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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-12-08 23:24:51 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0029562
  • HMDB00594
  • HMDB29562
Metabolite Identification
Common Namegamma-Glutamylphenylalanine
Descriptiongamma-Glutamylphenylalanine is a dipeptide composed of gamma-glutamate and phenylalanine, and is a proteolytic breakdown product of larger proteins. It is probably formed by transpeptidation between glutathione and the corresponding amino acid, catalyzed by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (PMID: 237763 ). gamma-Glutamylphenylalanine belongs to the family of N-acyl-alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing an alpha amino acid which bears an acyl group at its terminal nitrogen atom. gamma-Glutamylphenylalanine is an incomplete breakdown product of protein digestion or protein catabolism. Some dipeptides are known to have physiological or cell-signaling effects although most are simply short-lived intermediates on their way to specific amino acid degradation pathways following further proteolysis. It can be detected in the urine of patients with phenylketonuria, which is a human genetic disorder due to the lack of phenylalanine hydroxylase to metabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine (Wikipedia). gamma-Glutamylphenylalanine is found in adzuki bean, onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum), and soybean.
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC14H18N2O5
Average Molecular Weight294.3031
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight294.121571696
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-4-{[(1S)-1-carboxy-2-phenylethyl]carbamoyl}butanoic acid
Traditional Namegamma-glutamylphenylalanine
CAS Registry Number7432-24-8
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Health condition:


Biological Location:


  Biofluid and excreta:

  Organ and components:



Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Biochemical pathway:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.61 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.31ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area129.72 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity73.2 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability29.7 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9350000000-cee136a59eda9bbc48b1View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00fu-9633100000-04cb3c5e9af1918fedf0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-3c15b0ec8b0aa7b4f562View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01ot-1490000000-8a194f7de818cb11e47bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03xs-2960000000-8471d66cf80c273476e9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9200000000-cee53e3b344fef2f519eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0290000000-f75848c2ae5c1246f8d8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0035-1790000000-fd452e6dee821306584bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-02fx-9500000000-9ba84b5fd475503d8cd7View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified43.00 (8.00-78.00) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothPhenylketonuria details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000716
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID99868
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
PubChem Compound111299
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID89582
Synthesis ReferenceBodnaryk, Robert P. Preparative-scale enzymic synthesis of g-L-glutamyl-L-phenylalanine. Insect Biochemistry (1972), 2(1), 49-52.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Peck H, Pollitt RJ: The occurrence of gamma-glutamylphenylalanine in the urine of newborn phenylketonurics. Clin Chim Acta. 1979 Jun 15;94(3):237-40. [PubMed:466810 ]
  2. Bridges RJ, Meister A: gamma-Glutamyl amino acids. Transport and conversion to 5-oxoproline in the kidney. J Biol Chem. 1985 Jun 25;260(12):7304-8. [PubMed:3997870 ]
  3. Orlowski M, Wilk S: Intermediates of the gamma-glutamyl cycle in mouse tissues. Influence of administration of amino acids on pyrrolidone carboxylate and gamma-glutamyl amino acids. Eur J Biochem. 1975 May 6;53(2):581-90. [PubMed:237763 ]
  4. Kamerling JP, Aarsen GJ, Duran M, de Bree PK, van Sprang FJ, Wadman SK: Chromatographic determination and mass spectrometric identification of gamma-glutamylphenylalanine, a urinary constituent in phenylketonuria. Clin Chim Acta. 1980 Mar 28;102(2-3):137-45. [PubMed:7371187 ]
  5. Lawson LD, Gardner CD: Composition, stability, and bioavailability of garlic products used in a clinical trial. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Aug 10;53(16):6254-61. [PubMed:16076102 ]
  6. Jandke J, Spiteller G: Dipeptide analysis in human urine. J Chromatogr. 1986 Oct 31;382:39-45. [PubMed:3782411 ]
  7. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  8. (). Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.. .