cholesterol.
Gene Name:
SLC27A5
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2P5
Molecular weight:
75384.375
General function:
Involved in binding
Specific function:
Ileal protein which stimulates gastric acid and pepsinogen secretion. Seems to be able to bind to bile salts and bilirubins. Isoform 2 is essential for the survival of colon cancer cells to bile acid-induced apoptosis
Gene Name:
FABP6
Uniprot ID:
P51161
Molecular weight:
14371.2
References
  1. Kurz M, Brachvogel V, Matter H, Stengelin S, Thuring H, Kramer W: Insights into the bile acid transportation system: the human ileal lipid-binding protein-cholyltaurine complex and its comparison with homologous structures. Proteins. 2003 Feb 1;50(2):312-28. Pubmed: 12486725

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotrexate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP)
Gene Name:
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPD5
Molecular weight:
77402.2
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. May play an important role in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular weight:
76448.0
References
  1. Michalski C, Cui Y, Nies AT, Nuessler AK, Neuhaus P, Zanger UM, Klein K, Eichelbaum M, Keppler D, Konig J: A naturally occurring mutation in the SLC21A6 gene causing impaired membrane localization of the hepatocyte uptake transporter. J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 8;277(45):43058-63. Epub 2002 Aug 23. Pubmed: 12196548
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes
Gene Name:
ABCC3
Uniprot ID:
O15438
Molecular weight:
169341.1
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes
Gene Name:
ABCB11
Uniprot ID:
O95342
Molecular weight:
146405.8
General function:
Involved in bile acid:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Plays a critical role in the sodium-dependent reabsorption of bile acids from the lumen of the small intestine. Plays a key role in cholesterol metabolism
Gene Name:
SLC10A2
Uniprot ID:
Q12908
Molecular weight:
37697.4
References
  1. Kramer W, Girbig F, Glombik H, Corsiero D, Stengelin S, Weyland C: Identification of a ligand-binding site in the Na+/bile acid cotransporting protein from rabbit ileum. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 21;276(38):36020-7. Epub 2001 Jul 10. Pubmed: 11447228
General function:
Involved in bile acid:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presence of sodium.
Gene Name:
SLC10A1
Uniprot ID:
Q14973
Molecular weight:
38118.64
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular weight:
74144.1
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones T3 (triiodo-L-thyronine), T4 (thyroxine) and rT3, and of estrone-3-sulfate and taurocholate
Gene Name:
SLCO4A1
Uniprot ID:
Q96BD0
Molecular weight:
77192.5