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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-15 17:25:35 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:02:43 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00464
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCalcium
DescriptionCalcium is essential for the normal growth and maintenance of bones and teeth, and calcium requirements must be met throughout life. Requirements are greatest during periods of growth, such as childhood, during pregnancy and when breast-feeding. Long-term calcium deficiency can lead to osteoporosis, in which the bone deteriorates and there is an increased risk of fractures. Adults need between 1,000 and 1,300 mg of calcium in their daily diet. Calcium is essential for living organisms, particularly in cell physiology, and is the most common metal in many animals. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Calcium combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Calcium is an important component of a healthy diet. A deficit can affect bone and tooth formation, while overretention can cause kidney stones. Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium. Dairy products, such as milk and cheese, are a well-known source of calcium. However, some individuals are allergic to dairy products and even more people, particularly those of non-European descent, are lactose-intolerant, leaving them unable to consume dairy products. Fortunately, many other good sources of calcium exist. These include: seaweeds such as kelp, wakame and hijiki; nuts and seeds (like almonds and sesame); beans; amaranth; collard greens; okra; rutabaga; broccoli; kale; and fortified products such as orange juice and soy milk. Calcium has also been found to assist in the production of lymphatic fluids.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Ca
  2. Calcium element
Chemical FormulaCa
Average Molecular Weight40.078
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight39.962591155
IUPAC Namecalcium(2+) ion
Traditional Namecalcium(2+) ion
CAS Registry Number7440-70-2
SMILES
[Ca++]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Ca/q+2
InChI KeyInChIKey=BHPQYMZQTOCNFJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkaline earth metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous alkaline earth metal
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAcyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Essential minerals
  • Second messenger
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point850 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.57ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-382f6681443a5ba4aff6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-382f6681443a5ba4aff6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-382f6681443a5ba4aff6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-b897a59dd4cd48dea0d1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-b897a59dd4cd48dea0d1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-b897a59dd4cd48dea0d1View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
17-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III DeficiencySMP00356Not Available
3-Methylthiofentanyl Action PathwaySMP00679Not Available
Acebutolol PathwaySMP00296Not Available
Acenocoumarol PathwaySMP00269Not Available
Acetaminophen Action PathwaySMP00710Not Available
Acetylsalicylic Acid PathwaySMP00083Not Available
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)SMP00535Not Available
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencySMP00144Not Available
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencySMP00167Not Available
AICA-RibosiduriaSMP00168Not Available
Alfentanil PathwaySMP00413Not Available
AlkaptonuriaSMP00169Not Available
Alpha Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid MetabolismSMP00018map00592
Alprenolol PathwaySMP00297Not Available
Alteplase PathwaySMP00280Not Available
Alvimopan Action PathwaySMP00685Not Available
Aminocaproic Acid PathwaySMP00286Not Available
Amiodarone Action PathwaySMP00665Not Available
Amlodipine PathwaySMP00376Not Available
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismSMP00068map00150
Anileridine Action PathwaySMP00674Not Available
Anistreplase PathwaySMP00281Not Available
Antipyrine Action PathwaySMP00692Not Available
Antrafenine Action PathwaySMP00693Not Available
Aprotinin PathwaySMP00288Not Available
Arachidonic Acid MetabolismSMP00075map00590
Arbutamine Action PathwaySMP00664Not Available
Ardeparin PathwaySMP00275Not Available
Argatroban PathwaySMP00276Not Available
ArgininemiaSMP00357Not Available
Argininosuccinic AciduriaSMP00003Not Available
Aromatase deficiencySMP00565Not Available
Atenolol PathwaySMP00298Not Available
Azathioprine PathwaySMP00427Not Available
Benzocaine PathwaySMP00392Not Available
Beta Ureidopropionase DeficiencySMP00172Not Available
Beta-Alanine MetabolismSMP00007map00410
Betaxolol PathwaySMP00299Not Available
Bevantolol Action PathwaySMP00668Not Available
Bisoprolol PathwaySMP00300Not Available
Bivalirudin PathwaySMP00277Not Available
Bopindolol Action PathwaySMP00657Not Available
Bromfenac PathwaySMP00102Not Available
Bupivacaine PathwaySMP00393Not Available
Bupranolol Action PathwaySMP00670Not Available
Buprenorphine Action PathwaySMP00684Not Available
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencySMP00002Not Available
Carfentanil PathwaySMP00414Not Available
Carnosinuria, carnosinemiaSMP00493Not Available
Carprofen Action PathwaySMP00694Not Available
Carteolol Action PathwaySMP00658Not Available
Carvedilol PathwaySMP00367Not Available
Celecoxib PathwaySMP00096Not Available
Chloroprocaine PathwaySMP00394Not Available
Citalopram PathwaySMP00424Not Available
Citrullinemia Type ISMP00001Not Available
Clopidogrel Metabolism PathwaySMP00610Not Available
Clopidogrel PathwaySMP00260Not Available
Coagulation SMP00586Not Available
Cocaine PathwaySMP00395Not Available
Codeine PathwaySMP00405Not Available
Congenital disorder of glycosylation CDG-IIdSMP00579Not Available
Desipramine PathwaySMP00423Not Available
Dezocine Action PathwaySMP00676Not Available
Dibucaine PathwaySMP00396Not Available
Diclofenac PathwaySMP00093Not Available
Dicoumarol Action PathwaySMP00656Not Available
Dicumarol PathwaySMP00270Not Available
Diflunisal PathwaySMP00289Not Available
Dihydromorphine Action PathwaySMP00689Not Available
Dihydropyrimidinase DeficiencySMP00178Not Available
Diltiazem PathwaySMP00359Not Available
Dimethylthiambutene Action PathwaySMP00680Not Available
Diphenoxylate Action PathwaySMP00675Not Available
Disopyramide PathwaySMP00325Not Available
Disulfiram PathwaySMP00429Not Available
Dobutamine Action PathwaySMP00662Not Available
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencySMP00498Not Available
Enoxaparin PathwaySMP00272Not Available
Epinephrine Action PathwaySMP00661Not Available
Escitalopram PathwaySMP00425Not Available
Esmolol PathwaySMP00301Not Available
Ethylmorphine Action PathwaySMP00681Not Available
Etodolac PathwaySMP00084Not Available
Etoposide Metabolism PathwaySMP00601Not Available
Etoposide PathwaySMP00442Not Available
Etoricoxib Action PathwaySMP00695Not Available
Fabry diseaseSMP00525Not Available
Fc Epsilon Receptor I Signaling in Mast CellsSMP00358Not Available
Felodipine PathwaySMP00377Not Available
Fenoprofen Action PathwaySMP00696Not Available
Fentanyl PathwaySMP00415Not Available
Flecainide PathwaySMP00331Not Available
Fluoxetine PathwaySMP00426Not Available
Flurbiprofen Action PathwaySMP00697Not Available
Folate malabsorption, hereditarySMP00724Not Available
Folate MetabolismSMP00053map00670
Fondaparinux PathwaySMP00273Not Available
Fosphenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) PathwaySMP00326Not Available
GABA-Transaminase DeficiencySMP00351Not Available
Gaucher DiseaseSMP00349Not Available
Glibenclamide PathwaySMP00460Not Available
Gliclazide PathwaySMP00461Not Available
Globoid Cell LeukodystrophySMP00348Not Available
GLUT-1 deficiency syndromeSMP00580Not Available
Glycogen synthetase deficiencySMP00552Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type III. Cori disease, Debrancher glycogenosisSMP00553Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type IV. Amylopectinosis, Anderson diseaseSMP00554Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type VI. Hers diseaseSMP00555Not Available
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeSMP00365Not Available
HawkinsinuriaSMP00190Not Available
Heparin PathwaySMP00274Not Available
Heroin PathwaySMP00407Not Available
Histidine MetabolismSMP00044map00340
HistidinemiaSMP00191Not Available
Hydrocodone PathwaySMP00411Not Available
Hydromorphone PathwaySMP00410Not Available
Ibuprofen PathwaySMP00086Not Available
Ibutilide PathwaySMP00332Not Available
Imipramine PathwaySMP00422Not Available
Indomethacin PathwaySMP00104Not Available
Inositol MetabolismSMP00011map00562
Intracellular Signalling Through Prostacyclin Receptor and ProstacyclinSMP00354Not Available
Isoprenaline Action PathwaySMP00663Not Available
Isradipine PathwaySMP00378Not Available
Joubert syndromeSMP00582Not Available
Ketobemidone Action PathwaySMP00690Not Available
Ketoprofen PathwaySMP00085Not Available
Ketorolac PathwaySMP00098Not Available
Krabbe diseaseSMP00526Not Available
Labetalol PathwaySMP00368Not Available
Lactose SynthesisSMP00444Not Available
Lepirudin PathwaySMP00278Not Available
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)SMP00364Not Available
Leukotriene C4 Synthesis DeficiencySMP00353Not Available
Levallorphan Action PathwaySMP00683Not Available
Levobunolol Action PathwaySMP00666Not Available
Levobupivacaine PathwaySMP00397Not Available
Levomethadyl Acetate Action Action PathwaySMP00677Not Available
Levorphanol Action PathwaySMP00673Not Available
Lidocaine (Antiarrhythmic) PathwaySMP00328Not Available
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) PathwaySMP00398Not Available
Lornoxicam Action PathwaySMP00700Not Available
Lumiracoxib Action PathwaySMP00699Not Available
Magnesium salicylate Action PathwaySMP00698Not Available
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleSMP00129Not Available
Mefanamic Acid PathwaySMP00109Not Available
Meloxicam PathwaySMP00106Not Available
Mepivacaine PathwaySMP00399Not Available
Mercaptopurine PathwaySMP00428Not Available
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD)SMP00347Not Available
Methadone PathwaySMP00408Not Available
Methadyl Acetate Action PathwaySMP00678Not Available
Methotrexate PathwaySMP00432Not Available
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)SMP00543Not Available
Metipranolol Action PathwaySMP00667Not Available
Metoprolol PathwaySMP00302Not Available
Mexiletine PathwaySMP00329Not Available
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeSMP00536Not Available
MNGIE (Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalopathy)SMP00202Not Available
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencySMP00203Not Available
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)SMP00533Not Available
Morphine PathwaySMP00406Not Available
Mucopolysaccharidosis VI. Sly syndromeSMP00556Not Available
Muscle/Heart ContractionSMP00588Not Available
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencySMP00537Not Available
Nabumetone PathwaySMP00114Not Available
Nadolol PathwaySMP00303Not Available
Nalbuphine Action PathwaySMP00691Not Available
Naloxone Action PathwaySMP00688Not Available
Naltrexone Action PathwaySMP00687Not Available
Naproxen PathwaySMP00120Not Available
Nateglinide PathwaySMP00453Not Available
Nebivolol PathwaySMP00366Not Available
Nepafenac Action PathwaySMP00702Not Available
Nicotine PathwaySMP00431Not Available
Nifedipine PathwaySMP00379Not Available
Nimodipine PathwaySMP00380Not Available
Nisoldipine PathwaySMP00381Not Available
Nitrendipine PathwaySMP00382Not Available
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)SMP00205Not Available
Oxaprozin PathwaySMP00113Not Available
Oxprenolol PathwaySMP00304Not Available
Oxybuprocaine PathwaySMP00400Not Available
Oxycodone PathwaySMP00409Not Available
Oxymorphone PathwaySMP00412Not Available
Pancreas FunctionSMP00643Not Available
Pantothenate and CoA BiosynthesisSMP00027map00770
Penbutolol PathwaySMP00305Not Available
Pentazocine Action PathwaySMP00686Not Available
Phenindione Action PathwaySMP00655Not Available
Phenprocoumon PathwaySMP00271Not Available
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00008map00360
Phenylbutazone Action PathwaySMP00701Not Available
PhenylketonuriaSMP00206Not Available
Phenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) PathwaySMP00327Not Available
Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate MetabolismSMP00463map00562
Phospholipid BiosynthesisSMP00025map00564
Pindolol PathwaySMP00306Not Available
Piroxicam PathwaySMP00077Not Available
Practolol Action PathwaySMP00669Not Available
Prilocaine PathwaySMP00401Not Available
Procainamide (Antiarrhythmic) PathwaySMP00324Not Available
Procaine PathwaySMP00402Not Available
Proparacaine PathwaySMP00403Not Available
Propoxyphene Action PathwaySMP00672Not Available
Propranolol PathwaySMP00307Not Available
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencySMP00210Not Available
Pyrimidine MetabolismSMP00046map00240
Quinidine PathwaySMP00323Not Available
Remifentanil PathwaySMP00416Not Available
Repaglinide PathwaySMP00454Not Available
Reteplase PathwaySMP00285Not Available
Riboflavin MetabolismSMP00070map00740
Rofecoxib PathwaySMP00087Not Available
Ropivacaine PathwaySMP00404Not Available
Salicylate-sodium Action PathwaySMP00708Not Available
Salicylic Acid Action PathwaySMP00709Not Available
Salsalate Action PathwaySMP00707Not Available
Sotalol Action PathwaySMP00660Not Available
Sphingolipid MetabolismSMP00034map00500
Starch and Sucrose MetabolismSMP00058map00500
Streptokinase PathwaySMP00282Not Available
Sucrase-isomaltase deficiencySMP00557Not Available
Sufentanil PathwaySMP00417Not Available
Sulindac PathwaySMP00094Not Available
Suprofen PathwaySMP00101Not Available
Tenecteplase PathwaySMP00283Not Available
Teniposide Metabolism PathwaySMP00602Not Available
Teniposide PathwaySMP00443Not Available
Tenoxicam Action PathwaySMP00706Not Available
Thioguanine PathwaySMP00430Not Available
Thyroid hormone synthesisSMP00716Not Available
Tiaprofenic Acid Action PathwaySMP00705Not Available
Timolol Action PathwaySMP00659Not Available
Tocainide PathwaySMP00330Not Available
Tolmetin Action PathwaySMP00704Not Available
Tramadol Action Action PathwaySMP00671Not Available
Tranexamic Acid PathwaySMP00287Not Available
Trisalicylate-choline Action PathwaySMP00703Not Available
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006map00350
Tyrosinemia Type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart syndrome)SMP00369Not Available
Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3)SMP00370Not Available
Tyrosinemia Type ISMP00218Not Available
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornSMP00494Not Available
UMP Synthase Deiciency (Orotic Aciduria)SMP00219Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059map00330
Ureidopropionase deficiencySMP00492Not Available
Urokinase PathwaySMP00284Not Available
Valdecoxib PathwaySMP00116Not Available
Verapamil PathwaySMP00375Not Available
Warfarin PathwaySMP00268Not Available
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)SMP00220Not Available
Xanthinuria type ISMP00512Not Available
Xanthinuria type IISMP00513Not Available
Ximelagatran PathwaySMP00279Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1536 +/- 141 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2120.86-2744.65 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Female
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2295.52-2619.89 uMChildren (1 - <19 years old)Female
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2120.86-2744.65 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Male
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2295.52-2619.89 uMChildren (1 - <19 years old)Male
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2220.0 +/- 190.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2510.0 +/- 90.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2430.0 +/- 70.0 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2420.0 (2250.0-2590.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2377.0 +/- 100.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2352.0 +/- 100.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1047 +/- 520 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1190.0 (1020.0 - 1340.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1830 +/- 1020 uMNot SpecifiedBoth
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified690.32 +/- 404.88 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3241.679 +/- 2450.721 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2751.634 +/- 1492.589 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2060.981 +/- 391.736 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Shatha A Hassan a...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1644.294 +/- 321.872 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Shatha A Hassan a...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1719.148 +/- 444.134 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Shatha A Hassan a...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1579.420 +/- 504.0172 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1479.615 +/- 331.853 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1437.197 +/- 269.475 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1270.0235 +/- 229.552 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2480 +/- 630 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified990 +/- 760 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified200.0 (16.9-520.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified391.0 +/- 125.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified299.0 +/- 99.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified256.5 +/- 13.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified276.00 +/- 19.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1637 +/- 282 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified1683 +/- 249 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified1400.00 (1200.00-1600.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothPrimary Hypomagnesemia details
BloodDetected and Quantified2300.00 (2100.00-2650.00) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothPrimary hypomagnesemia details
BloodDetected and Quantified1714 +/- 132 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. [16244393 ]
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. [16244395 ]
Parkinson's disease
  1. Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. [16244392 ]
Primary hypomagnesemia
  1. MetaGene [Link]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB01373
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003513
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID266
KEGG Compound IDC00076
BioCyc IDCA%2b2
BiGG ID33764
Wikipedia LinkCalcium
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00464
Metagene LinkHMDB00464
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound271
PDB IDCA
ChEBI ID29108
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Boonen S, Vanderschueren D, Haentjens P, Lips P: Calcium and vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis - a clinical update. J Intern Med. 2006 Jun;259(6):539-52. [16704554 ]
  2. Gennari C: Calcium and vitamin D nutrition and bone disease of the elderly. Public Health Nutr. 2001 Apr;4(2B):547-59. [11683549 ]
  3. Kirchhoff P, Geibel JP: Role of calcium and other trace elements in the gastrointestinal physiology. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 May 28;12(20):3229-36. [16718844 ]
  4. Gross MD: Vitamin D and calcium in the prevention of prostate and colon cancer: new approaches for the identification of needs. J Nutr. 2005 Feb;135(2):326-31. [15671236 ]
  5. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE: Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 4;337(10):670-6. [9278463 ]
  6. Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, Saxon L, Steele E, Aspray T, Baverstock M, Birks Y, Dumville J, Francis R, Iglesias C, Puffer S, Sutcliffe A, Watt I, Torgerson DJ: Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care. BMJ. 2005 Apr 30;330(7498):1003. [15860827 ]
  7. Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, McDonald AM, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, Anderson FH, Cooper C, Francis RM, Donaldson C, Gillespie WJ, Robinson CM, Torgerson DJ, Wallace WA: Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 May 7-13;365(9471):1621-8. [15885294 ]
  8. Weingarten MA, Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J: Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD003548. [16034903 ]
  9. Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek I, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O'Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad D: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16;354(7):669-83. [16481635 ]

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 1085 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters. Involved in sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan. Involved in guiding and targeting of LAT1 and LAT2 to the plasma membrane. When associated with SLC7A6 or SLC7A7 acts as an arginine/glutamine exchanger, following an antiport mechanism for amino acid transport, influencing arginine release in exchange for extracellular amino acids. Plays a role in nitric oxide synthesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via transport of L-arginine. Required for normal and neoplastic cell growth. When associated with SLC7A5/LAT1, is also involved in the transport of L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier, and that of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) across the cell membrane in tissues such as placenta. Involved in the uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) when administered as the L-cysteine or D,L-homocysteine complexes, and hence plays a role in metal ion homeostasis and toxicity. When associated with SLC7A5 or SLC7A8, involved in the cellular activity of small molecular weight nitrosothiols, via the stereoselective transport of L- nitrosocysteine (L-CNSO) across the transmembrane. Together with ICAM1, regulates the transport activity LAT2 in polarized intestinal cells, by generating and delivering intracellular signals. When associated with SLC7A5, plays an important role in transporting L-leucine from the circulating blood to the retina across the inner blood-retinal barrier
Gene Name:
SLC3A2
Uniprot ID:
P08195
Molecular weight:
67993.3
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This receptor is involved in tracheal smooth muscle contraction, bronchoconstriction, and control of aldosterone production
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular weight:
52602.6
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular weight:
54297.4
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular weight:
51820.7
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the regulation of fatty acid synthesis by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. It also regulates cholesterol synthesis via phosphorylation and inactivation of hormone-sensitive lipase and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Appears to act as a metabolic stress-sensing protein kinase switching off biosynthetic pathways when cellular ATP levels are depleted and when 5'-AMP rises in response to fuel limitation and/or hypoxia. This is a catalytic subunit
Gene Name:
PRKAA1
Uniprot ID:
Q13131
Molecular weight:
64008.6
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the regulation of fatty acid synthesis by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. It also regulates cholesterol synthesis via phosphorylation and inactivation of hormone-sensitive lipase and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Appears to act as a metabolic stress-sensing protein kinase switching off biosynthetic pathways when cellular ATP levels are depleted and when 5'-AMP rises in response to fuel limitation and/or hypoxia. This is a catalytic subunit
Gene Name:
PRKAA2
Uniprot ID:
P54646
Molecular weight:
62319.1
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the degradation of compounds such as putrescine, histamine, spermine, and spermidine, substances involved in allergic and immune responses, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, tumor formation, and possibly apoptosis. Placental DAO is thought to play a role in the regulation of the female reproductive function.
Gene Name:
ABP1
Uniprot ID:
P19801
Molecular weight:
85377.1
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma
Gene Name:
CHRNA10
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZZ6
Molecular weight:
49704.3
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma. May also regulate keratinocyte adhesion
Gene Name:
CHRNA9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGM1
Molecular weight:
54806.6
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular weight:
51486.0
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID:
P35368
Molecular weight:
56835.4
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its effect through the influx of extracellular calcium
Gene Name:
ADRA1D
Uniprot ID:
P25100
Molecular weight:
60462.2
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase. May be involved in regulatory processes in the central nervous system. It may play a role in memory acquisition and learning.
Gene Name:
ADCY1
Uniprot ID:
Q08828
Molecular weight:
123438.85
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calmodulin-insensitive adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADCY2
Uniprot ID:
Q08462
Molecular weight:
123602.25
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
Mediates odorant detection (possibly) via modulation of intracellular cAMP concentration.
Gene Name:
ADCY3
Uniprot ID:
O60266
Molecular weight:
128958.905
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calmodulin-insensitive adenylyl cyclase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY4
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFM4
Molecular weight:
119792.94
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADCY5
Uniprot ID:
O95622
Molecular weight:
102605.37
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
Membrane-bound, calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY6
Uniprot ID:
O43306
Molecular weight:
130614.095
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADCY7
Uniprot ID:
P51828
Molecular weight:
120307.175
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calcium-stimulable adenylyl cyclase. May be involved in learning, in memory and in drug dependence (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY8
Uniprot ID:
P40145
Molecular weight:
140120.79
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
May play a fundamental role in situations where fine interplay between intracellular calcium and cAMP determines the cellular function. May be a physiologically relevant docking site for calcineurin (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY9
Uniprot ID:
O60503
Molecular weight:
150699.36
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
Soluble adenylyl cyclase that has a critical role in mammalian spermatogenesis. Produces the cAMP which mediates in part the cAMP-responsive nuclear factors indispensable for maturation of sperm in the epididymis. Induces capacitation, the maturational process that sperm undergo prior to fertilization. May be the bicarbonate sensor. Involved in ciliary beat regulation.
Gene Name:
ADCY10
Uniprot ID:
Q96PN6
Molecular weight:
169748.45
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for angiotensin II. Mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
AGTR1
Uniprot ID:
P30556
Molecular weight:
41060.5
General function:
Involved in protein kinase A binding
Specific function:
Targets the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to the plasma membrane, and permits functional coupling to the L-type calcium channel
Gene Name:
AKAP7
Uniprot ID:
O43687
Molecular weight:
11464.4
General function:
Involved in Rho guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific function:
Anchors cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and acts as an adapter protein to selectively couple G alpha-13 and Rho. Augments gene activation by the estrogen receptor in an element- specific and ligand-dependent manner. Activates estrogen receptor beta by a p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Isoform 6 stimulates exchange activity on Rho proteins in vitro, but not on CDC42, Ras or Rac and may bind calcium ions
Gene Name:
AKAP13
Uniprot ID:
Q12802
Molecular weight:
307547.7
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Trypstatin is a trypsin inhibitor
Gene Name:
AMBP
Uniprot ID:
P02760
Molecular weight:
38999.2
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMY1A
Uniprot ID:
P04745
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMY2B
Uniprot ID:
P19961
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMY2A
Uniprot ID:
P04746
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in phosphate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Regulates intra- and extracellular levels of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), probably functioning as PPi transporter
Gene Name:
ANKH
Uniprot ID:
Q9HCJ1
Molecular weight:
54240.4
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel
Gene Name:
ANO10
Uniprot ID:
Q9NW15
Molecular weight:
76328.6
General function:
Involved in intracellular calcium activated chloride ch
Specific function:
Acts as a calcium-activated chloride channel. Required for normal tracheal development
Gene Name:
ANO1
Uniprot ID:
Q5XXA6
Molecular weight:
114077.2
General function:
Involved in intracellular calcium activated chloride ch
Specific function:
Acts as a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), mostly in photoreceptors. May mediate olfactory amplification in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and light perception amplification in retina
Gene Name:
ANO2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NQ90
Molecular weight:
113968.4
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel
Gene Name:
ANO3
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYT9
Molecular weight:
114655.5
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel
Gene Name:
ANO4
Uniprot ID:
Q32M45
Molecular weight:
111460.6
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel
Gene Name:
ANO5
Uniprot ID:
Q75V66
Molecular weight:
107186.7
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel
Gene Name:
ANO6
Uniprot ID:
Q4KMQ2
Molecular weight:
106164.1
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel. May play a role in cell-cell interactions
Gene Name:
ANO7
Uniprot ID:
Q6IWH7
Molecular weight:
105529.5
General function:
Cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel
Gene Name:
ANO8
Uniprot ID:
Q9HCE9
Molecular weight:
136033.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel
Gene Name:
ANO9
Uniprot ID:
A1A5B4
Molecular weight:
90366.5
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Isoform 4 may play a role as a modulator of APP processing. Overexpression can down-regulate APP processing
Gene Name:
ANKS1B
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z6G8
Molecular weight:
138184.2
General function:
Involved in receptor activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in cell attachment and migration. Interacts with extracellular matrix proteins and with the actin cytoskeleton. Mediates adhesion of cells to type 1 collagen and gelatin, reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and promotes cell spreading. Plays a role in the angiogenic response of cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells
Gene Name:
ANTXR1
Uniprot ID:
Q9H6X2
Molecular weight:
62788.4
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Necessary for cellular interactions with laminin and the extracellular matrix
Gene Name:
ANTXR2
Uniprot ID:
P58335
Molecular weight:
53665.7
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Binds specifically to calcyclin in a calcium-dependent manner. Required for midbody formation and completion of the terminal phase of cytokinesis
Gene Name:
ANXA11
Uniprot ID:
P50995
Molecular weight:
54389.3
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ANXA13
Uniprot ID:
P27216
Molecular weight:
35414.7
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Calcium/phospholipid-binding protein which promotes membrane fusion and is involved in exocytosis. This protein regulates phospholipase A2 activity. It seems to bind from two to four calcium ions with high affinity
Gene Name:
ANXA1
Uniprot ID:
P04083
Molecular weight:
38713.9
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Calcium-regulated membrane-binding protein whose affinity for calcium is greatly enhanced by anionic phospholipids. It binds two calcium ions with high affinity. May be involved in heat-stress response
Gene Name:
ANXA2
Uniprot ID:
P07355
Molecular weight:
38603.6
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Inhibitor of phospholipase A2, also possesses anti- coagulant properties. Also cleaves the cyclic bond of inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate to form inositol 1-phosphate
Gene Name:
ANXA3
Uniprot ID:
P12429
Molecular weight:
36374.8
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Calcium/phospholipid-binding protein which promotes membrane fusion and is involved in exocytosis
Gene Name:
ANXA4
Uniprot ID:
P09525
Molecular weight:
35882.4
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
This protein is an anticoagulant protein that acts as an indirect inhibitor of the thromboplastin-specific complex, which is involved in the blood coagulation cascade
Gene Name:
ANXA5
Uniprot ID:
P08758
Molecular weight:
35936.4

Transporters

General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Cotransporter which plays a role in lipoprotein, vitamin and iron metabolism, by facilitating their uptake. Binds to ALB, MB, Kappa and lambda-light chains, TF, hemoglobin, GC, SCGB1A1, APOA1, high density lipoprotein, and the GIF-cobalamin complex. The binding of all ligands required calcium. Serves as important transporter in several absorptive epithelia, including intestine, renal proximal tubules and embryonic yolk sac. Interaction with LRP2 mediates its trafficking throughout vesicles and facilitates the uptake of specific ligands like GC, hemoglobin, ALB, TF and SCGB1A1. Interaction with AMN controls its trafficking to the plasma membrane and facilitates endocytosis of ligands. May play an important role in the development of the peri-implantation embryo through internalization of APOA1 and cholesterol. Binds to LGALS3 at the maternal-fetal interface
Gene Name:
CUBN
Uniprot ID:
O60494
Molecular weight:
398672.8
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular weight:
61815.8

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 1085 proteins in total.