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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-10-09 20:54:09 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00535
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCaproic acid
DescriptionIt is a colorless oily liquid smelling of cheese. It is a fatty acid found naturally in various animal fats and oils. Caproic acid is a medium chain triglycerides (MCT). MCTs are widely used for parenteral nutrition in individuals requiring supplemental nutrition and are being more widely used in foods, drugs and cosmetics; they are essentially non-toxic. It is safe for human dietary consumption up to levels of 1g/kg. (PMID 10685018 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1-Hexanoate
  2. 1-Hexanoic acid
  3. 1-Pentanecarboxylate
  4. 1-Pentanecarboxylic acid
  5. Butylacetate
  6. Butylacetic acid
  7. Caproate
  8. Caproic acid
  9. Capronate
  10. Capronic acid
  11. Hexanoate
  12. Hexanoic acid
  13. Hexoate
  14. Hexoic acid
  15. Hexylate
  16. Hexylic acid
  17. N-Caproate
  18. N-Caproic acid
  19. N-Hexanoate
  20. N-Hexanoic acid
  21. N-Hexoate
  22. N-Hexoic acid
  23. N-Hexylate
  24. N-Hexylic acid
  25. Pentylformate
  26. Pentylformic acid
Chemical FormulaC6H12O2
Average Molecular Weight116.1583
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight116.083729628
IUPAC Namehexanoic acid
Traditional Namehexanoic acid
CAS Registry Number142-62-1
SMILES
CCCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6(7)8/h2-5H2,1H3,(H,7,8)
InChI KeyFUZZWVXGSFPDMH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassLipids
ClassFatty Acids and Conjugates
Sub ClassStraight Chain Fatty Acids
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Organic Compounds
  • Saturated fatty acids(KEGG)
  • Straight chain fatty acids(KEGG)
  • Straight chain fatty acids(Lipidmaps)
  • medium-chain fatty acid(ChEBI)
  • straight-chain saturated fatty acid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Carboxylic Acid
Direct ParentStraight Chain Fatty Acids
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility10.3 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.92HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility9.72 g/LALOGPS
logP1.88ALOGPS
logP1.81ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity31.07ChemAxon
Polarizability13.27ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Beta Oxidation of Very Long Chain Fatty AcidsSMP00052map01040
Fatty Acid BiosynthesisSMP00456Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Short Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00480Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified17 (0-105) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.5 +/- 0.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.91 +/- 1.05 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.5 (0.0-1.0) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothBreast cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB013897
KNApSAcK IDC00001218
Chemspider ID8552
KEGG Compound IDC01585
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCaproic acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00535
Metagene LinkHMDB00535
METLIN ID5520
PubChem Compound8892
PDB ID6NA
ChEBI ID30776
References
Synthesis ReferenceGao, Fei; Wu, Zongwei. Process for preparation of hexanoic acid by oxidation of 2-octanol with nitric acid. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2005), 7pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Ohdoi C, Nyhan WL, Kuhara T: Chemical diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 15;792(1):123-30. Pubmed: 12829005
  2. Jakobs C, Sweetman L, Nyhan WL: Hydroxy acid metabolites of branched-chain amino acids in amniotic fluid. Clin Chim Acta. 1984 Jul 16;140(2):157-66. Pubmed: 6467607
  3. Schoots AC, Mikkers FE, Cramers CA, Ringoir S: Profiling of uremic serum by high-resolution gas chromatography-electron-impact, chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr. 1979 Sep 11;164(1):1-8. Pubmed: 541389
  4. Epps JM, Phillips JO, Mestecky J: IgA-mediated clearance and tissue deposition of dinitrophenylated human serum albumin at various DNP:HSA ratios. Mol Immunol. 1988 Aug;25(8):731-8. Pubmed: 3185569
  5. Varani J, Orr W, Ward PA: Cell-associated proteases affect tumour cell migration in vitro. J Cell Sci. 1979 Apr;36:241-52. Pubmed: 457809
  6. Nilsen SL, Castellino FJ: Expression of human plasminogen in Drosophila Schneider S2 cells. Protein Expr Purif. 1999 Jun;16(1):136-43. Pubmed: 10336871
  7. Varani J, Orr W, Ward PA: Comparison of cell attachment and caseinolytic activities of five tumour cell types. J Cell Sci. 1978 Dec;34:133-44. Pubmed: 748334
  8. Hoverstad T, Fausa O, Bjorneklett A, Bohmer T: Short-chain fatty acids in the normal human feces. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1984 May;19(3):375-81. Pubmed: 6740214
  9. Harkness RA: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: reduced amino acid concentrations in CSF and brain. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1989;253A:159-63. Pubmed: 2624185
  10. Traul KA, Driedger A, Ingle DL, Nakhasi D: Review of the toxicologic properties of medium-chain triglycerides. Food Chem Toxicol. 2000 Jan;38(1):79-98. Pubmed: 10685018

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The highest activity concerns the C6 to C10 chain length substrate. Converts the end product of pristanic acid beta oxidation, 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA, to its corresponding carnitine ester.
Gene Name:
CROT
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKG9
Molecular weight:
10213.63
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CPT2
Uniprot ID:
P23786
Molecular weight:
73776.335
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the transport of acylcarnitines of different length across the mitochondrial inner membrane from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix for their oxidation by the mitochondrial fatty acid-oxidation pathway.
Gene Name:
SLC25A20
Uniprot ID:
O43772
Molecular weight:
32943.46
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro). Functions as GTP-dependent lipoate-activating enzyme that generates the substrate for lipoyltransferase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM1
Uniprot ID:
Q08AH1
Molecular weight:
65272.74
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACSM6
Uniprot ID:
Q6P461
Molecular weight:
53584.545
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM2A
Uniprot ID:
Q08AH3
Molecular weight:
64223.7
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro).
Gene Name:
ACSM2B
Uniprot ID:
Q68CK6
Molecular weight:
64270.78
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM3
Uniprot ID:
Q53FZ2
Molecular weight:
66152.235
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM5
Uniprot ID:
Q6NUN0
Molecular weight:
64759.55
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM4
Uniprot ID:
P0C7M7
Molecular weight:
65702.225