Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Chlorine (HMDB00492)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2006-08-15 14:10:24 -0600
Update Date 2013-05-29 13:27:03 -0600
HMDB ID HMDB00492
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02073
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Chlorine
Description Under standard conditions, chlorine exists as a diatomic molecule. Chlorine is a highly toxic, pale yellow-green gas that has a specific strong smell. In nature, chlorine is most abundant as a chloride ion. Physiologically, this it. exists as an ion in the body. The chloride ion is an essential anion that the body needs for many critical functions. It also helps keep the body's acid-base balance. The amount of chloride in the blood is carefully controlled by the kidneys. Chloride ions have important physiological roles. For instance, in the central nervous system, the inhibitory action of glycine and some of the action of GABA relies on the entry of Cl- into specific neurons. Also, the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger biological transport protein relies on the chloride ion to increase the blood's capacity of carbon dioxide, in the form of the bicarbonate ion. Chloride-transporting proteins (CLC) play fundamental roles in many tissues in the plasma membrane as well as in intracellular membranes. CLC proteins form a gene family that comprises nine members in mammals, at least four of which are involved in human genetic diseases. GABA(A) receptors are pentameric complexes that function as ligand-gated chloride ion channels. WNK kinases are a family of serine-threonine kinases that have been shown to play an essential role in the regulation of electrolyte homeostasis, and they are found in diverse epithelia throughout the body that are involved in chloride ion flux. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by alterations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTCR) gene that result in deranged sodium and chloride ion transport channels. (PMID: 17539703 Link_out, 17729441 Link_out, 17562499 Link_out, 15300163 Link_out) (For a complete review see Evans, Richard B. Chlorine: state of the art. Lung (2005), 183(3), 151-167. PMID: 16078037 Link_out).
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. Bertholite
  2. Chloor
  3. Chlor
  4. Chlore
  5. Chloride
  6. Chloride ion
  7. Chlorine
  8. Chlorine gas
  9. Cl
  10. Cl2
  11. Diatomic chlorine
  12. Dichlorine
  13. Molecular chlorine
Chemical Formula Cl
Average Molecular Weight 35.453
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 34.968852707
IUPAC Name chloride
Traditional IUPAC Name chloride
CAS Registry Number 16887-00-6
SMILES [Cl-]
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/ClH/h1H/p-1
InChI Key VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Non-metal Compounds
Class Homogeneous Halogens
Sub Class N/A
Other Descriptors
  • an anion(Cyc)
  • halide anion(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic chlorine(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct Parent Homogeneous Halogens
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
State Gas
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point -101 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 6.3 mg/mL at 25 °C Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
Water Solubility ALOGPS
LogP 0.61 ChemAxon
pKa (strongest acidic) -7 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 0 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 0 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 0 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 0 ChemAxon
Refractivity 5.62 ChemAxon
Polarizability 2.39 ChemAxon
Formal Charge -1 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge -1 ChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
Pathways Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
110000.0 +/- 4500.0 uM Newborn (0-30 days old) Not Specified Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
103200.0 +/- 2640.0 uM Infant (0-1 year old) Not Specified Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
103700.0 +/- 1900.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.06 +/- 0.08 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Urine Detected and Quantified
8881.6 (5263.2-17763.2) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References None
Associated OMIM IDs None
DrugBank ID Not Available
DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
FoodDB ID FDB006557
KNApSAcK ID Not Available
Chemspider ID 4514529 Link_out
KEGG Compound ID Not Available
BioCyc ID CPD-4521 Link_out
BiGG ID 50130 Link_out
Wikipedia Link Chlorine Link_out
NuGOwiki Link HMDB00492 Link_out
Metagene Link HMDB00492 Link_out
METLIN ID Not Available
PubChem Compound 24526 Link_out
PDB ID CL Link_out
ChEBI ID 29311 Link_out
References
Synthesis Reference Weber, Rainer; Bulan, Andreas; Haas, Michel; Warsitz, Rafael; Werner, Knud. Production of chlorine from hydrogen chloride and oxygen. PCT Int. Appl. (2007), 30pp. CODEN: PIXXD2 WO 2007134861 A1 20071129 CAN 148:35931 AN 2007:1361621
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Fainsinger RL: Palliative care in Edmonton. Support Care Cancer. 1995 Mar;3(2):91-2. Pubmed: 7539703 Link_out
  2. Zifarelli G, Pusch M: CLC chloride channels and transporters: a biophysical and physiological perspective. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;158:23-76. Pubmed: 17729441 Link_out
  3. Tarran R, Donaldson S, Boucher RC: Rationale for hypertonic saline therapy for cystic fibrosis lung disease. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Jun;28(3):295-302. Pubmed: 17562499 Link_out
  4. Kahle KT, Wilson FH, Lalioti M, Toka H, Qin H, Lifton RP: WNK kinases: molecular regulators of integrated epithelial ion transport. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2004 Sep;13(5):557-62. Pubmed: 15300163 Link_out
  5. Harrison NL: Mechanisms of sleep induction by GABA(A) receptor agonists. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68 Suppl 5:6-12. Pubmed: 17539703 Link_out
  6. Evans RB: Chlorine: state of the art. Lung. 2005 May-Jun;183(3):151-67. Pubmed: 16078037 Link_out

Enzymes

Show all enzymes and transporters Important Only showing the first 50 enzymes. There are 102 enzymes in total.

Name: Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 3
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: PRMT3
Uniprot ID: O60678 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Glutathione S-transferase theta-1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: GSTT1
Uniprot ID: P30711 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Serine/threonine-protein kinase Sgk1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SGK1
Uniprot ID: O00141 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Serine/threonine-protein kinase WNK4
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: WNK4
Uniprot ID: Q96J92 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Angiotensin-converting enzyme
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: ACE
Uniprot ID: P12821 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 5
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: PRMT5
Uniprot ID: O14744 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Alpha-amylase 1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: AMY1A
Uniprot ID: P04745 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Pancreatic alpha-amylase
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: AMY2A
Uniprot ID: P04746 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CFTR
Uniprot ID: P13569 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Alpha-amylase 2B
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: AMY2B
Uniprot ID: P19961 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: GRM5
Uniprot ID: P41594 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: GABRG2
Uniprot ID: P18507 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: KCNQ1
Uniprot ID: P51787 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Chloride channel protein 1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CLCN1
Uniprot ID: P35523 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 2
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: HCN2
Uniprot ID: Q9UL51 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC29A4
Uniprot ID: Q7RTT9 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Pendrin
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC26A4
Uniprot ID: O43511 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Solute carrier family 12 member 3
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC12A3
Uniprot ID: P55017 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Excitatory amino acid transporter 5
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC1A7
Uniprot ID: O00341 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Chloride anion exchanger
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC26A3
Uniprot ID: P40879 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Solute carrier family 26 member 9
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC26A9
Uniprot ID: Q7LBE3 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Anion exchange transporter
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC26A7
Uniprot ID: Q8TE54 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Testis anion transporter 1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC26A8
Uniprot ID: Q96RN1 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 4
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC43A2
Uniprot ID: Q8N370 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Bestrophin-1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: BEST1
Uniprot ID: O76090 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Bestrophin-2
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: BEST2
Uniprot ID: Q8NFU1 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Bestrophin-3
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: BEST3
Uniprot ID: Q8N1M1 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Bestrophin-4
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: BEST4
Uniprot ID: Q8NFU0 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Solute carrier family 26 member 10
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC26A10
Uniprot ID: Q8NG04 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Prestin
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC26A5
Uniprot ID: P58743 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Anoctamin-10
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: ANO10
Uniprot ID: Q9NW15 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Anoctamin-1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: ANO1
Uniprot ID: Q5XXA6 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Anoctamin-2
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: ANO2
Uniprot ID: Q9NQ90 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Anoctamin-3
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: ANO3
Uniprot ID: Q9BYT9 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Anoctamin-4
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: ANO4
Uniprot ID: Q32M45 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Anoctamin-5
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: ANO5
Uniprot ID: Q75V66 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Anoctamin-6
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: ANO6
Uniprot ID: Q4KMQ2 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Anoctamin-7
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: ANO7
Uniprot ID: Q6IWH7 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Anoctamin-8
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: ANO8
Uniprot ID: Q9HCE9 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Anoctamin-9
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: ANO9
Uniprot ID: A1A5B4 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 2
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CLCA2
Uniprot ID: Q9UQC9 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 4
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CLCA4
Uniprot ID: Q14CN2 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Potassium channel subfamily T member 1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: KCNT1
Uniprot ID: Q5JUK3 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Potassium channel subfamily T member 2
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: KCNT2
Uniprot ID: Q6UVM3 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member 3
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: KCNE3
Uniprot ID: Q9Y6H6 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Phospholemman
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: FXYD1
Uniprot ID: O00168 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: ACE2
Uniprot ID: Q9BYF1 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Atrial natriuretic peptide receptor 3
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: NPR3
Uniprot ID: P17342 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Barttin
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: BSND
Uniprot ID: Q8WZ55 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Dipeptidyl peptidase 1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CTSC
Uniprot ID: P53634 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Transporters
Name: High affinity choline transporter 1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC5A7
Uniprot ID: Q9GZV3 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Solute carrier family 12 member 5
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC12A5
Uniprot ID: Q9H2X9 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Solute carrier family 12 member 2
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC12A2
Uniprot ID: P55011 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Solute carrier family 12 member 1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC12A1
Uniprot ID: Q13621 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Solute carrier family 12 member 4
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC12A4
Uniprot ID: Q9UP95 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Solute carrier family 12 member 6
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC12A6
Uniprot ID: Q9UHW9 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Solute carrier family 12 member 7
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC12A7
Uniprot ID: Q9Y666 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: SLC4A10
Uniprot ID: Q6U841 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA