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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-06-10 21:21:47 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00491
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01962
  • HMDB02254
  • HMDB03736
  • HMDB04750
Metabolite Identification
Common Name3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid
Description3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid is a metabolite of isoleucine in man, animals and bacteria. It is the alpha-keto acid analogue of isoleucine. 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid is produced from isoleucine by cytosolic branched chain aminotransferase 1 (EC:2.6.1.42), whereupon it is further degraded by branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1 to 2-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP. It is used as a clinical marker for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). MSUD is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain -keto acid dehydrogenase compex resulting in an accumulation of branched-chain amino acids and the corresponding -keto-and -hydroxy acids in blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid causing neurological damage and mental retardation.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-oxo-3-Methyl-N-valeric acidChEBI
2-oxo-3-Methylpentanoic acidChEBI
2-oxo-3-MethylvalerateChEBI
2-oxo-3-Methylvaleric acidChEBI
2-OxoisoleucineChEBI
2-Oxokolavenic acidChEBI
3-Ethyl-3-methylpyruvic acidChEBI
3-Methyl-2-oxopentanoic acidChEBI
alpha-keto-beta-Methyl-N-valeric acidChEBI
alpha-keto-beta-Methylvaleric acidChEBI
alpha-oxo-beta-Methyl-N-valeric acidChEBI
alpha-oxo-beta-Methylvaleric acidChEBI
2-oxo-3-Methyl-N-valerateGenerator
3-Methyl-2-oxovalerateGenerator
2-oxo-3-MethylpentanoateGenerator
2-OxokolavenateGenerator
3-Ethyl-3-methylpyruvateGenerator
3-Methyl-2-oxopentanoateGenerator
a-keto-b-Methyl-N-valerateGenerator
a-keto-b-Methyl-N-valeric acidGenerator
alpha-keto-beta-Methyl-N-valerateGenerator
α-keto-β-methyl-N-valerateGenerator
α-keto-β-methyl-N-valeric acidGenerator
a-keto-b-MethylvalerateGenerator
a-keto-b-Methylvaleric acidGenerator
alpha-keto-beta-MethylvalerateGenerator
α-keto-β-methylvalerateGenerator
α-keto-β-methylvaleric acidGenerator
a-oxo-b-Methyl-N-valerateGenerator
a-oxo-b-Methyl-N-valeric acidGenerator
alpha-oxo-beta-Methyl-N-valerateGenerator
α-oxo-β-methyl-N-valerateGenerator
α-oxo-β-methyl-N-valeric acidGenerator
a-oxo-b-MethylvalerateGenerator
a-oxo-b-Methylvaleric acidGenerator
alpha-oxo-beta-MethylvalerateGenerator
α-oxo-β-methylvalerateGenerator
α-oxo-β-methylvaleric acidGenerator
(3R)-3-Methyl-2-oxopentanoateHMDB
(3R)-3-Methyl-2-oxopentanoic acidHMDB
(R)-3-Methyl-2-oxopentanoateHMDB
(R)-3-Methyl-2-oxopentanoic acidHMDB
(S)-3-Methyl-2-oxopentanoateHMDB
(S)-3-Methyl-2-oxopentanoic acidHMDB
2-keto-3-MethylvalerateHMDB
2-keto-3-Methylvaleric acidHMDB
3-Methyl-2-oxo-pentanoateHMDB
3-Methyl-2-oxo-pentanoic acidHMDB
3-Methyl-2-oxo-valerateHMDB
3-Methyl-2-oxo-valeric acidHMDB
3-Methyl-2-oxovalericHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H10O3
Average Molecular Weight130.1418
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight130.062994186
IUPAC Name3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid
Traditional Name3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid
CAS Registry Number1460-34-0
SMILES
CCC(C)C(=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H10O3/c1-3-4(2)5(7)6(8)9/h4H,3H2,1-2H3,(H,8,9)
InChI KeyInChIKey=JVQYSWDUAOAHFM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as short-chain keto acids and derivatives. These are keto acids with an alkyl chain the contains less than 6 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassKeto acids and derivatives
Sub ClassShort-chain keto acids and derivatives
Direct ParentShort-chain keto acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Short-chain keto acid
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Alpha-keto acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Ketone
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Essential amino acid
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility915.5 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility9.86 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1ALOGPS
logP1.75ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.52ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.37 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity31.79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.09 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-000i-9610000000-d2ffd4c2796688c555eeView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-000i-9720000000-9cbc934e100bedd87f17View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-000i-9720000000-5acbdc73aee24c023763View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-000i-6930000000-8c2cf1d8df538010611bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000w-9300000000-0a6ff60455403c38be39View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0002-9000000000-7ee6d2fb63c6ea4cccfaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-002b-9000000000-47d18dff23b741029581View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutryl CoA Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00137Not Available
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencySMP00138Not Available
3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00521Not Available
3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduriaSMP00522Not Available
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type ISMP00237Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type ISMP00139Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IIISMP00140Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IVSMP00141Not Available
Beta-Ketothiolase DeficiencySMP00173Not Available
Isobutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00523Not Available
Isovaleric acidemiaSMP00524Not Available
Isovaleric AciduriaSMP00238Not Available
Maple Syrup Urine DiseaseSMP00199Not Available
Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00384Not Available
Methylmalonic AciduriaSMP00200Not Available
Propionic AcidemiaSMP00236Not Available
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationSMP00032map00280
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified18.0 (8.0-31.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified22.7 +/- 4.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.0 +/- 2.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.55-0.95 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.005 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.53-0.88 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.2 (0.4-4.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.24 (0.11 - 0.55) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.54 (0.12 - 1.42) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified142.0 +/- 9.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMaple syrup urine disease (MSUD) details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.333 +/- 3.83 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified209.0 +/- 35.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothMaple syrup urine disease (MSUD) details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Maple syrup urine disease
  1. Schadewaldt P, Hammen HW, Ott AC, Wendel U: Renal clearance of branched-chain L-amino and 2-oxo acids in maple syrup urine disease. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1999 Aug;22(6):706-22. [10472531 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021447
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID46
KEGG Compound IDC03465
BioCyc ID2-KETO-3-METHYL-VALERATE
BiGG ID35662
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00491
Metagene LinkHMDB00491
METLIN ID5478
PubChem Compound47
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID35932
References
Synthesis ReferenceKondo, Shigeo; Sudo, Tetsuji; Ogiwara, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Hiroshi. a-Oxo-b-methyl-n-valeric acid and its salts. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1979), 3 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  2. Wendel U, Even G, Langenbeck U, Schadewaldt P, Hummel W: Determination of (S)- and (R)-2-oxo-3-methylvaleric acid in plasma of patients with maple syrup urine disease. Clin Chim Acta. 1992 Jun 15;208(1-2):85-91. [1638756 ]
  3. Przyrembel H, Bremer HJ, Duran M, Bruinvis L, Ketting D, Wadman SK, Baumgartner R, Irle U, Bachmann C: Propionyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency with overflow of metabolites of isoleucine catabolism at all levels. Eur J Pediatr. 1979 Jan 18;130(1):1-14. [759179 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to acyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), lipoamide acyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
BCKDHB
Uniprot ID:
P21953
Molecular weight:
43122.065
Reactions
3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to acyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), lipoamide acyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
BCKDHA
Uniprot ID:
P12694
Molecular weight:
50470.58
Reactions
3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine.
Gene Name:
BCAT1
Uniprot ID:
P54687
Molecular weight:
38644.77
Reactions
L-Isoleucine + Oxoglutaric acid → 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. May also function as a transporter of branched chain alpha-keto acids.
Gene Name:
BCAT2
Uniprot ID:
O15382
Molecular weight:
33776.315
Reactions
L-Isoleucine + Oxoglutaric acid → 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Lysosomal L-amino-acid oxidase with highest specific activity with phenylalanine. May play a role in lysosomal antigen processing and presentation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
IL4I1
Uniprot ID:
Q96RQ9
Molecular weight:
65327.26
Reactions
L-Isoleucine + Water + Oxygen → 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails