Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Calcium (HMDB00464)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2006-08-15 11:25:35 -0600
Update Date 2013-02-08 11:18:55 -0700
HMDB ID HMDB00464
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Calcium
Description Calcium is essential for the normal growth and maintenance of bones and teeth, and calcium requirements must be met throughout life. Requirements are greatest during periods of growth, such as childhood, during pregnancy and when breast-feeding. Long-term calcium deficiency can lead to osteoporosis, in which the bone deteriorates and there is an increased risk of fractures. Adults need between 1,000 and 1,300 mg of calcium in their daily diet. Calcium is essential for living organisms, particularly in cell physiology, and is the most common metal in many animals. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Calcium combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Calcium is an important component of a healthy diet. A deficit can affect bone and tooth formation, while overretention can cause kidney stones. Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium. Dairy products, such as milk and cheese, are a well-known source of calcium. However, some individuals are allergic to dairy products and even more people, particularly those of non-European descent, are lactose-intolerant, leaving them unable to consume dairy products. Fortunately, many other good sources of calcium exist. These include: seaweeds such as kelp, wakame and hijiki; nuts and seeds (like almonds and sesame); beans; amaranth; collard greens; okra; rutabaga; broccoli; kale; and fortified products such as orange juice and soy milk. Calcium has also been found to assist in the production of lymphatic fluids.
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. Ca
  2. Calcium element
Chemical Formula Ca
Average Molecular Weight 40.078
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 39.962591155
IUPAC Name calcium
Traditional IUPAC Name calcium
CAS Registry Number 7440-70-2
SMILES [Ca++]
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/Ca/q+2
InChI Key BHPQYMZQTOCNFJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Metal Compounds
Class Homogeneous Alkaline Earth Metal Compounds
Sub Class N/A
Other Descriptors
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • calcium cation(ChEBI)
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct Parent Homogeneous Alkaline Earth Metal Compounds
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Essential minerals
  • Second messenger
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 850 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility Not Available Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
LogP -0.57 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 0 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 0 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 0 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 0 ChemAxon
Refractivity 0 ChemAxon
Polarizability 1.78 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 2 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 2 ChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location Not Available
Pathways Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
1536 +/- 141 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
2300.00 (2100.00-2650.00) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
2220.0 +/- 190.0 uM Newborn (0-30 days old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
2510.0 +/- 90.0 uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
2430.0 +/- 70.0 uM Adolescent (13-18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
2420.0 (2250.0-2590.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
2377.0 +/- 100.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
2352.0 +/- 100.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
1047 +/- 520 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
1190.0 (1020.0 - 1340.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Urine Detected and Quantified
200.0 (16.9-520.0) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
391.0 +/- 125.0 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Urine Detected and Quantified
299.0 +/- 99.0 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Urine Detected and Quantified
256.5 +/- 13.00 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
276.00 +/- 19.7 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 1637 +/- 282 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Multiple sclerosis
Blood Detected and Quantified 1683 +/- 249 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Parkinson's disease
Blood Detected and Quantified 1400.00 (1200.00-1600.00) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Primary Hypomagnesemia
Blood Detected and Quantified 1714 +/- 132 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Alzheimer's disease
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  • Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393 Link_out
      Multiple sclerosis
      • Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395 Link_out
          Parkinson's disease
          • Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392 Link_out
              Primary hypomagnesemia
                  Associated OMIM IDs
                  DrugBank ID DB01373 Link_out
                  DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
                  Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
                  Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
                  FoodDB ID FDB003513
                  KNApSAcK ID Not Available
                  Chemspider ID 266 Link_out
                  KEGG Compound ID C00076 Link_out
                  BioCyc ID CA%2b2 Link_out
                  BiGG ID 33764 Link_out
                  Wikipedia Link Calcium Link_out
                  NuGOwiki Link HMDB00464 Link_out
                  Metagene Link HMDB00464 Link_out
                  METLIN ID Not Available
                  PubChem Compound 271 Link_out
                  PDB ID CA Link_out
                  ChEBI ID 29108 Link_out
                  References
                  Synthesis Reference Not Available
                  Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
                  General References
                  1. Boonen S, Vanderschueren D, Haentjens P, Lips P: Calcium and vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis - a clinical update. J Intern Med. 2006 Jun;259(6):539-52. Pubmed: 16704554 Link_out
                  2. Gennari C: Calcium and vitamin D nutrition and bone disease of the elderly. Public Health Nutr. 2001 Apr;4(2B):547-59. Pubmed: 11683549 Link_out
                  3. Kirchhoff P, Geibel JP: Role of calcium and other trace elements in the gastrointestinal physiology. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 May 28;12(20):3229-36. Pubmed: 16718844 Link_out
                  4. Gross MD: Vitamin D and calcium in the prevention of prostate and colon cancer: new approaches for the identification of needs. J Nutr. 2005 Feb;135(2):326-31. Pubmed: 15671236 Link_out
                  5. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE: Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 4;337(10):670-6. Pubmed: 9278463 Link_out
                  6. Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, Saxon L, Steele E, Aspray T, Baverstock M, Birks Y, Dumville J, Francis R, Iglesias C, Puffer S, Sutcliffe A, Watt I, Torgerson DJ: Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care. BMJ. 2005 Apr 30;330(7498):1003. Pubmed: 15860827 Link_out
                  7. Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, McDonald AM, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, Anderson FH, Cooper C, Francis RM, Donaldson C, Gillespie WJ, Robinson CM, Torgerson DJ, Wallace WA: Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 May 7-13;365(9471):1621-8. Pubmed: 15885294 Link_out
                  8. Weingarten MA, Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J: Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD003548. Pubmed: 16034903 Link_out
                  9. Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek I, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O'Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad D: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16;354(7):669-83. Pubmed: 16481635 Link_out

                  Enzymes

                  Show all enzymes and transporters Important Only showing the first 50 enzymes. There are 1083 enzymes in total.

                  Name: Group XV phospholipase A2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLA2G15
                  Uniprot ID: Q8NCC3 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Calcium-dependent phospholipase A2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLA2G5
                  Uniprot ID: P39877 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Group IIF secretory phospholipase A2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLA2G2F
                  Uniprot ID: Q9BZM2 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Cytosolic phospholipase A2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLA2G4A
                  Uniprot ID: P47712 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Phospholipase A2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLA2G1B
                  Uniprot ID: P04054 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Group XIIB secretory phospholipase A2-like protein
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLA2G12B
                  Uniprot ID: Q9BX93 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Group 10 secretory phospholipase A2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLA2G10
                  Uniprot ID: O15496 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Group IIE secretory phospholipase A2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLA2G2E
                  Uniprot ID: Q9NZK7 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Group XIIA secretory phospholipase A2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLA2G12A
                  Uniprot ID: Q9BZM1 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: 85/88 kDa calcium-independent phospholipase A2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLA2G6
                  Uniprot ID: O60733 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Phospholipase A2, membrane associated
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLA2G2A
                  Uniprot ID: P14555 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Group IID secretory phospholipase A2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLA2G2D
                  Uniprot ID: Q9UNK4 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ENTPD1
                  Uniprot ID: P49961 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Soluble calcium-activated nucleotidase 1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: CANT1
                  Uniprot ID: Q8WVQ1 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ENTPD3
                  Uniprot ID: O75355 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: GPD2
                  Uniprot ID: P43304 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase 1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: GNPDA1
                  Uniprot ID: P46926 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLCB1
                  Uniprot ID: Q9NQ66 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-4
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLCB4
                  Uniprot ID: Q15147 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLCB2
                  Uniprot ID: Q00722 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-3
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLCB3
                  Uniprot ID: Q01970 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLCG2
                  Uniprot ID: P16885 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Diacylglycerol kinase alpha
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: DGKA
                  Uniprot ID: P23743 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLCG1
                  Uniprot ID: P19174 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase delta-1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLCD1
                  Uniprot ID: P51178 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Thyroid peroxidase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: TPO
                  Uniprot ID: P07202 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Lactoperoxidase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: LPO
                  Uniprot ID: P22079 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Myeloperoxidase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: MPO
                  Uniprot ID: P05164 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Eosinophil peroxidase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: EPX
                  Uniprot ID: P11678 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Arylsulfatase D
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ARSD
                  Uniprot ID: P51689 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Arylsulfatase B
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ARSB
                  Uniprot ID: P15848 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Arylsulfatase E
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ARSE
                  Uniprot ID: P51690 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Annexin A3
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ANXA3
                  Uniprot ID: P12429 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Type I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: INPP5A
                  Uniprot ID: Q14642 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Amiloride-sensitive amine oxidase [copper-containing]
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ABP1
                  Uniprot ID: P19801 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: GRHPR
                  Uniprot ID: Q9UBQ7 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Membrane primary amine oxidase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: AOC3
                  Uniprot ID: Q16853 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Retina-specific copper amine oxidase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: AOC2
                  Uniprot ID: O75106 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Deoxyribonuclease-1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: DNASE1
                  Uniprot ID: P24855 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Steryl-sulfatase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: STS
                  Uniprot ID: P08842 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Cytosolic phospholipase A2 gamma
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLA2G4C
                  Uniprot ID: Q9UP65 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Group 3 secretory phospholipase A2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLA2G3
                  Uniprot ID: Q9NZ20 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit alpha
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PAFAH1B1
                  Uniprot ID: P43034 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Bis(5'-adenosyl)-triphosphatase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: FHIT
                  Uniprot ID: P49789 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase E
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: TGM3
                  Uniprot ID: Q08188 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: TGM2
                  Uniprot ID: P21980 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Protein-arginine deiminase type-6
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PADI6
                  Uniprot ID: Q6TGC4 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Coagulation factor XIII A chain
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: F13A1
                  Uniprot ID: P00488 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Protein-arginine deiminase type-4
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PADI4
                  Uniprot ID: Q9UM07 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Protein-arginine deiminase type-3
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PADI3
                  Uniprot ID: Q9ULW8 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Transporters
                  Name: Cubilin
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: CUBN
                  Uniprot ID: O60494 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Solute carrier family 22 member 6
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: SLC22A6
                  Uniprot ID: Q4U2R8 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA