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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-10-19 15:45:13 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00562
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCreatinine
DescriptionCreatinine or creatine anhydride, is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle. The loss of water molecule from creatine results in the formation of creatinine. Creatinine is transferred to the kidneys by blood plasma, whereupon it is eliminated from the body by glomerular filtration and partial tubular excretion. Creatinine is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body. Measuring serum creatinine is a simple test and it is the most commonly used indicator of renal function. A rise in blood creatinine levels is observed only with marked damage to functioning nephrons; therefore this test is not suitable for detecting early kidney disease. The typical reference range for women is considered about 45-90 umol/l, for men 60-110 umol/l. Creatine and creatinine are metabolized in the kidneys, muscle, liver and pancreas.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-MethylglycocyamidineChEBI
1-Methylhydantoin-2-imideChEBI
2-amino-1,5-dihydro-1-Methyl-4H-imidazol-4-oneChEBI
2-amino-1-Methylimidazolin-4-oneChEBI
Creatine anhydrideChEBI
CreatininaChEBI
KreatininChEBI
2-amino-1-Methyl-1,5-dihydroimidazol-4-oneHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H7N3O
Average Molecular Weight113.1179
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight113.058911861
IUPAC Name2-imino-1-methylimidazolidin-4-one
Traditional Namecreatinina
CAS Registry Number60-27-5
SMILES
CN1CC(=O)NC1=N
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H7N3O/c1-7-2-3(8)6-4(7)5/h2H2,1H3,(H2,5,6,8)
InChI KeyInChIKey=DDRJAANPRJIHGJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as imidazolinones. These are organic compounds containing an imidazolinone moiety, which is an imidazoline ring bearing a ketone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassAzolines
Sub ClassImidazolines
Direct ParentImidazolinones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Imidazolinone
  • N-acylimine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Guanidine
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Carboximidamide
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point303 °C (decomposes)Not Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility80.1 mg/mL at 16 °CNot Available
LogP-1.76HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility9.92 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.6ALOGPS
logP-1.1ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.19ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.96ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area56.19 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity38.81 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability10.74 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-014i-0900000000-434db9fb715c467d6e22View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0l05-3930000000-0efef64758a717fd8a7bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-014i-0901000000-bd882951c92733ecbc9eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-5900000000-9a1d9dadbe33ae2d1306View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-e79b269b74d9c6e99118View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-bfa35af1a437cbc8b5ecView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-57f60152c562a170b9fcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-1900000000-ef69e2d63505f5b30467View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-01ox-9500000000-88d102c7e4686e30b719View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-f87b49f5a20f18c9f6f3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-1498f1dfaa82105e4414View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-87b686020b9ef983648cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-5900000000-5ac55d9993e2227ed724View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-ed919da9ef2eaa0e3b24View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-e0fbc3bd29181697fb8aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-445863d7d688052704e5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-844659480059fd60d69fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-41e3cbcd832bbcfa8cd8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-6900000000-557a2affe27acf1b78f8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-daa2222b345889ef7eceView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-3900000000-233fc8a5c8c5754cc3f9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-11990e8b9bad7fdbeb0aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-c4791b13b30e29c01832View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-01ox-9400000000-fc8e70dbbe2575dc0957View in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Amniotic Fluid
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Amniotic FluidDetected and Quantified69.65 +/- 9.88 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified82.6 +/- 26.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified29.17-82.22 uMNewborn (0 - <14 days old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified8.84-31.83 uMChildren (15 days - <2 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified17.68-38.01 uMChildren (2 - <5 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified27.41-53.93 uMChildren (5 - <12 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified39.78-71.61 uMAdolescent (12 - <15 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified43.32-74.26 uMAdolescent (15 - <19 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified74.12 +/- 10.91 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified73.5 +/- 15.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified72.0 (57.0 - 93.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified60.0 (50.0 - 80.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified86.6 +/- 18.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified39.9 +/- 7.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified43 +/- 12 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified65.2 (51.8-78.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified64.95 (37.5-92.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.84 +/- 0.880 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified4.91 +/- 3.29.08 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.93 +/- 1.43 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified6.49 +/- 1.92 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified931.0 (467.0-1390.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified697.0 (349.0-1050.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12475 +/- 7955 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified13309.73 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified8517 +/- 5053 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.9-15 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10090 +/- 310 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified230.0 (98.0-1052.0) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1046.0 +/- 204.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified677.0 +/- 46.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12992.72 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified9700 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParaquat poisoning details
UrineDetected and Quantified19026.55 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNot Available
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12246 +/- 8369 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified14743 +/- 9797 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.6-16 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified86.9 +/- 44.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected and Quantified440.7 +/- 44.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothChronic renal failure details
BloodDetected and Quantified40.3 +/- 14.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Hyperoxalemia
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
gastric cancer
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
superficial gastric cancer
details
BloodDetected and Quantified35.23 +/- 5.28 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Pancreatic
details
BloodDetected and Quantified57.5 (27.00-88.00) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothIsovaleric acidemia details
BloodDetected and Quantified209.5 (90.00-329.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothIsovaleric acidemia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified22.80 +/- 20.41 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified9.65 +/- 3.44 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified10.53 +/- 2.45 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified3787.61 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParaquat poisoning details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1805.31 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Paraquat poisoning
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1194.69 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Paraquat poisoning
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1061.95 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Paraquat poisoning
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified3618 +/- 78 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both3-Hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL) deficency details
UrineDetected and Quantified2614 +/- 74 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both3-Hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL) deficency details
UrineDetected and Quantified4738 +/- 194 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothArginosuccinic aciduria details
UrineDetected and Quantified13780 +/- 554 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothPropionic acidemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified19141 +/- 2334 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothPropionic acidemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified6626 +/- 192 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTyrosinemia I details
UrineDetected and Quantified5930 +/- 197 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTyrosinemia I details
UrineDetected and Quantified3938 +/- 279 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothPhenylketonuria details
UrineDetected and Quantified6112 +/- 305 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothPhenylketonuria details
UrineDetected and Quantified14416 +/- 983 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMaple syrup urine disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified623 +/- 15 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAminoaciduria details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Canavan disease
  1. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. [16139832 ]
Chronic renal failure
  1. Kikuchi T, Orita Y, Ando A, Mikami H, Fujii M, Okada A, Abe H: Liquid-chromatographic determination of guanidino compounds in plasma and erythrocyte of normal persons and uremic patients. Clin Chem. 1981 Nov;27(11):1899-902. [7296840 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Cai HL, Li HD, Yan XZ, Sun B, Zhang Q, Yan M, Zhang WY, Jiang P, Zhu RH, Liu YP, Fang PF, Xu P, Yuan HY, Zhang XH, Hu L, Yang W, Ye HS: Metabolomic analysis of biochemical changes in the plasma and urine of first-episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenia patients after treatment with risperidone. J Proteome Res. 2012 Aug 3;11(8):4338-50. doi: 10.1021/pr300459d. Epub 2012 Jul 26. [22800120 ]
Hyperoxalemia
  1. Ogawa Y, Machida N, Jahana M, Gakiya M, Chinen Y, Oda M, Morozumi M, Sugaya K: Major factors modulating the serum oxalic acid level in hemodialysis patients. Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 1;9:2901-8. [15353324 ]
Isovaleric acidemia
  1. MetaGene [Link]
Paraquat poisoning
  1. Bairaktari E, Katopodis K, Siamopoulos KC, Tsolas O: Paraquat-induced renal injury studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine. Clin Chem. 1998 Jun;44(6 Pt 1):1256-61. [9625050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021814
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID568
KEGG Compound IDC00791
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID36009
Wikipedia LinkCreatinine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00562
Metagene LinkHMDB00562
METLIN ID8
PubChem Compound588
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16737
References
Synthesis ReferenceReddick, Rebecca E.; Kenyon, George L. Syntheses and NMR studies of specifically labeled [2-15N]phosphocreatine, [2-15N]creatinine, and related 15N-labeled compounds. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1987), 109(14), 4380-7.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  3. A J, Trygg J, Gullberg J, Johansson AI, Jonsson P, Antti H, Marklund SL, Moritz T: Extraction and GC/MS analysis of the human blood plasma metabolome. Anal Chem. 2005 Dec 15;77(24):8086-94. [16351159 ]
  4. Bairaktari E, Katopodis K, Siamopoulos KC, Tsolas O: Paraquat-induced renal injury studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine. Clin Chem. 1998 Jun;44(6 Pt 1):1256-61. [9625050 ]
  5. Vaidya VS, Bonventre JV: Mechanistic biomarkers for cytotoxic acute kidney injury. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2006 Oct;2(5):697-713. [17014390 ]
  6. Kohnle M, Pietruck F, Kribben A, Philipp T, Heemann U, Witzke O: Ezetimibe for the treatment of uncontrolled hypercholesterolemia in patients with high-dose statin therapy after renal transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2006 Jan;6(1):205-8. [16433776 ]
  7. Fostel J, Boneva R, Lloyd A: Exploration of the gene expression correlates of chronic unexplained fatigue using factor analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2006 Apr;7(3):441-54. [16610954 ]
  8. Mori A, Watanabe Y, Fujimoto N: Fluorometrical analysis of guanidino compounds in human cerebrospinal fluid. J Neurochem. 1982 Feb;38(2):448-50. [7108550 ]
  9. Ullmann AJ, Sanz MA, Tramarin A, Barnes RA, Wu W, Gerlach BA, Krobot KJ, Gerth WC: Prospective study of amphotericin B formulations in immunocompromised patients in 4 European countries. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Aug 15;43(4):e29-38. Epub 2006 Jul 10. [16838223 ]
  10. Lebkowska U, Malyszko J, Brzosko S, Lebkowski W, Malyszko JS, Janica J, Kowalewski R, Gacko M, Mysliwiec M, Walecki J: Renal artery resistance index, thyroid hormones, and thyroid volume in the early kidney transplants recipients. Transplant Proc. 2006 Jan-Feb;38(1):62-5. [16504665 ]
  11. Sarnak MJ, Katz R, Stehman-Breen CO, Fried LF, Jenny NS, Psaty BM, Newman AB, Siscovick D, Shlipak MG: Cystatin C concentration as a risk factor for heart failure in older adults. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Apr 5;142(7):497-505. [15809461 ]
  12. Mancini GM, Catsman-Berrevoets CE, de Coo IF, Aarsen FK, Kamphoven JH, Huijmans JG, Duran M, van der Knaap MS, Jakobs C, Salomons GS: Two novel mutations in SLC6A8 cause creatine transporter defect and distinctive X-linked mental retardation in two unrelated Dutch families. Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Jan 30;132(3):288-95. [15690373 ]
  13. Shlipak MG, Katz R, Fried LF, Jenny NS, Stehman-Breen CO, Newman AB, Siscovick D, Psaty BM, Sarnak MJ: Cystatin-C and mortality in elderly persons with heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Jan 18;45(2):268-71. [15653026 ]
  14. Rule AD, Larson TS, Bergstralh EJ, Slezak JM, Jacobsen SJ, Cosio FG: Using serum creatinine to estimate glomerular filtration rate: accuracy in good health and in chronic kidney disease. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Dec 21;141(12):929-37. [15611490 ]
  15. Sherman DS, Fish DN, Teitelbaum I: Assessing renal function in cirrhotic patients: problems and pitfalls. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003 Feb;41(2):269-78. [12552488 ]
  16. Benohr P, Grenz A, Hartmann JT, Muller GA, Blaschke S: Cystatin C--a marker for assessment of the glomerular filtration rate in patients with cisplatin chemotherapy. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2006;29(1):32-5. Epub 2006 Mar 2. [16582575 ]
  17. Szmidt J, Galazka Z, Frunze S, Grochowiecki T, Nazarewski S, Durlik M, Jakimowicz T, Wojtaszek M, Grygiel K, Paczek L: Secondary kidney transplantation in a patient 16 years after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation--a case report. Ann Transplant. 2006;11(1):40-2. [17025029 ]
  18. Bengtsson C, Lapidus L, Stendahl C, Waldenstrom J: Hyperuricaemia and risk of cardiovascular disease and overall death. A 12-year follow-up of participants in the population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. Acta Med Scand. 1988;224(6):549-55. [3207067 ]