You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-03-02 21:25:56 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameRibitol
DescriptionRibitol is a metabolic end product formed by the reduction of ribose in human fibroblasts and erythrocytes (pentitol, sugar alcohol, polyol). Export of ribitol across the cell membrane indicates that can be cleared from the body without metabolic conversion. (PMID 15234337 ). Several inborn errors of metabolism with abnormal polyol concentrations in body fluids are known to date. Most of these defects can be diagnosed by the assessment of urinary concentrations of polyols. (PMID 16435188 ). Ribitol is normally absent in Breast milk. (PMID 16456418 ).
Chemical FormulaC5H12O5
Average Molecular Weight152.1458
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight152.068473494
IUPAC Name(2R,3s,4S)-pentane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol
Traditional Nameribitol
CAS Registry Number488-81-3
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as sugar alcohols. These are hydrogenated forms of carbohydrate in which the carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
Sub ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Direct ParentSugar alcohols
Alternative Parents
  • Sugar alcohol
  • Monosaccharide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point102 - 105 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility936 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility664.0 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.76ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area101.15 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity32.44 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.38 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-0fr2-0930000000-5a1a8471040df361537cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0gba-0940000000-39c5ee90545f38856669View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-00di-8941000000-a1eac40beaba679b545bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-00di-8930000000-85527d43cd5f10f959a8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-0gb9-0962000000-9c177252fb79fd04ff8cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00kb-9200000000-1c9444c33ee213e4aa4fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-05mo-9000000000-baf46067df2ebf3b854cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-3276d3005611fd3d415cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0901000000-7db5e452cb762f33fd3aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014j-8900000000-5ee7c2252ae88c5c0198View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-47c7512c4671bb121a01View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-1900000000-b984613919de5add093cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0ufr-0901000000-616311fa40559ac618daView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014j-7900000000-c947bd6b615b2019d255View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-c7e6bce3675a8cd1566bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-419f37e184ec82e4c123View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-APPI-QQ , positivesplash10-014j-8900000000-e69cc8758936cd2cbceaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-APPI-QQ , positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-d6447ee4c80f85c44fefView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-APPI-QQ , positivesplash10-001i-1900000000-67203d89ca337c3cd9d1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-APPI-QQ , positivesplash10-014j-7900000000-867bbfc363a4790dadc1View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Prostate
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified2.5 (0.0 - 5.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.54 +/- 0.078 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.460 (0.375-0.546) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified3.73 (3.01-4.45) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified17.8 (0.0-35.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified5.0 (0.0-10.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified3.64 +/- 0.67 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Both
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
UrineDetected and Quantified8.0 (5.0 - 11.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.5 +/- 2.24 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.55 +/- 0.08 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
BloodDetected and Quantified20.0 (6.0–35.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothRibose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified3.8 +/- 0.68 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified154.5 (123.0-186.0) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedRibose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Shetty HU, Holloway HW, Schapiro MB: Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma distribution of myo-inositol and other polyols in Alzheimer disease. Clin Chem. 1996 Feb;42(2):298-302. [PubMed:8595727 ]
Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency
  1. Huck JH, Verhoeven NM, Struys EA, Salomons GS, Jakobs C, van der Knaap MS: Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency: new inborn error in the pentose phosphate pathway associated with a slowly progressive leukoencephalopathy. Am J Hum Genet. 2004 Apr;74(4):745-51. Epub 2004 Feb 25. [PubMed:14988808 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 104300 (Alzheimer's disease)
  • 608611 (Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency)
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022083
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID10254628
KEGG Compound IDC00474
BiGG ID35086
Wikipedia LinkRibitol
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00508
Metagene LinkHMDB00508
PubChem CompoundNot Available
ChEBI ID15963
Synthesis ReferenceYamazaki, Masayoshi; Yamazaki, Fumito; Muranaka, Chikako; Kozeki, Satomi; Tatsuno, Yoshiaki; Okamoto, Naoki. Manufacture of ribitol with Trichosporonoides. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1999), 6 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Roboz J, Kappatos DC, Greaves J, Holland JF: Determination of polyols in serum by selected ion monitoring. Clin Chem. 1984 Oct;30(10):1611-5. [PubMed:6434200 ]
