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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-15 20:10:24 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:27:03 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00492
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02073
Metabolite Identification
Common NameChlorine
DescriptionUnder standard conditions, chlorine exists as a diatomic molecule. Chlorine is a highly toxic, pale yellow-green gas that has a specific strong smell. In nature, chlorine is most abundant as a chloride ion. Physiologically, this it. exists as an ion in the body. The chloride ion is an essential anion that the body needs for many critical functions. It also helps keep the body's acid-base balance. The amount of chloride in the blood is carefully controlled by the kidneys. Chloride ions have important physiological roles. For instance, in the central nervous system, the inhibitory action of glycine and some of the action of GABA relies on the entry of Cl- into specific neurons. Also, the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger biological transport protein relies on the chloride ion to increase the blood's capacity of carbon dioxide, in the form of the bicarbonate ion. Chloride-transporting proteins (CLC) play fundamental roles in many tissues in the plasma membrane as well as in intracellular membranes. CLC proteins form a gene family that comprises nine members in mammals, at least four of which are involved in human genetic diseases. GABA(A) receptors are pentameric complexes that function as ligand-gated chloride ion channels. WNK kinases are a family of serine-threonine kinases that have been shown to play an essential role in the regulation of electrolyte homeostasis, and they are found in diverse epithelia throughout the body that are involved in chloride ion flux. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by alterations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTCR) gene that result in deranged sodium and chloride ion transport channels. (PMID: 17539703 , 17729441 , 17562499 , 15300163 ) (For a complete review see Evans, Richard B. Chlorine: state of the art. Lung (2005), 183(3), 151-167. PMID: 16078037 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Bertholite
  2. Chloor
  3. Chlor
  4. Chlore
  5. Chloride
  6. Chloride ion
  7. Chlorine
  8. Chlorine gas
  9. Cl
  10. Cl2
  11. Diatomic chlorine
  12. Dichlorine
  13. Molecular chlorine
Chemical FormulaCl
Average Molecular Weight35.453
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight34.968852707
IUPAC Namechloride
Traditional IUPAC Namechloride
CAS Registry Number16887-00-6
SMILES
[Cl-]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/ClH/h1H/p-1
InChI KeyVEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Non-metal Compounds
ClassHomogeneous Halogens
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • an anion(Cyc)
  • halide anion(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic chlorine(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentHomogeneous Halogens
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateGas
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-101 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility6.3 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.61ChemAxon
pKa (strongest acidic)-7ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity5.62ChemAxon
polarizability2.39ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified110000.0 +/- 4500.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified103200.0 +/- 2640.0 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified103700.0 +/- 1900.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.06 +/- 0.08 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified8881.6 (5263.2-17763.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB006557
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4514529
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDCPD-4521
BiGG ID50130
Wikipedia LinkChlorine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00492
Metagene LinkHMDB00492
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound24526
PDB IDCL
ChEBI ID29311
References
Synthesis ReferenceWeber, Rainer; Bulan, Andreas; Haas, Michel; Warsitz, Rafael; Werner, Knud. Production of chlorine from hydrogen chloride and oxygen. PCT Int. Appl. (2007), 30pp. CODEN: PIXXD2 WO 2007134861 A1 20071129 CAN 148:35931 AN 2007:1361621
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Fainsinger RL: Palliative care in Edmonton. Support Care Cancer. 1995 Mar;3(2):91-2. Pubmed: 7539703
  2. Zifarelli G, Pusch M: CLC chloride channels and transporters: a biophysical and physiological perspective. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;158:23-76. Pubmed: 17729441
  3. Tarran R, Donaldson S, Boucher RC: Rationale for hypertonic saline therapy for cystic fibrosis lung disease. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Jun;28(3):295-302. Pubmed: 17562499
  4. Kahle KT, Wilson FH, Lalioti M, Toka H, Qin H, Lifton RP: WNK kinases: molecular regulators of integrated epithelial ion transport. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2004 Sep;13(5):557-62. Pubmed: 15300163
  5. Harrison NL: Mechanisms of sleep induction by GABA(A) receptor agonists. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68 Suppl 5:6-12. Pubmed: 17539703
  6. Evans RB: Chlorine: state of the art. Lung. 2005 May-Jun;183(3):151-67. Pubmed: 16078037

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 110 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in protein methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Methylates (mono and asymmetric dimethylation) the guanidino nitrogens of arginyl residues in some proteins
Gene Name:
PRMT3
Uniprot ID:
O60678
Molecular weight:
59902.7
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Acts on 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)propane, phenethylisothiocyanate 4-nitrobenzyl chloride and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide. Displays glutathione peroxidase activity with cumene hydroperoxide.
Gene Name:
GSTT1
Uniprot ID:
P30711
Molecular weight:
27334.755
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
Protein kinase that plays an important role in cellular stress response. Activates certain potassium, sodium, and chloride channels, suggesting an involvement in the regulation of processes such as cell survival, neuronal excitability and renal sodium excretion. Sustained high levels and activity may contribute to conditions such as hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. Mediates cell survival signals, phosphorylates and negatively regulates pro-apoptotic FOXO3A. Phosphorylates NEDD4L, which leads to its inactivation and to the subsequent activation of various channels and transporters such as ENaC, KCNA3/Kv1.3 or EAAT1. Isoform 2 exhibited a greater effect on cell plasma membrane expression of ENaC and Na(+) transport than isoform 1
Gene Name:
SGK1
Uniprot ID:
O00141
Molecular weight:
48942.0
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
Regulates the activity of the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter, SLC12A3, by phosphorylation which appears to prevent membrane trafficking of SLC12A3. Also inhibits the renal K(+) channel, KCNJ1, via a kinase-independent mechanism by which it induces clearance of the protein from the cell surface by clathrin-dependent endocytosis. WNK4 appears to act as a molecular switch that can vary the balance between NaCl reabsorption and K(+) secretion to maintain integrated homeostasis
Gene Name:
WNK4
Uniprot ID:
Q96J92
Molecular weight:
134737.7
General function:
Involved in metallopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. Also able to inactivate bradykinin, a potent vasodilator. Has also a glycosidase activity which releases GPI-anchored proteins from the membrane by cleaving the mannose linkage in the GPI moiety
Gene Name:
ACE
Uniprot ID:
P12821
Molecular weight:
149713.7
General function:
Involved in histone-arginine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Arginine methyltransferase that can both catalyze the formation of omega-N monomethylarginine (MMA) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (sDMA), with a preference for the formation of MMA. Specifically mediates the symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residues in the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins Sm D1 (SNRPD1) and Sm D3 (SNRPD3); such methylation being required for the assembly and biogenesis of snRNP core particles. Methylates SUPT5H. Mono- and dimethylates arginine residues of myelin basic protein (MBP) in vitro. Plays a role in the assembly of snRNP core particles. May play a role in cytokine-activated transduction pathways. Negatively regulates cyclin E1 promoter activity and cellular proliferation. May regulate the SUPT5H transcriptional elongation properties. May be part of a pathway that is connected to a chloride current, possibly through cytoskeletal rearrangement. Methylates histone H2A and H4 'Arg-3' during germ cell development. Methylates histone H3 'Arg-8', which may repress transcription. Methylates the Piwi proteins (PIWIL1, PIWIL2 and PIWIL4), methylation of Piwi proteins being required for the interaction with Tudor domain-containing proteins and subsequent localization to the meiotic nuage. Methylates RPS10. Attenuates EGF signaling through the MAPK1/MAPK3 pathway acting at 2 levels. First, monomethylates EGFR; this enhances EGFR 'Tyr-1197' phosphorylation and PTPN6 recruitment, eventually leading to reduced SOS1 phosphorylation. Second, methylates RAF1 and probably BRAF, hence destabilizing these 2 signaling proteins and reducing their catalytic activity. Required for induction of E-selectin and VCAM-1, on the endothelial cells surface at sites of inflammation. Methylates HOXA9. Methylates and regulates SRGAP2 which is involved in cell migration and differentiation.
Gene Name:
PRMT5
Uniprot ID:
O14744
Molecular weight:
71319.755
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMY1A
Uniprot ID:
P04745
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMY2A
Uniprot ID:
P04746
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Involved in the transport of chloride ions. May regulate bicarbonate secretion and salvage in epithelial cells by regulating the SLC4A7 transporter. Can inhibit the chloride channel activity of ANO1.
Gene Name:
CFTR
Uniprot ID:
P13569
Molecular weight:
168139.895
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMY2B
Uniprot ID:
P19961
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor activity
Specific function:
Receptor for glutamate. The activity of this receptor is mediated by a G-protein that activates a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system and generates a calcium-activated chloride current
Gene Name:
GRM5
Uniprot ID:
P41594
Molecular weight:
132467.6
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular weight:
54161.8
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Probably important in cardiac repolarization. Associates with KCNE1 (MinK) to form the I(Ks) cardiac potassium current. Elicits a rapidly activating, potassium-selective outward current. Muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M strongly suppresses KCNQ1/KCNE1 current in CHO cells in which cloned KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels were coexpressed with M1 muscarinic receptors. May associate also with KCNE3 (MiRP2) to form the potassium channel that is important for cyclic AMP-stimulated intestinal secretion of chloride ions, which is reduced in cystic fibrosis and pathologically stimulated in cholera and other forms of secretory diarrhea
Gene Name:
KCNQ1
Uniprot ID:
P51787
Molecular weight:
74697.9
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Voltage-gated chloride channel. Chloride channels have several functions including the regulation of cell volume; membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport
Gene Name:
CLCN1
Uniprot ID:
P35523
Molecular weight:
108754.6
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Hyperpolarization-activated ion channel exhibiting weak selectivity for potassium over sodium ions. Contributes to the native pacemaker currents in heart (If) and in neurons (Ih). Produces a large instantaneous current. Activated by cAMP. Modulated by intracellular chloride ions and pH; acidic pH shifts the activation to more negative voltages
Gene Name:
HCN2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UL51
Molecular weight:
96949.4
General function:
Involved in nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Functions as a polyspecific organic cation transporter, efficiently transporting many organic cations such as monoamine neurotransmitters 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and biogenic amines including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. May play a role in regulating central nervous system homeostasis of monoamine neurotransmitters. May be involved in luminal transport of organic cations in the kidney and seems to use luminal proton gradient to drive organic cation reabsorption. Does not seem to transport nucleoside and nucleoside analogs such as uridine, cytidine, thymidine, adenosine, inosine, guanosine, and azidothymidine. In (PubMed:16873718) adenosine is efficiently transported but in a fashion highly sensitive to extracellular pH, with maximal activity in the pH range 5.5 to 6.5. Glu-206 is essential for the cation selectivity and may function as the charge sensor for cationic substrates. Transport is chloride and sodium-independent but appears to be sensitive to changes in membrane potential. Weakly inhibited by the classical inhibitors of equilibrative nucleoside transport, dipyridamole, dilazep, and nitrobenzylthioinosine. May play a role in the regulation of extracellular adenosine concentrations in cardiac tissues, in particular during ischemia
Gene Name:
SLC29A4
Uniprot ID:
Q7RTT9
Molecular weight:
58058.0
General function:
Involved in secondary active sulfate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-independent transporter of chloride and iodide
Gene Name:
SLC26A4
Uniprot ID:
O43511
Molecular weight:
85722.2
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption
Gene Name:
SLC12A3
Uniprot ID:
P55017
Molecular weight:
113124.0
General function:
Involved in sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific function:
Transports L-glutamate; the L-glutamate uptake is sodium- and voltage-dependent and chloride-independent. Its associated chloride conductance may participate in visual processing
Gene Name:
SLC1A7
Uniprot ID:
O00341
Molecular weight:
60657.8
General function:
Involved in secondary active sulfate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Chloride/bicarbonate exchanger. Involved in absorbtion of in the colon. Helps mediate electrolyte and fluid absorption
Gene Name:
SLC26A3
Uniprot ID:
P40879
Molecular weight:
84504.0
General function:
Involved in secondary active sulfate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
DIDS- and thiosulfate- sensitive anion exchanger mediating chloride, sulfate and oxalate transport. Mediates chloride/bicarbonate exchange or chloride-independent bicarbonate extrusion thus assuring bicarbonate secretion. Inhibited by ammonium and thiosulfate
Gene Name:
SLC26A9
Uniprot ID:
Q7LBE3
Molecular weight:
86987.5
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Acts as a sodium-independent DIDS-sensitive anion exchanger mediating bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate and oxalate transport. May play a role in the maintenance of the electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis in the kidney, by acting as a distal excretory segment-specific anion exchanger. Plays a major role in gastric acid secretion
Gene Name:
SLC26A7
Uniprot ID:
Q8TE54
Molecular weight:
72212.2
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Acts as a DIDS-sensitive anion exchanger mediating chloride, sulfate and oxalate transport. May fulfill critical anion exchange functions in male germ line during meiosis and hence may play a role in spermatogenesis. May be involved in a new regulatory pathway linking sulfate transport to RhoGTPase signaling in male germ cells. A critical component of the sperm annulus that is essential for correct sperm tail differentiation and motility and hence male fertility
Gene Name:
SLC26A8
Uniprot ID:
Q96RN1
Molecular weight:
109004.5
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Sodium-, chloride, pH-independent high affinity transport of large neutral amino acids
Gene Name:
SLC43A2
Uniprot ID:
Q8N370
Molecular weight:
62746.3
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Forms calcium-sensitive chloride channels. Highly permeable to bicarbonate
Gene Name:
BEST1
Uniprot ID:
O76090
Molecular weight:
67683.1
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Forms calcium-sensitive chloride channels. Permeable to bicarbonate
Gene Name:
BEST2
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFU1
Molecular weight:
57138.4
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Forms calcium-sensitivechloride channels. Permeable to bicarbonate
Gene Name:
BEST3
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1M1
Molecular weight:
76106.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Forms calcium-sensitive chloride channels. Permeable to bicarbonate
Gene Name:
BEST4
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFU0
Molecular weight:
53496.7
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Chloride/bicarbonate exchanger
Gene Name:
SLC26A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8NG04
Molecular weight:
60058.5
General function:
Involved in secondary active sulfate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Motor protein that converts auditory stimuli to length changes in outer hair cells and mediates sound amplification in the mammalian hearing organ. Prestin is a bidirectional voltage- to-force converter, it can operate at microsecond rates. It uses cytoplasmic anions as extrinsic voltage sensors, probably chloride and bicarbonate. After binding to a site with millimolar affinity, these anions are translocated across the membrane in response to changes in the transmembrane voltage. They move towards the extracellular surface following hyperpolarization, and towards the cytoplasmic side in response to depolarization. As a consequence, this translocation triggers conformational changes in the protein that ultimately alter its surface area in the plane of the plasma membrane. The area decreases when the anion is near the cytoplasmic face of the membrane (short state), and increases when the ion has crossed the membrane to the outer surface (long state). So, it acts as an incomplete transporter. It swings anions across the membrane, but does not allow these anions to dissociate and escape to the extracellular space. Salicylate, an inhibitor of outer hair cell motility, acts as competitive antagonist at the prestin anion-binding site
Gene Name:
SLC26A5
Uniprot ID:
P58743
Molecular weight:
81263.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel
Gene Name:
ANO10
Uniprot ID:
Q9NW15
Molecular weight:
76328.6
General function:
Involved in intracellular calcium activated chloride ch
Specific function:
Acts as a calcium-activated chloride channel. Required for normal tracheal development
Gene Name:
ANO1
Uniprot ID:
Q5XXA6
Molecular weight:
114077.2
General function:
Involved in intracellular calcium activated chloride ch
Specific function:
Acts as a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), mostly in photoreceptors. May mediate olfactory amplification in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and light perception amplification in retina
Gene Name:
ANO2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NQ90
Molecular weight:
113968.4
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel
Gene Name:
ANO3
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYT9
Molecular weight:
114655.5
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel
Gene Name:
ANO4
Uniprot ID:
Q32M45
Molecular weight:
111460.6
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel
Gene Name:
ANO5
Uniprot ID:
Q75V66
Molecular weight:
107186.7
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel
Gene Name:
ANO6
Uniprot ID:
Q4KMQ2
Molecular weight:
106164.1
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel. May play a role in cell-cell interactions
Gene Name:
ANO7
Uniprot ID:
Q6IWH7
Molecular weight:
105529.5
General function:
Cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel
Gene Name:
ANO8
Uniprot ID:
Q9HCE9
Molecular weight:
136033.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel
Gene Name:
ANO9
Uniprot ID:
A1A5B4
Molecular weight:
90366.5
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Play a role in modulating chloride current across the plasma membrane in a calcium-dependent manner, and cell adhesion. Involved in basal cell adhesion and/or stratification of squamous epithelia. May act as a tumor suppressor in breast and colorectal cancer. Plays a key role for cell adhesion in the beginning stages of lung metastasis via the binding to ITGB4
Gene Name:
CLCA2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UQC9
Molecular weight:
103940.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
May be involved in mediating calcium-activated chloride conductance
Gene Name:
CLCA4
Uniprot ID:
Q14CN2
Molecular weight:
101281.6
General function:
Involved in calcium-activated potassium channel activity
Specific function:
Outwardly rectifying potassium channel subunit that may co-assemble with other Slo-type channel subunits. Activated by high intracellular sodium or chloride levels. Activated upon stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors, such as CHRM1 and GRIA1. May be regulated by calcium in the absence of sodium ions (in vitro)
Gene Name:
KCNT1
Uniprot ID:
Q5JUK3
Molecular weight:
138341.7
General function:
Involved in calcium-activated potassium channel activity
Specific function:
Outward rectifying potassium channel. Produces rapidly activating outward rectifier K(+) currents. Activated by high intracellular sodium and chloride levels. Channel activity is inhibited by ATP and by inhalation anesthetics, such as isoflurane. Inhibited upon stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors, such as CHRM1 and GRIA1
Gene Name:
KCNT2
Uniprot ID:
Q6UVM3
Molecular weight:
130499.8
General function:
Involved in voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific function:
Ancillary protein that assembles as a beta subunit with a voltage-gated potassium channel complex of pore-forming alpha subunits. Modulates the gating kinetics and enhances stability of the channel complex. Associated with KCNC4/Kv3.4 is proposed to form the subthreshold voltage-gated potassium channel in skeletal muscle and to establish the resting membrane potential (RMP) in muscle cells. Associated with KCNQ1/KCLQT1 may form the intestinal cAMP-stimulated potassium channel involved in chloride secretion
Gene Name:
KCNE3
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6H6
Molecular weight:
11710.3
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Induces a hyperpolarization-activated chloride current when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. May have a functional role in muscle contraction
Gene Name:
FXYD1
Uniprot ID:
O00168
Molecular weight:
10441.0
General function:
Involved in metallopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Carboxypeptidase which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a peptide of unknown function, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, a vasodilator. Also able to hydrolyze apelin-13 and dynorphin-13 with high efficiency. May be an important regulator of heart function. In case of human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63 infections, serve as functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of both coronaviruses.
