Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-15 20:10:24 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:27:03 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00492
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02073
Metabolite Identification
Common NameChlorine
DescriptionUnder standard conditions, chlorine exists as a diatomic molecule. Chlorine is a highly toxic, pale yellow-green gas that has a specific strong smell. In nature, chlorine is most abundant as a chloride ion. Physiologically, this it. exists as an ion in the body. The chloride ion is an essential anion that the body needs for many critical functions. It also helps keep the body's acid-base balance. The amount of chloride in the blood is carefully controlled by the kidneys. Chloride ions have important physiological roles. For instance, in the central nervous system, the inhibitory action of glycine and some of the action of GABA relies on the entry of Cl- into specific neurons. Also, the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger biological transport protein relies on the chloride ion to increase the blood's capacity of carbon dioxide, in the form of the bicarbonate ion. Chloride-transporting proteins (CLC) play fundamental roles in many tissues in the plasma membrane as well as in intracellular membranes. CLC proteins form a gene family that comprises nine members in mammals, at least four of which are involved in human genetic diseases. GABA(A) receptors are pentameric complexes that function as ligand-gated chloride ion channels. WNK kinases are a family of serine-threonine kinases that have been shown to play an essential role in the regulation of electrolyte homeostasis, and they are found in diverse epithelia throughout the body that are involved in chloride ion flux. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by alterations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTCR) gene that result in deranged sodium and chloride ion transport channels. (PMID: 17539703 , 17729441 , 17562499 , 15300163 ) (For a complete review see Evans, Richard B. Chlorine: state of the art. Lung (2005), 183(3), 151-167. PMID: 16078037 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Bertholite
  2. Chloor
  3. Chlor
  4. Chlore
  5. Chloride
  6. Chloride ion
  7. Chlorine
  8. Chlorine gas
  9. Cl
  10. Cl2
  11. Diatomic chlorine
  12. Dichlorine
  13. Molecular chlorine
Chemical FormulaCl
Average Molecular Weight35.453
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight34.968852707
IUPAC Namechloride
Traditional IUPAC Namechloride
CAS Registry Number16887-00-6
SMILES
[Cl-]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/ClH/h1H/p-1
InChI KeyVEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Non-metal Compounds
ClassHomogeneous Halogens
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • an anion(Cyc)
  • halide anion(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic chlorine(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentHomogeneous Halogens
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateGas
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-101 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility6.3 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.61ChemAxon
pKa (strongest acidic)-7ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity5.62ChemAxon
polarizability2.39ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified110000.0 +/- 4500.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified103200.0 +/- 2640.0 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified103700.0 +/- 1900.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.06 +/- 0.08 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
UrineDetected and Quantified8881.6 (5263.2-17763.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB006557
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4514529
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDCPD-4521
BiGG ID50130
Wikipedia LinkChlorine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00492
Metagene LinkHMDB00492
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound24526
PDB IDCL
ChEBI ID29311
References
Synthesis ReferenceWeber, Rainer; Bulan, Andreas; Haas, Michel; Warsitz, Rafael; Werner, Knud. Production of chlorine from hydrogen chloride and oxygen. PCT Int. Appl. (2007), 30pp. CODEN: PIXXD2 WO 2007134861 A1 20071129 CAN 148:35931 AN 2007:1361621
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Fainsinger RL: Palliative care in Edmonton. Support Care Cancer. 1995 Mar;3(2):91-2. Pubmed: 7539703
  2. Zifarelli G, Pusch M: CLC chloride channels and transporters: a biophysical and physiological perspective. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;158:23-76. Pubmed: 17729441
  3. Tarran R, Donaldson S, Boucher RC: Rationale for hypertonic saline therapy for cystic fibrosis lung disease. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Jun;28(3):295-302. Pubmed: 17562499
  4. Kahle KT, Wilson FH, Lalioti M, Toka H, Qin H, Lifton RP: WNK kinases: molecular regulators of integrated epithelial ion transport. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2004 Sep;13(5):557-62. Pubmed: 15300163
  5. Harrison NL: Mechanisms of sleep induction by GABA(A) receptor agonists. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68 Suppl 5:6-12. Pubmed: 17539703
  6. Evans RB: Chlorine: state of the art. Lung. 2005 May-Jun;183(3):151-67. Pubmed: 16078037

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 110 proteins in total.

Enzymes

Gene Name:
GSTT1
Uniprot ID:
P30711
Gene Name:
ACE
Uniprot ID:
P12821
Gene Name:
AMY1A
Uniprot ID:
P04745
Gene Name:
AMY2A
Uniprot ID:
P04746
Gene Name:
AMY2B
Uniprot ID:
P19961
Gene Name:
GRM5
Uniprot ID:
P41594
Gene Name:
CLCN1
Uniprot ID:
P35523
Gene Name:
SLC29A4
Uniprot ID:
Q7RTT9
Gene Name:
SLC26A4
Uniprot ID:
O43511
Gene Name:
SLC12A3
Uniprot ID:
P55017
Gene Name:
SLC1A7
Uniprot ID:
O00341
Gene Name:
SLC26A3
Uniprot ID:
P40879
Gene Name:
SLC26A9
Uniprot ID:
Q7LBE3
Gene Name:
SLC26A7
Uniprot ID:
Q8TE54
Gene Name:
SLC26A8
Uniprot ID:
Q96RN1
Gene Name:
BEST1
Uniprot ID:
O76090
Gene Name:
BEST2
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFU1
Gene Name:
BEST3
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1M1
Gene Name:
BEST4
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFU0
Gene Name:
SLC26A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8NG04
Gene Name:
SLC26A5
Uniprot ID:
P58743
Gene Name:
ANO10
Uniprot ID:
Q9NW15
Gene Name:
ANO1
Uniprot ID:
Q5XXA6
Gene Name:
ANO2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NQ90
Gene Name:
ANO3
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYT9
Gene Name:
ANO4
Uniprot ID:
Q32M45
Gene Name:
ANO5
Uniprot ID:
Q75V66
Gene Name:
ANO6
Uniprot ID:
Q4KMQ2
Gene Name:
ANO7
Uniprot ID:
Q6IWH7
Gene Name:
ANO8
Uniprot ID:
Q9HCE9
Gene Name:
ANO9
Uniprot ID:
A1A5B4
Gene Name:
KCNT1
Uniprot ID:
Q5JUK3
Gene Name:
KCNT2
Uniprot ID:
Q6UVM3
Gene Name:
FXYD1
Uniprot ID:
O00168
Gene Name:
ACE2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYF1
Gene Name:
BSND
Uniprot ID:
Q8WZ55
Gene Name:
CTSC
Uniprot ID:
P53634

Transporters

Gene Name:
SLC5A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZV3
Gene Name:
SLC12A5
Uniprot ID:
Q9H2X9
Gene Name:
SLC12A2
Uniprot ID:
P55011
Gene Name:
SLC12A1
Uniprot ID:
Q13621
Gene Name:
SLC12A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9UP95
Gene Name:
SLC12A6
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHW9
Gene Name:
SLC12A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y666

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 110 proteins in total.