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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:02:41 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00462
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAllantoin
DescriptionAllantoin is a diureide of glyoxylic acid with the chemical formula C4H6N4O3. It is also called 5-ureidohydantoin, glyoxyldiureide, and 5-ureidohydantoin. It is a product of oxidation of uric acid. It is a product of purine metabolism in most mammals except higher apes, and it is present in their urine. In humans, uric acid is excreted instead of allantoin. The presence of allantoin in the urine can be an indication of microbial overgrowth or it can be created via non-enzymatic means through high levels of reactive oxygen species. In this regard Allantoin is sometimes used as a marker of oxidative stress. Allantoin can be isolated from cow urine or as a botanical extract of the comfrey plant. It has long been used for its healing, soothing, and anti-irritating properties. Allantoin helps to heal wounds and skin irritations and stimulates the growth of healthy tissue. Allantoin can be found in anti-acne products, sun care products, and clarifying lotions because of its ability to help heal minor wounds and promote healthy skin. Allantoin is frequently present in toothpaste, mouthwash, and other oral hygiene products as well as shampoos, lipsticks, various cosmetic lotions and creams and other cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2,5-dioxo-4-Imidazolidinyl)ureaChEBI
2,5-dioxo-4-Imidazolidinyl-ureaChEBI
4-ureido-2,5-ImidazolidinedioneChEBI
5-ureido-2,4-ImidazolidindioneChEBI
5-UreidohydantoinChEBI
GlyoxyldiureideChEBI
N-(2,5-dioxo-4-Imidazolidinyl)ureaChEBI
(S)-AllantoinHMDB
5-ureido-HydantoinHMDB
5-UreidohydrantoinHMDB
AlantanHMDB
AllantolHMDB
AlloxantinHMDB
AVC/DienestrolcreamHMDB
CordianineHMDB
D00121HMDB
Fancol toinHMDB
GlyoxyldiureidHMDB
Glyoxylic diureideHMDB
PsoralonHMDB
SebicalHMDB
SeptalanHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H6N4O3
Average Molecular Weight158.1154
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight158.043990078
IUPAC Name(2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl)urea
Traditional Nameallantoin
CAS Registry Number97-59-6
SMILES
NC(=O)NC1NC(=O)NC1=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H6N4O3/c5-3(10)6-1-2(9)8-4(11)7-1/h1H,(H3,5,6,10)(H2,7,8,9,11)
InChI KeyInChIKey=POJWUDADGALRAB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as allantoins. These are heterocyclic compounds containing an imiazolidine ring substituted by a ketone group at positions 2 and 5, and an urea at position 4.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassAzolidines
Sub ClassImidazolidines
Direct ParentAllantoins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Allantoin
  • 5-monosubstituted hydantoin
  • Ureide
  • Urea
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Microbial
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point239 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility5.26 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.73 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.9ALOGPS
logP-2.4ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.93ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area113.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity32.02 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability12.91 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0uds-0911000000-d6d990e16a15b9f27262View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0udi-0920000000-abb5512bfc08cbdd004fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0f79-0900000000-bf39d4fc494ccd722796View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-00kr-4911230000-f2112ac79e45fb821ab6View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0f8i-3933100000-45367e01790bfc8afd6eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0zfr-4951100000-88808e71aea4d5ad7885View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-02t9-8900000000-bb0a5fee22239a104e6fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03dj-9000000000-09992debd5f3d399b902View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01oy-9000000000-8fe7df22b2abb81b934aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-0006-9100000000-08b1881abaf98821d201View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-60) , Positivesplash10-0006-9100000000-297710f62f9699946151View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-066r-0900000000-4e30eec1c2a8c4cb7fa8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-5900000000-0e0e6cbea70e14292a57View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-006w-9000000000-d53fc563af9567f05b8aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-066r-0900000000-4e30eec1c2a8c4cb7fa8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-5900000000-0e0e6cbea70e14292a57View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-006w-9000000000-d53fc563af9567f05b8aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-066r-0900000000-4e30eec1c2a8c4cb7fa8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-5900000000-0e0e6cbea70e14292a57View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-006w-9000000000-d53fc563af9567f05b8aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-066r-0900000000-4e30eec1c2a8c4cb7fa8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-5900000000-0e0e6cbea70e14292a57View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-006w-9000000000-d53fc563af9567f05b8aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03k9-9600000000-775f532f9c5d9acd1ee6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01vo-9400000000-a4e69e926b530e953cc3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-4c973a5209a8104a49e3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03k9-9600000000-775f532f9c5d9acd1ee6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01vo-9400000000-a4e69e926b530e953cc3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-4c973a5209a8104a49e3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03k9-9600000000-775f532f9c5d9acd1ee6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01vo-9400000000-a4e69e926b530e953cc3View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9200000000-5ad052308edfab7b8c5fView in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified2.1 +/- 1.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified9.30 (5.60-13.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified8.69 +/- 3.25 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified18.1 +/- 5.09 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified18.9 +/- 4.50 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified23.9 +/- 3.67 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified23.9 +/- 3.67 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified24.0 +/- 4.41 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified27.5 +/- 5.12 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified19.7 +/- 10.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.27-15.82 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified25.422 +/- 19.755 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.4 (4.9-29.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.00 +/- 6.4 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified20.5 +/- 6.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothChronic Renal Failure details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified41.3 (21.7-60.9) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Meningitis
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified17.1 +/- 5.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTooth alignment disorders
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.797 +/- 7.772 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Meningitis
  1. Kastenbauer S, Koedel U, Becker BF, Pfister HW: Oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis in humans. Neurology. 2002 Jan 22;58(2):186-91. [11805243 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001613
KNApSAcK IDC00007468
Chemspider ID199
KEGG Compound IDC01551
BioCyc IDR--ALLANTOIN
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAllantoin
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00462
Metagene LinkHMDB00462
METLIN ID89
PubChem Compound204
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15676
References
Synthesis ReferenceDu, Niansheng; Yang, Jianhua; Rena, Kasimu. Method for isolation of allantoin from Cistanche deserticola. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2006), 5pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Ohdoi C, Nyhan WL, Kuhara T: Chemical diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 15;792(1):123-30. [12829005 ]
  2. Kastenbauer S, Koedel U, Becker BF, Pfister HW: Oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis in humans. Neurology. 2002 Jan 22;58(2):186-91. [11805243 ]
  3. Lagendijk J, Ubbink JB, Vermaak WJ: The determination of allantoin, a possible indicator of oxidant status, in human plasma. J Chromatogr Sci. 1995 Apr;33(4):186-93. [7738135 ]
  4. Goldman SC, Holcenberg JS, Finklestein JZ, Hutchinson R, Kreissman S, Johnson FL, Tou C, Harvey E, Morris E, Cairo MS: A randomized comparison between rasburicase and allopurinol in children with lymphoma or leukemia at high risk for tumor lysis. Blood. 2001 May 15;97(10):2998-3003. [11342423 ]
  5. Kand'ar R, Zakova P, Muzakova V: Monitoring of antioxidant properties of uric acid in humans for a consideration measuring of levels of allantoin in plasma by liquid chromatography. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Mar;365(1-2):249-56. Epub 2005 Sep 27. [16194528 ]
  6. Pavitt DV, de Fonseka S, Al-Khalaf N, Cam JM, Reaveley DA: Assay of serum allantoin in humans by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clin Chim Acta. 2002 Apr;318(1-2):63-70. [11880113 ]
  7. Alfazema LN, Howells S, Perrett D: Determination of allantoin in biofluids using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 1998 Aug 21;817(1-2):345-52. [9764504 ]
  8. Becker BF, Kastenbauer S, Kodel U, Kiesl D, Pfister HW: Urate oxidation in CSF and blood of patients with inflammatory disorders of the nervous system. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004 Oct;23(8-9):1201-4. [15571231 ]
  9. Grootveld M, Halliwell B: Measurement of allantoin and uric acid in human body fluids. A potential index of free-radical reactions in vivo? Biochem J. 1987 May 1;243(3):803-8. [3663100 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Catalyzes the stereoselective decarboxylation of 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline (OHCU) to (S)-allantoin (Potential).
Gene Name:
PRHOXNB
Uniprot ID:
A6NGE7
Molecular weight:
19129.52
Reactions
5-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-ureido-2,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate → Allantoin + CO(2)details