Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:27:55 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00595
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHydrogen carbonate
DescriptionBicarbonate, or hydrogen carbonate, is a simple single carbon molecule that plays surprisingly important roles in diverse biological processes. Among these are photosynthesis, the Krebs cycle, whole-body and cellular pH regulation, and volume regulation. Since bicarbonate is charged it is not permeable to lipid bilayers. Mammalian membranes thus contain bicarbonate transport proteins to facilitate the specific transmembrane movement of HCO3(-). Bicarbonate ion is an anion that consists of one central carbon atom surrounded by three oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement, with a hydrogen atom attached to one of the oxygens. The bicarbonate ion carries a negative one formal charge and is the conjugate base of carbonic acid, H2CO3. The carbonate radical is an elusive and strong one-electron oxidant. Bicarbonate in equilibrium with carbon dioxide constitutes the main physiological buffer. The bicarbonate-carbon dioxide pair stimulates the oxidation, peroxidation and nitration of several biological targets. The demonstration that the carbonate radical existed as an independent species in aqueous solutions at physiological pH and temperature renewed the interest in the pathophysiological roles of this radical and related species. The carbonate radical has been proposed to be a key mediator of the oxidative damage resulting from peroxynitrite production, xanthine oxidase turnover and superoxide dismutase1 peroxidase activity. The carbonate radical has also been proposed to be responsible for the stimulatory effects of the bicarbonate-carbon dioxide pair on oxidations mediated by hydrogen peroxide/transition metal ions. The ultimate precursor of the carbonate radical anion being bicarbonate, carbon dioxide, peroxymonocarbonate or complexes of transition metal ions with bicarbonate-derived species remains a matter of debate. The carbonate radical mediates some of the pathogenic effects of peroxynitrite. The carbonate radical as the oxidant produced from superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1, SOD1) peroxidase activity. Peroxymonocarbonate is a biological oxidant, whose existence is in equilibrium with hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate. (PMID: 17505962 , 17215880 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Bicarbonate
  2. Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
  3. Bicarbonate anion
  4. Bicarbonate ion
  5. Bicarbonate ion (HCO31-)
  6. Bicarbonate ions
  7. Carbonate
  8. Carbonate (HCO31-)
  9. Carbonate ion (HCO31-)
  10. Carbonic acid
  11. Hydrocarbonate(1-)
  12. Hydrogen carbonate
  13. Hydrogen carbonate (HCO3-)
  14. Hydrogen carbonate anion
  15. Hydrogen carbonate ion
  16. Hydrogen carbonate ion (HCO3-)
  17. Hydrogencarbonate
  18. Hydrogentrioxocarbonate
  19. Monohydrogen carbonate
Chemical FormulaCHO3
Average Molecular Weight61.0168
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight60.992568898
IUPAC Namehydrogen carbonate
Traditional IUPAC Namebicarbonate
CAS Registry Number71-52-3
SMILES
OC([O-])=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/CH2O3/c2-1(3)4/h(H2,2,3,4)/p-1
InChI KeyBVKZGUZCCUSVTD-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassOrganic Carbonic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • an anion(Cyc)
  • carbon oxoanion(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentOrganic Carbonic Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point720 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility12.8 mg/mL (cold water)MERCK INDEX (1996)
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility732 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.2ALOGPS
logP0.25ChemAxon
logS0.97ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)6.05ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count3ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
polar surface area60.36ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity20.34ChemAxon
polarizability3.86ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Citric Acid CycleSMP00057map00020
Threonine and 2-Oxobutanoate DegradationSMP00452Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059map00330
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified24900.0 +/- 1790.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified24700.0 +/- 1200.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified23100.0 +/- 1500.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleCommentNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified20000.0 (15500.0-22500.0) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified25500.00 (24000.00-27000.00) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified11200 +/- 150 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified10000 +/- 1000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified7600 +/- 1600 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified13600.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDiabetic ketoacidosis
BloodDetected and Quantified12000.00 (10000.00-14000.00) uMChildren (1-13 year old)BothHawkinsinuria
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Hawkinsinuria
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022134
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID749
KEGG Compound IDC00288
BioCyc IDHCO3
BiGG ID34509
Wikipedia LinkBicarbonate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00595
Metagene LinkHMDB00595
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound769
PDB IDBCT
ChEBI ID17544
References
Synthesis ReferenceNakajima, Fumiaki; Arima, Toshikazu; Kikuchi, Shintaro; Hirano, Hachiro. Production of alkaline hydrogen carbonate. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (2005), 15 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Medinas DB, Cerchiaro G, Trindade DF, Augusto O: The carbonate radical and related oxidants derived from bicarbonate buffer. IUBMB Life. 2007 Apr-May;59(4-5):255-62. Pubmed: 17505962
  2. Casey JR: Why bicarbonate? Biochem Cell Biol. 2006 Dec;84(6):930-9. Pubmed: 17215880

Enzymes

Gene Name:
CEL
Uniprot ID:
P19835
Gene Name:
LTF
Uniprot ID:
P02788
Gene Name:
TF
Uniprot ID:
P02787
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Gene Name:
SLC26A3
Uniprot ID:
P40879
Gene Name:
ADCY10
Uniprot ID:
Q96PN6
Gene Name:
SLC26A9
Uniprot ID:
Q7LBE3
Gene Name:
SLC26A7
Uniprot ID:
Q8TE54
Gene Name:
BEST1
Uniprot ID:
O76090
Gene Name:
BEST2
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFU1
Gene Name:
BEST3
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1M1
Gene Name:
BEST4
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFU0
Gene Name:
SLC26A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8NG04
Gene Name:
SLC26A5
Uniprot ID:
P58743
Gene Name:
SLC9A10
Uniprot ID:
Q4G0N8

Transporters

Gene Name:
SLC4A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6M7