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Record Information
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:02:36 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name2-Amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid
Description2-Amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid (AP-3) is a normal human metabolite found in diverse tissues, such as liver, intestine and spleen. (PMID 2627760 ) AP-3 is a metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (PMID 8836635 ) shown to block the amyloid precursor protein (APP) release evoked by glutamate receptor stimulation in neurons of the cortex and hippocampus; APP accumulation is believed to produce the damage in Alzheimer disease (PMID 7644542 ).
3-amino-2-Oxopropyl phosphateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC3H8NO5P
Average Molecular Weight169.0731
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight169.014008883
IUPAC Name2-amino-3-phosphonopropanoic acid
Traditional Namephosphonoalanine
CAS Registry Number5652-28-8
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acids
Alternative Parents
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Organophosphonic acid derivative
  • Organophosphonic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organophosphorus compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
StatusExpected but not Quantified
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility34.7 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.4ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.83ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area120.85 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity31.08 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability12.97 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0006-0977300000-4d443df31909d1853a23View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9200000000-08200d2cb234cf50b916View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-3900000000-c9c889a41769a47adbb0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9200000000-08200d2cb234cf50b916View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-8b77aaf1b45a8474d0e8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0ufr-4900000000-a387ee1964c407a1e324View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-d60e9dd01c1955aa2a29View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-bfdad272f458c80ee240View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-d4bd00a29f208f0b6c4fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0fk9-0900000000-7849997de5f05d38e107View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0fk9-0900000000-8a8d71c41991a12e2d3eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-052r-0900000000-44aa8996de047417f313View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-053i-6900000000-59ba18558489e038f56cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-003u-9100000000-cdd1bec9118104602debView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Liver
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021989
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID3723
KEGG Compound IDC05672
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGlyphosate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00370
Metagene LinkHMDB00370
PubChem Compound3857
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID244030
Synthesis ReferenceSmith, Edward C. R.; McQuaid, Loretta A.; Paschal, Jonathan W.; DeHoniesto, Juel. An enantioselective synthesis of D-(-)- and L-(+)-2-amino-3-phosphonopropanoic acid. Journal of Organic Chemistry (1990), 55(14), 4472-4.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Lueken A, Juhl-Strauss U, Krieger G, Witte I: Synergistic DNA damage by oxidative stress (induced by H2O2) and nongenotoxic environmental chemicals in human fibroblasts. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Feb 28;147(1):35-43. [14700526 ]
  2. Chan P, Mahler J: NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Glyphosate (CAS No. 1071-83-6) Administered In Dosed Feed To F344/N Rats And B6C3F1 Mice. Toxic Rep Ser. 1992 Jul;16:1-D3. [12209170 ]
  3. Dickson SJ, Meinhold RH, Beer ID, Koelmeyer TD: Rapid determination of glyphosate in postmortem specimens using 31P NMR. J Anal Toxicol. 1988 Sep-Oct;12(5):284-6. [3226127 ]
  4. Thompson JA, Miles BS, Fennessey PV: Urinary organic acids quantitated by age groups in a healthy pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1977 Sep;23(9):1734-8. [890917 ]
  5. Wester RC, Melendres J, Sarason R, McMaster J, Maibach HI: Glyphosate skin binding, absorption, residual tissue distribution, and skin decontamination. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1991 May;16(4):725-32. [1884912 ]
  6. Acquavella JF, Alexander BH, Mandel JS, Burns CJ, Gustin C: Exposure misclassification in studies of agricultural pesticides: insights from biomonitoring. Epidemiology. 2006 Jan;17(1):69-74. [16357597 ]
  7. Kintzios S, Pistola E, Panagiotopoulos P, Bomsel M, Alexandropoulos N, Bem F, Ekonomou G, Biselis J, Levin R: Bioelectric recognition assay (BERA). Biosens Bioelectron. 2001 Jun;16(4-5):325-36. [11390221 ]
  8. Tan SA, Tan LG: Distribution of ciliatine (2-aminoethylphosphonic acid) and phosphonoalanine (2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid) in human tissues. Clin Physiol Biochem. 1989;7(6):303-9. [2627760 ]
  9. Sorrentino G, Singh IN, Massarelli R, Kanfer JN: Stimulation of phospholipase C activity by norepinephrine, t-ACPD and bombesin in LA-N-2 cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Jul 11;308(1):81-6. [8836635 ]
  10. Lee RK, Wurtman RJ, Cox AJ, Nitsch RM: Amyloid precursor protein processing is stimulated by metabotropic glutamate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Aug 15;92(17):8083-7. [7644542 ]