  3. Shetty HU, Holloway HW, Rapoport SI: Capillary gas chromatography combined with ion trap detection for quantitative profiling of polyols in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Anal Biochem. 1995 Jan 1;224(1):279-85. [PubMed:7710082 ]
  4. Cavalli C, Teng C, Battaglia FC, Bevilacqua G: Free sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations in human breast milk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006 Feb;42(2):215-21. [PubMed:16456418 ]
  5. Wamelink MM, Smith DE, Jakobs C, Verhoeven NM: Analysis of polyols in urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a useful tool for recognition of inborn errors affecting polyol metabolism. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(6):951-63. [PubMed:16435188 ]
  6. Huck JH, Roos B, Jakobs C, van der Knaap MS, Verhoeven NM: Evaluation of pentitol metabolism in mammalian tissues provides new insight into disorders of human sugar metabolism. Mol Genet Metab. 2004 Jul;82(3):231-7. [PubMed:15234337 ]
  7. Georgescu C, Boboc F, Dumitrescu MR, Potcoava R, Florescu PD, Racovita D: [Identification of some atypical (morpho-cultural and enzymatic) characteristics of E. coli strains isolated in different clinical and epidemiological conditions]. Rev Ig Bacteriol Virusol Parazitol Epidemiol Pneumoftiziol Bacteriol Virusol Parazitol Epidemiol. 1980 Jan-Mar;25(1):17-26. [PubMed:6990452 ]
  8. Malnick H: Anaerobiospirillum thomasii sp. nov., an anaerobic spiral bacterium isolated from the feces of cats and dogs and from diarrheal feces of humans, and emendation of the genus Anaerobiospirillum. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1997 Apr;47(2):381-4. [PubMed:9103625 ]
  9. De Baere T, Wauters G, Kampfer P, Labit C, Claeys G, Verschraegen G, Vaneechoutte M: Isolation of Buttiauxella gaviniae from a spinal cord patient with urinary bladder pathology. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Oct;40(10):3867-70. [PubMed:12354904 ]
  10. Brenner DJ, Davis BR, Steigerwalt AG, Riddle CF, McWhorter AC, Allen SD, Farmer JJ 3rd, Saitoh Y, Fanning GR: Atypical biogroups of Escherichia coli found in clinical specimens and description of Escherichia hermannii sp. nov. J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Apr;15(4):703-13. [PubMed:7040466 ]
  11. Herzog C, Wood HC, Noel I, Booth JC: Comparison of a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method with counterimmunoelectrophoresis for detection of teichoic acid antibodies in sera from patients with Staphylococcus aureus infections. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Apr;19(4):511-5. [PubMed:6715518 ]
  12. Hickman-Brenner FW, Vohra MP, Huntley-Carter GP, Fanning GR, Lowery VA 3rd, Brenner DJ, Farmer JJ 3rd: Leminorella, a new genus of Enterobacteriaceae: identification of Leminorella grimontii sp. nov. and Leminorella richardii sp. nov. found in clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Feb;21(2):234-9. [PubMed:3972991 ]
  13. Hickman-Brenner FW, Fanning GR, Arduino MJ, Brenner DJ, Farmer JJ 3rd: Aeromonas schubertii, a new mannitol-negative species found in human clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Aug;26(8):1561-4. [PubMed:3139706 ]
  14. Konishi K, Yamagishi T, Sakamoto K: A Halophilic vibrio isolated from a case of chronic cholecystitis. Microbiol Immunol. 1981;25(12):1221-8. [PubMed:7334940 ]
  15. Brenner DJ, McWhorter AC, Kai A, Steigerwalt AG, Farmer JJ 3rd: Enterobacter asburiae sp. nov., a new species found in clinical specimens, and reassignment of Erwinia dissolvens and Erwinia nimipressuralis to the genus Enterobacter as Enterobacter dissolvens comb. nov. and Enterobacter nimipressuralis comb. nov. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Jun;23(6):1114-20. [PubMed:3711302 ]
  16. Funke G, Lucchini GM, Pfyffer GE, Marchiani M, von Graevenitz A: Characteristics of CDC group 1 and group 1-like coryneform bacteria isolated from clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Nov;31(11):2907-12. [PubMed:8263175 ]
  17. Aldova E, Hausner O, Kocmoud Z, Schindler J, Petras P: A new member of the family Enterobacteriaceae--Pragia fontium. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1988;32(4):433-6. [PubMed:3221093 ]
  18. McWhorter AC, Haddock RL, Nocon FA, Steigerwalt AG, Brenner DJ, Aleksic S, Bockemuhl J, Farmer JJ 3rd: Trabulsiella guamensis, a new genus and species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that resembles Salmonella subgroups 4 and 5. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Jul;29(7):1480-5. [PubMed:1885744 ]
  19. Podschun R: Phenotypic properties of Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca isolated from different sources. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed. 1990 May;189(6):527-35. [PubMed:2200423 ]
  20. Yoshioka S, Kameyama K, Sanaka M, Sekine I, Kagimoto S, Fujitsuka S, Saitoh S: Effect of diabetes on the free polyol pattern in cataractous lenses. Clin Chem. 1991 May;37(5):686-9. [PubMed:2032321 ]
  21. Hudson MJ, Hollis DG, Weaver RE, Galvis CG: Relationship of CDC group EO-2 and psychrobacter immobilis. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Oct;25(10):1907-10. [PubMed:3667912 ]
  22. Brisse S, van Himbergen T, Kusters K, Verhoef J: Development of a rapid identification method for Klebsiella pneumoniae phylogenetic groups and analysis of 420 clinical isolates. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004 Oct;10(10):942-5. [PubMed:15373895 ]
  23. Roboz J, Kappatos DC, Holland JF: Role of individual serum pentitol concentrations in the diagnosis of disseminated visceral candidiasis. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Dec;6(6):708-14. [PubMed:3440465 ]
  24. Thaller MC, Berlutti F, Dainelli B, Pezzi R: New plate medium for screening and presumptive identification of gram-negative urinary tract pathogens. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Apr;26(4):791-3. [PubMed:3366875 ]