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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-10-29 17:55:29 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00516
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB03340
Metabolite Identification
Common NameBeta-D-Glucose
DescriptionBeta-D-Glucose is a primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. A glucoside is a glycoside that is derived from glucose. Glucosides are common in plants, but rare in animals. Glucose is produced when a glucoside is hydrolysed by purely chemical means, or decomposed by fermentation or enzymes. This group contains a benzene and also an ethylene group, being derived from styrolene. Coniferin, C16H22O8, occurs in the cambium of conifer wood. Emulsin converts it into glucose and coniferyl alcohol, while oxidation gives glycovanillin, which yields with emulsin glucose and vanillin. Syringin, which occurs in the bark of Syringe vulgaris, is a methoxyconiferin. Phloridzus occurs in the root-bark of various fruit trees; it hydrolyses to glucose and phloretin, which is the phloroglucin ester of paraoxyhydratropic acid. It is related to the pentosides naringin, C21HEOi1, which hydrolyses to rhamnose and naringenin, the phioroglucin ester of para-oxycinnamic acid, and hesperidin, which hydrolyses to rhamnose and hesperetin, the phloroglucin ester of meta-oxy-para-methoxycinnamic acid or isoferulic acid, C10H10O4. Classification of the glucosides is a matter of some difficulty. One based on the chemical constitution of the non-glucose part of the molecules has been proposed that frames four groups: (I) ethylene derivatives, (2) benzene derivatives, (3) styrolene derivatives, (4) anthracene derivatives. A group may also be made to include the cyanogenetic glucosides, i.e. those containing prussic acid. Other classifications follow a botanical classification, which has several advantages; in particular, plants of allied genera contain similar compounds. In this article the chemical classification will be followed, and only the more important compounds will be discussed here.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. b-D-Glucopyranose
  2. b-Dextrose
  3. b-Glucose
  4. beta-D-Glucopyranose
  5. beta-D-Glucose
  6. beta-delta-Glucopyranose
  7. beta-Dextrose
  8. beta-Glucose
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
Average Molecular Weight180.1559
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.063388116
IUPAC Name(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional Nameglucoside
CAS Registry Number492-61-5
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3-,4+,5-,6-/m1/s1
InChI KeyWQZGKKKJIJFFOK-VFUOTHLCSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassCarbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
ClassMonosaccharides
Sub ClassHexoses
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Heteromonocyclic Compounds
  • Carbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
  • D-galactopyranose(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxane
  • Primary Alcohol
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentHexoses
Ontology
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-3.24SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility782.0ALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.43 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Saliva
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
GluconeogenesisSMP00128map00010
GlycolysisSMP00040map00010
Trehalose DegradationSMP00467Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB011824
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID58238
KEGG Compound IDC00221
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00516
Metagene LinkHMDB00516
METLIN ID3755
PubChem Compound64689
PDB IDBGC
ChEBI ID15903
References
Synthesis ReferenceWenck, Helmut; Kinedt, Claudia; Bader, Hans Joachim. Production of b-D-glucose. Praxis der Naturwissenschaften, Chemie (1986), 35(4), 23.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial step in utilization of glucose by the beta-cell and liver at physiological glucose concentration. Glucokinase has a high Km for glucose, and so it is effective only when glucose is abundant. The role of GCK is to provide G6P for the synthesis of glycogen. Pancreatic glucokinase plays an important role in modulating insulin secretion. Hepatic glucokinase helps to facilitate the uptake and conversion of glucose by acting as an insulin-sensitive determinant of hepatic glucose usage.
Gene Name:
GCK
Uniprot ID:
P35557
Molecular weight:
52191.07
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Beta-D-Glucose → ADP + Beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK3
Uniprot ID:
P52790
Molecular weight:
99024.56
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Beta-D-Glucose → ADP + Beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK2
Uniprot ID:
P52789
Molecular weight:
102379.06
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Beta-D-Glucose → ADP + Beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK1
Uniprot ID:
P19367
Molecular weight:
102485.1
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Beta-D-Glucose → ADP + Beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in 6-phosphogluconolactonase activity
Specific function:
Oxidizes glucose-6-phosphate and glucose, as well as other hexose-6-phosphates.
Gene Name:
H6PD
Uniprot ID:
O95479
Molecular weight:
88891.99
Reactions
Beta-D-Glucose + NAD(P)(+) → Gluconolactone + NAD(P)Hdetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Molecular weight:
218584.77
General function:
Involved in phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor
Specific function:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of D-glucose to D-glucose 6-phosphate using ADP as the phosphate donor. GDP and CDP can replace ADP, but with reduced efficiency (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADPGK
Uniprot ID:
Q9BRR6
Molecular weight:
53960.185
Reactions
Beta-D-Glucose + ADP → Beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate + Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Intestinal trehalase is probably involved in the hydrolysis of ingested trehalose.
Gene Name:
TREH
Uniprot ID:
O43280
Molecular weight:
66567.26
Reactions
Trehalose + Water → Beta-D-Glucose + Alpha-D-Glucosedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Cleaves beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues from gangliosides, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans. Isoform 2 has no beta-galactosidase catalytic activity, but plays functional roles in the formation of extracellular elastic fibers (elastogenesis) and in the development of connective tissue. Seems to be identical to the elastin-binding protein (EBP), a major component of the non-integrin cell surface receptor expressed on fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, chondroblasts, leukocytes, and certain cancer cell types. In elastin producing cells, associates with tropoelastin intracellularly and functions as a recycling molecular chaperone which facilitates the secretions of tropoelastin and its assembly into elastic fibers.
Gene Name:
GLB1
Uniprot ID:
P16278
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GBA
Uniprot ID:
P04062
Molecular weight:
59715.745
General function:
Involved in enzyme inhibitor activity
Specific function:
Inhibits glucokinase by forming an inactive complex with this enzyme
Gene Name:
GCKR
Uniprot ID:
Q14397
Molecular weight:
68700.7
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Glycosidase probably involved in the intestinal absorption and metabolism of dietary flavonoid glycosides. Able to hydrolyze a broad variety of glycosides including phytoestrogens, flavonols, flavones, flavanones and cyanogens. Possesses beta-glycosylceramidase activity and may be involved in a nonlysosomal catabolic pathway of glycosylceramide.
Gene Name:
GBA3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H227
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Cellobiose + Water → Beta-D-Glucosedetails
Cellulose + Water → Cellulose + Beta-D-Glucosedetails
Dhurrin + Water → (S)-4-Hydroxymandelonitrile + Beta-D-Glucosedetails
Lotaustralin + Water → (2R)-2-Hydroxy-2-methylbutanenitrile + Beta-D-Glucosedetails
Linamarin + Water → Acetone cyanohydrin + Beta-D-Glucosedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
May serve as an alternate pathway for starch digestion when luminal alpha-amylase activity is reduced because of immaturity or malnutrition. May play a unique role in the digestion of malted dietary oligosaccharides used in food manufacturing.
Gene Name:
MGAM
Uniprot ID:
O43451
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in isomerase activity
Specific function:
Mutarotase converts alpha-aldose to the beta-anomer. It is active on D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, maltose and lactose (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GALM
Uniprot ID:
Q96C23
Molecular weight:
37765.365
Reactions
Alpha-D-Glucose → Beta-D-Glucosedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HKDC1
Uniprot ID:
Q2TB90
Molecular weight:
102513.88
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Beta-D-Glucose → ADP + Beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphatedetails