Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-05-13 23:03:59 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00574
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Cysteine
DescriptionCysteine is a naturally occurring, sulfur-containing amino acid that is found in most proteins, although only in small quantities. Cysteine is unique amongst the twenty natural amino acids as it contains a thiol group. Thiol groups can undergo oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions; when cysteine is oxidized it can form cystine, which is two cysteine residues joined by a disulfide bond. This reaction is reversible: as reduction of this disulphide bond regenerates two cysteine molecules. The disulphide bonds of cystine are crucial to defining the structures of many proteins. Cysteine is often involved in electron-transfer reactions, and help the enzyme catalyze its reaction. Cysteine is also part of the antioxidant glutathione. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a form of cysteine where an acetyl group is attached to cysteine's nitrogen atom and is sold as a dietary supplement. Cysteine is named after cystine, which comes from the Greek word kustis meaning bladder - cystine was first isolated from kidney stones. As cysteine contains a sulphydryl group, it can undergo redox reactions. Oxidation of cysteine can produce a disulfide bond with another thiol, or further oxidation can produce sulphfinic or sulfonic acids. The cysteine thiol group is also a nucleophile and can undergo addition and substitution reactions. Thiol groups become much more reactive when they are ionized, and cysteine residues in proteins have pKa values close to neutrality, so are often in their reactive thiolate form in the cell. The thiol group also has a high affinity for heavy metals and proteins containing cysteine will bind metals such as mercury, lead and cadmium tightly. Due to this ability to undergo redox reactions, cysteine has antioxidant properties. Cysteine is an important source of sulfur in human metabolism, and although it is classified as a non-essential amino acid, cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, and individuals with certain metabolic disease or who suffer from malabsorption syndromes. Cysteine may at some point be recognized as an essential or conditionally essential amino acid. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cysteine). Cysteine is important in energy metabolism. As cystine, it is a structural component of many tissues and hormones. Cysteine has clinical uses ranging from baldness to psoriasis to preventing smoker's hack. In some cases, oral cysteine therapy has proved excellent for treatment of asthmatics, enabling them to stop theophylline and other medications. Cysteine also enhances the effect of topically applied silver, tin and zinc salts in preventing dental cavities. In the future, cysteine may play a role in the treatment of cobalt toxicity, diabetes, psychosis, cancer and seizures. (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (+)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid
  2. (2R)-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoate
  3. (2R)-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid
  4. (2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoate
  5. (2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid
  6. (R)-(+)-cysteine
  7. (R)-2-amino-3-mercapto-Propanoate
  8. (R)-2-amino-3-mercapto-Propanoic acid
  9. (R)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoate
  10. (R)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid
  11. (R)-cysteine
  12. 2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoate
  13. 2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid
  14. 2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionate
  15. 2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid
  16. 3-Mercapto-L-Alanine
  17. Acetylcysteine
  18. alpha-Amino-beta-thiolpropionic acid
  19. B-Mercaptoalanine
  20. beta-Mercaptoalanine
  21. Carbocysteine
  22. Cisteina
  23. Cisteinum
  24. Cystein
  25. Cysteine
  26. Cysteinum
  27. Free cysteine
  28. Half-cystine
  29. L Cysteine
  30. L-(+)-Cysteine
  31. L-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoate
  32. L-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid
  33. L-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid
  34. L-Cystein
  35. L-Cysteine
  36. Polycysteine
  37. Thioserine
Chemical FormulaC3H7NO2S
Average Molecular Weight121.158
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight121.019749163
IUPAC Name(2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC NameL-cysteine
CAS Registry Number52-90-4
SMILES
N[C@@H](CS)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H7NO2S/c4-2(1-7)3(5)6/h2,7H,1,4H2,(H,5,6)/t2-/m0/s1
InChI KeyXUJNEKJLAYXESH-REOHCLBHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
ClassAmino Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Common amino acids(KEGG)
  • cysteine zwitterion(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Alkylthiol
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
  • Thiol (Sulfanyl Compound)
Direct ParentAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Methionine metabolism
  • Component of Nitrogen metabolism
  • Component of Selenoamino acid metabolism
  • Component of Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point220 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility277 mg/mL at 25 °CBEILSTEIN
LogP-2.49HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility23.1 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS-0.72ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)2.35ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)9.05ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count3ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count3ChemAxon
polar surface area63.32ChemAxon
rotatable bond count2ChemAxon
refractivity28.22ChemAxon
polarizability11.46ChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Cysteine MetabolismSMP00013map00270
Glutathione MetabolismSMP00015map00480
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Methionine MetabolismSMP00033map00270
Pantothenate and CoA BiosynthesisSMP00027map00770
Taurine and Hypotaurine MetabolismSMP00021map00430
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified197.00 +/- 56.00 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified131.00 +/- 40.00 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified210.00 +/- 40.00 uMChildren (1-13 year old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified212.00 +/- 23.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified52.0 (41.0-63.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified33.5 +/- 10.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.054 (0.017-0.108) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified3.322 (1.447-5.197) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    UrineDetected and Quantified30.32 +/- 24.58 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    UrineDetected and Quantified81.0 (36.7-147.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
    UrineDetected and Quantified32.00 +/- 10.00 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    UrineDetected and Quantified28.00 +/- 9.00 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 year old)BothNormal
    UrineDetected and Quantified34.4 +/- 11.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal
    UrineDetected and Quantified33.4 +/- 15.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    UrineDetected and Quantified65.8 (23.1-134.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
    UrineDetected and Quantified14.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
    BloodDetected and Quantified0.355 (0.157-1.146) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedMultiple sclerosis
    BloodDetected and Quantified0.420 (0.154-0.874) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedStroke
    BloodDetected and Quantified0.415 (0.199-1.038) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPeripheral neuropathy
    BloodDetected and Quantified0.491 (0.247-1.764) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedDementia (Alzheimer's and non-Alzheimer's)
    BloodDetected and Quantified13.0 (10.0-16.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAIDS
    BloodDetected and Quantified12.81 +/- 2.17 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's Disease
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.042 (0.022-0.10) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedMultiple sclerosis
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.048 (0.018-0.10) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedStroke
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.034 (0.018-0.075) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPeripheral neuropathy
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.047 (0.025-0.125) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedDementia (Alzheimer's and non-Alzheimer's)
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    AIDS
    • Naisbitt DJ, Vilar FJ, Stalford AC, Wilkins EG, Pirmohamed M, Park BK: Plasma cysteine deficiency and decreased reduction of nitrososulfamethoxazole with HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000 Dec 10;16(18):1929-38. Pubmed: 11153075
    Dementia
    • Obeid R, Kasoha M, Knapp JP, Kostopoulos P, Becker G, Fassbender K, Herrmann W: Folate and methylation status in relation to phosphorylated tau protein(181P) and beta-amyloid(1-42) in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 2007 Jun;53(6):1129-36. Epub 2007 Mar 23. Pubmed: 17384003
    Multiple sclerosis
    • Obeid R, Kasoha M, Knapp JP, Kostopoulos P, Becker G, Fassbender K, Herrmann W: Folate and methylation status in relation to phosphorylated tau protein(181P) and beta-amyloid(1-42) in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 2007 Jun;53(6):1129-36. Epub 2007 Mar 23. Pubmed: 17384003
    Peripheral neuropathy
    • Obeid R, Kasoha M, Knapp JP, Kostopoulos P, Becker G, Fassbender K, Herrmann W: Folate and methylation status in relation to phosphorylated tau protein(181P) and beta-amyloid(1-42) in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 2007 Jun;53(6):1129-36. Epub 2007 Mar 23. Pubmed: 17384003
    Stroke
    • Obeid R, Kasoha M, Knapp JP, Kostopoulos P, Becker G, Fassbender K, Herrmann W: Folate and methylation status in relation to phosphorylated tau protein(181P) and beta-amyloid(1-42) in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 2007 Jun;53(6):1129-36. Epub 2007 Mar 23. Pubmed: 17384003
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDDB00151
    DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00503
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB012678
    KNApSAcK IDC00001351
    Chemspider ID5653
    KEGG Compound IDNot Available
    BioCyc IDCYS
    BiGG ID33843
    Wikipedia LinkL-Cysteine
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00574
    Metagene LinkHMDB00574
    METLIN ID5556
    PubChem Compound5862
    PDB IDCYS
    ChEBI ID17561
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceKumagai, Hidehiko; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Sejima, Shunsuke; Yamada, Hideaki. Elimination and replacement reactions of b-chloro-L-alanine by cysteine desulfhydrase from Aerobacter aerogenes. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry (1977), 41(10), 2071-5.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
    General References
    1. Yu FH, Westenbroek RE, Silos-Santiago I, McCormick KA, Lawson D, Ge P, Ferriera H, Lilly J, DiStefano PS, Catterall WA, Scheuer T, Curtis R: Sodium channel beta4, a new disulfide-linked auxiliary subunit with similarity to beta2. J Neurosci. 2003 Aug 20;23(20):7577-85. Pubmed: 12930796
    2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
    3. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. Pubmed: 6696735
    4. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216
    5. Kersemans V, Cornelissen B, Kersemans K, Bauwens M, Achten E, Dierckx RA, Mertens J, Slegers G: In vivo characterization of 123/125I-2-iodo-L-phenylalanine in an R1M rhabdomyosarcoma athymic mouse model as a potential tumor tracer for SPECT. J Nucl Med. 2005 Mar;46(3):532-9. Pubmed: 15750170
    6. Sandmann J, Schwedhelm KS, Tsikas D: Specific transport of S-nitrosocysteine in human red blood cells: Implications for formation of S-nitrosothiols and transport of NO bioactivity within the vasculature. FEBS Lett. 2005 Aug 1;579(19):4119-24. Pubmed: 16023102
    7. Paivalainen S, Suokas M, Lahti O, Heape AM: Degraded myelin-associated glycoprotein (dMAG) formation from pure human brain myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is not mediated by calpain or cathepsin L-like activities. J Neurochem. 2003 Feb;84(3):533-45. Pubmed: 12558973
    8. Iyer S, Leonidas DD, Swaminathan GJ, Maglione D, Battisti M, Tucci M, Persico MG, Acharya KR: The crystal structure of human placenta growth factor-1 (PlGF-1), an angiogenic protein, at 2.0 A resolution. J Biol Chem. 2001 Apr 13;276(15):12153-61. Epub 2000 Nov 7. Pubmed: 11069911
    9. Nishiya Y, Yoshida Y, Yoshimura M, Fukamachi H, Nakano Y: Homogeneous enzymatic assay for L-cysteine with betaC-S lyase. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Nov;69(11):2244-6. Pubmed: 16306712
    10. Santamaria I, Velasco G, Cazorla M, Fueyo A, Campo E, Lopez-Otin C: Cathepsin L2, a novel human cysteine proteinase produced by breast and colorectal carcinomas. Cancer Res. 1998 Apr 15;58(8):1624-30. Pubmed: 9563472
    11. Eriksson A, Tohonen V, Wedell A, Nordqvist K: Isolation of the human testatin gene and analysis in patients with abnormal gonadal development. Mol Hum Reprod. 2002 Jan;8(1):8-15. Pubmed: 11756564
    12. Kaminska J, Wisniewska A, Koscielak J: Chemical modifications of alpha1,6-fucosyltransferase define amino acid residues of catalytic importance. Biochimie. 2003 Mar-Apr;85(3-4):303-10. Pubmed: 12770769
    13. Li Y, Gamper N, Shapiro MS: Single-channel analysis of KCNQ K+ channels reveals the mechanism of augmentation by a cysteine-modifying reagent. J Neurosci. 2004 Jun 2;24(22):5079-90. Pubmed: 15175377
    14. Lindzen M, Gottschalk KE, Fuzesi M, Garty H, Karlish SJ: Structural interactions between FXYD proteins and Na+,K+-ATPase: alpha/beta/FXYD subunit stoichiometry and cross-linking. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 3;281(9):5947-55. Epub 2005 Dec 21. Pubmed: 16373350
    15. Norris FA, Wilson MP, Wallis TS, Galyov EE, Majerus PW: SopB, a protein required for virulence of Salmonella dublin, is an inositol phosphate phosphatase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Nov 24;95(24):14057-9. Pubmed: 9826652
    16. Foss CA, Mease RC, Fan H, Wang Y, Ravert HT, Dannals RF, Olszewski RT, Heston WD, Kozikowski AP, Pomper MG: Radiolabeled small-molecule ligands for prostate-specific membrane antigen: in vivo imaging in experimental models of prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Jun 1;11(11):4022-8. Pubmed: 15930336
    17. Kozaki K, Miyaishi O, Asai N, Iida K, Sakata K, Hayashi M, Nishida T, Matsuyama M, Shimizu S, Kaneda T, et al.: Tissue distribution of ERp61 and association of its increased expression with IgG production in hybridoma cells. Exp Cell Res. 1994 Aug;213(2):348-58. Pubmed: 8050492
    18. Amberger VR, Hensel T, Ogata N, Schwab ME: Spreading and migration of human glioma and rat C6 cells on central nervous system myelin in vitro is correlated with tumor malignancy and involves a metalloproteolytic activity. Cancer Res. 1998 Jan 1;58(1):149-58. Pubmed: 9426071
    19. Zhang JT, Li QX, Wang D, Zhu ZL, Yang YH, Cui DS, Wang MW, Sun XF: Up-regulation of PINCH in the stroma of oral squamous cell carcinoma predicts nodal metastasis. Oncol Rep. 2005 Dec;14(6):1519-22. Pubmed: 16273248
    20. Taveau M, Bourg N, Sillon G, Roudaut C, Bartoli M, Richard I: Calpain 3 is activated through autolysis within the active site and lyses sarcomeric and sarcolemmal components. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Dec;23(24):9127-35. Pubmed: 14645524
    21. Naisbitt DJ, Vilar FJ, Stalford AC, Wilkins EG, Pirmohamed M, Park BK: Plasma cysteine deficiency and decreased reduction of nitrososulfamethoxazole with HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000 Dec 10;16(18):1929-38. Pubmed: 11153075
    22. Baker DH, Czarnecki-Maulden GL: Pharmacologic role of cysteine in ameliorating or exacerbating mineral toxicities. J Nutr. 1987 Jun;117(6):1003-10. Pubmed: 3298579
    23. Bulaj G, Kortemme T, Goldenberg DP: Ionization-reactivity relationships for cysteine thiols in polypeptides. Biochemistry. 1998 Jun 23;37(25):8965-72. Pubmed: 9636038

    Enzymes

    Gene Name:
    GOT1
    Uniprot ID:
    P17174
    Reactions
    L-Cysteine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 3-Mercaptopyruvic acid + DL-Glutamatedetails
    Gene Name:
    GOT2
    Uniprot ID:
    P00505
    Reactions
    L-Cysteine + Oxoglutaric acid unknown 3-Mercaptopyruvic acid + DL-Glutamatedetails
    Gene Name:
    ANPEP
    Uniprot ID:
    P15144
    Reactions
    Cysteinylglycine + Water unknown L-Cysteine + Glycinedetails
    Gene Name:
    GCLC
    Uniprot ID:
    P48506
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Cysteine unknown ADP + Phosphoric acid + Gamma-Glutamylcysteinedetails
    Gene Name:
    CTH
    Uniprot ID:
    P32929
    Reactions
    L-Cystathionine + Water unknown L-Cysteine + Ammonia + 2-Ketobutyric aciddetails
    L-Cysteine + Water unknown Hydrogen sulfide + Pyruvic acid + Ammoniadetails
    Gene Name:
    QPCT
    Uniprot ID:
    Q16769
    Gene Name:
    CBS
    Uniprot ID:
    P35520
    Reactions
    L-Serine + Hydrogen sulfide unknown L-Cysteine + Waterdetails
    Gene Name:
    GSS
    Uniprot ID:
    P48637
    Gene Name:
    LAP3
    Uniprot ID:
    P28838
    Reactions
    Cysteinylglycine + Water unknown L-Cysteine + Glycinedetails
    Gene Name:
    CSAD
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9Y600
    Gene Name:
    CDO1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q16878
    Reactions
    L-Cysteine + Oxygen unknown 3-Sulfinoalaninedetails
    Gene Name:
    NFS1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9Y697
    Reactions
    L-Cysteine + acceptor unknown L-Alanine + S-sulfanyl-acceptordetails
    [Enzyme]-cysteine + L-Cysteine unknown [Enzyme]-S-sulfanylcysteine + L-Alaninedetails
    Gene Name:
    PPCS
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9HAB8
    Reactions
    Cytidine triphosphate + D-4'-Phosphopantothenate + L-Cysteine unknown Cytidine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + N-((R)-4'-phosphopantothenoyl)-L-cysteinedetails
    Adenosine triphosphate + D-4'-Phosphopantothenate + L-Cysteine unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + 4-Phosphopantothenoylcysteinedetails
    Cytidine triphosphate + D-4'-Phosphopantothenate + L-Cysteine unknown Cytidine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + 4-Phosphopantothenoylcysteinedetails
    Gene Name:
    SLC3A2
    Uniprot ID:
    P08195
    Gene Name:
    SLC19A3
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9BZV2
    Gene Name:
    CARS2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9HA77
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Cysteine + tRNA(Cys) unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-cysteinyl-tRNA(Cys)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Cysteine + tRNA(Cys) unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Cysteinyl-tRNA(Cys)details
    Gene Name:
    PCYOX1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UHG3
    Reactions
    An S-prenyl-L-cysteine + Oxygen + Water unknown a prenal + L-Cysteine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Farnesylcysteine + Oxygen + Water unknown 2-trans,6-trans-Farnesal + L-Cysteine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
    Gene Name:
    MOCOS
    Uniprot ID:
    Q96EN8
    Reactions
    Molybdopterin + L-Cysteine + Hydrogen Ion unknown thio-molybdenum cofactor + L-Alanine + Waterdetails
    Gene Name:
    CARS
    Uniprot ID:
    P49589
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Cysteine + tRNA(Cys) unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-cysteinyl-tRNA(Cys)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Cysteine + tRNA(Cys) unknown Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Cysteinyl-tRNA(Cys)details
    Gene Name:
    GGCT
    Uniprot ID:
    O75223
    Reactions
    Gamma-Glutamylcysteine unknown Pyroglutamic acid + L-Cysteinedetails
    Gene Name:
    CDO-1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q16857

    Transporters

    Gene Name:
    SLC16A10
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8TF71