Gene Name:
ACE2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYF1
Molecular weight:
92462.4
General function:
Involved in peptide receptor activity, G-protein coupled
Specific function:
Receptor for the natriuretic peptide hormones, binding with similar affinities atrial natriuretic peptide NPPA/ANP, brain natriuretic peptide NPPB/BNP, and C-type natriuretic peptide NPPC/CNP. May function as a clearance receptor for NPPA, NPPB and NPPC, regulating their local concentrations and effects. May regulate diuresis, blood pressure and skeletal development. Does not have guanylate cyclase activity
Gene Name:
NPR3
Uniprot ID:
P17342
Molecular weight:
59807.3
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Functions as a beta-subunit for CLCNKA and CLCNKB chloride channels. In the kidney CLCNK/BSND heteromers mediate chloride reabsorption by facilitating its basolateral efflux. In the stria, CLCNK/BSND channels drive potassium secretion by recycling chloride for the basolateral SLC12A2 cotransporter
Gene Name:
BSND
Uniprot ID:
Q8WZ55
Molecular weight:
35196.9
General function:
Involved in cysteine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Thiol protease. Has dipeptidylpeptidase activity. Active against a broad range of dipeptide substrates composed of both polar and hydrophobic amino acids. Proline cannot occupy the P1 position and arginine cannot occupy the P2 position of the substrate. Can act as both an exopeptidase and endopeptidase. Activates serine proteases such as elastase, cathepsin G and granzymes A and B. Can also activate neuraminidase and factor XIII
Gene Name:
CTSC
Uniprot ID:
P53634
Molecular weight:
51841.4

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Imports choline from the extracellular space to the neuron with high affinity. Choline uptake is the rate-limiting step in acetylcholine synthesis. Sodium ion- and chloride ion-dependent.
Gene Name:
SLC5A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZV3
Molecular weight:
63202.985
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Mediates electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransport in mature neurons. Transport occurs under isotonic conditions, but is activated 20-fold by cell swelling. Important for Cl(-) homeostasis in neurons
Gene Name:
SLC12A5
Uniprot ID:
Q9H2X9
Molecular weight:
126182.5
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption. Plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume
Gene Name:
SLC12A2
Uniprot ID:
P55011
Molecular weight:
131445.8
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption. Plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume
Gene Name:
SLC12A1
Uniprot ID:
Q13621
Molecular weight:
121449.1
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Mediates electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransport when activated by cell swelling. May contribute to cell volume homeostasis in single cells. May be involved in the regulation of basolateral Cl(-) exit in NaCl absorbing epithelia. Isoform 4 has no transport activity
Gene Name:
SLC12A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9UP95
Molecular weight:
120648.7
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Mediates electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransport. May be activated by cell swelling. May contribute to cell volume homeostasis in single cells
Gene Name:
SLC12A6
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHW9
Molecular weight:
127615.7
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Mediates electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransport when activated by cell swelling. May mediate K(+) uptake into Deiters' cells in the cochlea and contribute to K(+) recycling in the inner ear. Important for the survival of cochlear outer and inner hair cells and the maintenance of the organ of Corti. May be required for basolateral Cl(-) extrusion in the kidney and contribute to renal acidification
Gene Name:
SLC12A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y666
Molecular weight:
119104.8
General function:
Involved in inorganic anion exchanger activity
Specific function:
Electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter in exchange for intracellular chloride. Plays an important role in regulating intracellular pH
Gene Name:
SLC4A10
Uniprot ID:
Q6U841
Molecular weight:
125945.1

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 110 proteins in total.