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Record Information
Version4.0
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-10-23 17:23:46 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000402
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00402
Metabolite Identification
Common Name2-Isopropylmalic acid
Description2-Isopropylmalic acid is an alpha-hydroxy organic acid regularly occurring in urine of healthy individuals (PMIDs 2338430, 544608), and in hemofiltrates. (PMID 7251751 ) 2-Isopropylmalic acid is elevated during fasting and diabetic ketoacidosis. (PMID 1591279 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2S)-2-Hydroxy-2-isopropylsuccinic acidChEBI
(2S)-2-IsopropylmalateChEBI
(3S)-3-Carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acidChEBI
(3S)-3-Carboxy-3-hydroxyisocaproic acidChEBI
(S)-2-Hydroxy-2-(isopropyl)succinic acidChEBI
3-Carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoateChEBI
3-Carboxy-3-hydroxyisocaproateChEBI
(2S)-2-Hydroxy-2-isopropylsuccinateGenerator
2-IsopropylmalateGenerator
(2S)-2-Isopropylmalic acidGenerator
(3S)-3-Carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoateGenerator
(3S)-3-Carboxy-3-hydroxyisocaproateGenerator
(S)-2-Hydroxy-2-(isopropyl)succinateGenerator
3-Carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acidGenerator
3-Carboxy-3-hydroxyisocaproic acidGenerator
2-Hydroxy-2-isopropylsuccinateHMDB
2-Hydroxy-2-isopropylsuccinic acidHMDB
2-Isopropyl-2-hydroxybutanedioateHMDB
2-Isopropyl-2-hydroxybutanedioic acidHMDB
2-Isopropyl-malic acidHMDB
a-IsopropylmalateHMDB
a-Isopropylmalic acidHMDB
alpha-IsopropylmalateHMDB
alpha-Isopropylmalic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H12O5
Average Molecular Weight176.1672
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight176.068473494
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-hydroxy-2-(propan-2-yl)butanedioic acid
Traditional Name2-isopropyl-malic acid
CAS Registry Number3237-44-3
SMILES
CC(C)[C@@](O)(CC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H12O5/c1-4(2)7(12,6(10)11)3-5(8)9/h4,12H,3H2,1-2H3,(H,8,9)(H,10,11)/t7-/m0/s1
InChI KeyBITYXLXUCSKTJS-ZETCQYMHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as hydroxy fatty acids. These are fatty acids in which the chain bears a hydroxyl group.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
Sub ClassFatty Acyls
Direct ParentHydroxy fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Short-chain hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

Source:

  Biological:

    Animal:

Route of exposure:

  Enteral:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Chemical reaction:

    Biochemical process:

    Biochemical pathway:

Role

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point144 - 146 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility181 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.29ALOGPS
logP0.21ChemAxon
logS0.01ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.63ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area94.83 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity38.58 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.37 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9400000000-1c869c73651e7e4e5ddaView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00bl-9134000000-30fabfd0c26c38444fffView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-004i-0900000000-1bb48f5ddadbf88b8f6cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00kr-9400000000-5df8f3f29d2e8a962cacView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-05n0-9200000000-c62b1543d0e6a41388f1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0690-1900000000-3b83300261e0daab2ef1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9700000000-2652db028b01706ac042View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-9300000000-808bda4307e96bcfcc83View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-003r-2900000000-9fa33cd594a81b5d67cdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-055r-9700000000-8ab90438d0e6c9b7d0beView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4r-9100000000-41e1c40b755f8bfaf000View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
No entries found
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not AvailableNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.114 +/- 0.0493 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.159 +/- 0.0746 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.218 +/- 0.138 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.247 +/- 0.161 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal adenoma
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB011983
KNApSAcK IDC00019690
Chemspider ID4444155
KEGG Compound IDC02504
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID339
PubChem Compound5280523
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID35128
References
Synthesis ReferenceSchloss J V; Magolda R; Emptage M Synthesis of alpha-isopropylmalate, beta-isopropylmalate, and dimethylcitraconate. Methods in enzymology (1988), 166 92-6.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Verhaeghe BJ, Van Bocxlaer JF, De Leenheer AP: Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric identification of 3-hydroxydicarboxylic acids in urine. Biol Mass Spectrom. 1992 Jan;21(1):27-32. [PubMed:1591279 ]
  2. Pinkston D, Spiteller G, Von Henning H, Matthaei D: High resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry of the methyl esters of organic acids from uremic hemofiltrates. J Chromatogr. 1981 Apr 10;223(1):1-19. [PubMed:7251751 ]