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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-15 22:07:35 UTC
Update Date2017-12-20 20:33:01 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000588
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00588
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSodium
DescriptionSodium ions are necessary for regulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Sodium is needed by animals, which maintain high concentrations in their blood and extracellular fluids, but the ion is not needed by plants. The human requirement for sodium in the diet is less than 500 mg per day, which is typically less than a tenth as much as many diets "seasoned to taste." Most people consume far more sodium than is physiologically needed. For certain people with salt-sensitive blood pressure, this extra intake may cause a negative effect on health.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Na(+)ChEBI
Na+ChEBI
SODIUM ionChEBI
Chemical FormulaNa
Average Molecular Weight22.9898
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight22.989769675
IUPAC Namesodium(1+) ion
Traditional Namesodium(1+) ion
CAS Registry Number7440-23-5
SMILES
[Na+]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Na/q+1
InChI KeyFKNQFGJONOIPTF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as homogeneous alkali metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkali metal atom.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassInorganic compounds
ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
Sub ClassHomogeneous alkali metal compounds
Direct ParentHomogeneous alkali metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous alkali metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Organ and components:

  Cell and elements:

Source:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Biochemical pathway:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point97.82 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.77ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-25bf08b0ab99f8116a31View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-25bf08b0ab99f8116a31View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-25bf08b0ab99f8116a31View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-fba837e9c7559de06780View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-fba837e9c7559de06780View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-fba837e9c7559de06780View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
3-Methylthiofentanyl Action PathwayPw000656Pw000656 greyscalePw000656 simpleNot Available
Acebutolol Action PathwayPw000364Pw000364 greyscalePw000364 simpleNot Available
Alfentanil Action PathwayPw000419Pw000419 greyscalePw000419 simpleNot Available
Alprenolol Action PathwayPw000365Pw000365 greyscalePw000365 simpleNot Available
Alvimopan Action PathwayPw000662Pw000662 greyscalePw000662 simpleNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified144000.0 +/- 5700.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified139100.0 +/- 2020.0 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified142600.0 (138000.0-146000.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified135000-145000 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified135000-145000 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified109788 +/- 10048 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified145000.0 (137000.0 - 153000.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified16369.0203 +/- 14797.0167 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified36371.396 +/- 22633.546 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified45250 +/- 17410 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified20250 +/- 2770 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified12347.23 +/- 6902.57 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified32000 +/- 20000 uMNot SpecifiedBoth
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12477 (1863.49-37249.07) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified14736.8 (5263.15-36842.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified8466.667 +/- 2866.667 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified8733.333 +/- 2200 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified9066.667 +/- 3933.333 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified11000 +/- 3600 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified11533.333 +/- 2866.667 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified9079.00 +/- 329.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10789.00 +/- 394.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified138000-139000 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Primary Hypomagnesemia
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5045.716-6408.639 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Primary Hypomagnesemia
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003523
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID899
KEGG Compound IDC01330
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID37376
Wikipedia LinkSodium
METLIN ID3192
PubChem Compound923
PDB IDNA
ChEBI ID29101
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Fox CS, Larson MG, Hwang SJ, Leip EP, Rifai N, Levy D, Benjamin EJ, Murabito JM, Meigs JB, Vasan RS: Cross-sectional relations of serum aldosterone and urine sodium excretion to urinary albumin excretion in a community-based sample. Kidney Int. 2006 Jun;69(11):2064-9. [PubMed:16572107 ]
  2. Felder RA, Jose PA: Mechanisms of disease: the role of GRK4 in the etiology of essential hypertension and salt sensitivity. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2006 Nov;2(11):637-50. [PubMed:17066056 ]
  3. Achard JM, Hadchouel J, Faure S, Jeunemaitre X: Inherited sodium avid states. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2006 Apr;13(2):118-23. [PubMed:16580612 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 196 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in acid-amino acid ligase activity
Specific function:
Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. In vitro catalyzes 'Lys-11'- and 'Lys-48'-, as well as 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination. Participates in the regulation of transepithelial sodium transport in renal cells. May be involved in cell growth arrest.
Gene Name:
UBE2E3
Uniprot ID:
Q969T4
Molecular weight:
22912.32
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Modulates intracellular glucocorticoid levels, thus protecting the nonselective mineralocorticoid receptor from occupation by glucocorticoids.
Gene Name:
HSD11B2
Uniprot ID:
P80365
Molecular weight:
44126.06
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Hyperpolarization-activated ion channel exhibiting weak selectivity for potassium over sodium ions. Contributes to the native pacemaker currents in heart (If) and in neurons (Ih). Activated by cAMP, and at 10-100 times higher concentrations, also by cGMP. May mediate responses to sour stimuli
Gene Name:
HCN1
Uniprot ID:
O60741
Molecular weight:
98795.3
General function:
Involved in sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity
Specific function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-3 subunit is not known
Gene Name:
ATP1B3
Uniprot ID:
P54709
Molecular weight:
31512.3
General function:
Involved in sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity
Specific function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-2 subunit is not known
Gene Name:
ATP1B2
Uniprot ID:
P14415
Molecular weight:
33366.9
General function:
Involved in sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity
Specific function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane
Gene Name:
ATP1B1
Uniprot ID:
P05026
Molecular weight:
35061.1
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
Protein kinase that plays an important role in cellular stress response. Activates certain potassium, sodium, and chloride channels, suggesting an involvement in the regulation of processes such as cell survival, neuronal excitability and renal sodium excretion. Sustained high levels and activity may contribute to conditions such as hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. Mediates cell survival signals, phosphorylates and negatively regulates pro-apoptotic FOXO3A. Phosphorylates NEDD4L, which leads to its inactivation and to the subsequent activation of various channels and transporters such as ENaC, KCNA3/Kv1.3 or EAAT1. Isoform 2 exhibited a greater effect on cell plasma membrane expression of ENaC and Na(+) transport than isoform 1
Gene Name:
SGK1
Uniprot ID:
O00141
Molecular weight:
48942.0
General function:
Involved in sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity
Specific function:
May act as a transcriptional coregulator during muscle development through its interaction with SNW1. Has lost its ancestral function as a Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit
Gene Name:
ATP1B4
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN42
Molecular weight:
41597.4
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P05023
Molecular weight:
112895.01
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A3
Uniprot ID:
P13637
Molecular weight:
113132.965

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular weight:
62751.1
General function:
Involved in sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific function:
Has a broad substrate specificity, a preference for zwitterionic amino acids, and a sodium-dependence. It accepts as substrates all neutral amino acids, including glutamine, asparagine, and branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, and excludes methylated amino acids, anionic amino acids, and cationic amino acids. Act as a cell surface receptor for feline endogenous virus RD114, baboon M7 endogenous virus and type D simian retroviruses
Gene Name:
SLC1A5
Uniprot ID:
Q15758
Molecular weight:
56597.6
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular weight:
69331.42
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular weight:
70324.165
General function:
Involved in nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates both influx and efflux of nucleosides across the membrane (equilibrative transporter). It is sensitive (ES) to low concentrations of the inhibitor nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR) and is sodium-independent. It has a higher affinity for adenosine. Inhibited by dipyridamole and dilazep (anticancer chemotherapeutics drugs)
Gene Name:
SLC29A1
Uniprot ID:
Q99808
Molecular weight:
50218.8
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Imports choline from the extracellular space to the neuron with high affinity. Choline uptake is the rate-limiting step in acetylcholine synthesis. Sodium ion- and chloride ion-dependent.
Gene Name:
SLC5A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZV3
Molecular weight:
63202.985
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Has higher affinity for L-phenylalanine than LAT1 but lower affinity for glutamine and serine. L-alanine is transported at physiological concentrations. Plays a role in basolateral (re)absorption of neutral amino acids. Involved in the uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) when administered as the L-cysteine or D,L-homocysteine complexes, and hence plays a role in metal ion homeostasis and toxicity. Involved in the cellular activity of small molecular weight nitrosothiols, via the stereoselective transport of L-nitrosocysteine (L-CNSO) across the transmembrane. Plays an essential role in the reabsorption of neutral amino acids from the epithelial cells to the bloodstream in the kidney
Gene Name:
SLC7A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHI5
Molecular weight:
58381.1
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET)
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular weight:
62154.5
General function:
Involved in bile acid:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Plays a critical role in the sodium-dependent reabsorption of bile acids from the lumen of the small intestine. Plays a key role in cholesterol metabolism
Gene Name:
SLC10A2
Uniprot ID:
Q12908
Molecular weight:
37697.4
General function:
Involved in bile acid:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presence of sodium.
Gene Name:
SLC10A1
Uniprot ID:
Q14973
Molecular weight:
38118.64

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 196 proteins in total.