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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:27:55 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00595
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHydrogen carbonate
DescriptionBicarbonate, or hydrogen carbonate, is a simple single carbon molecule that plays surprisingly important roles in diverse biological processes. Among these are photosynthesis, the Krebs cycle, whole-body and cellular pH regulation, and volume regulation. Since bicarbonate is charged it is not permeable to lipid bilayers. Mammalian membranes thus contain bicarbonate transport proteins to facilitate the specific transmembrane movement of HCO3(-). Bicarbonate ion is an anion that consists of one central carbon atom surrounded by three oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement, with a hydrogen atom attached to one of the oxygens. The bicarbonate ion carries a negative one formal charge and is the conjugate base of carbonic acid, H2CO3. The carbonate radical is an elusive and strong one-electron oxidant. Bicarbonate in equilibrium with carbon dioxide constitutes the main physiological buffer. The bicarbonate-carbon dioxide pair stimulates the oxidation, peroxidation and nitration of several biological targets. The demonstration that the carbonate radical existed as an independent species in aqueous solutions at physiological pH and temperature renewed the interest in the pathophysiological roles of this radical and related species. The carbonate radical has been proposed to be a key mediator of the oxidative damage resulting from peroxynitrite production, xanthine oxidase turnover and superoxide dismutase1 peroxidase activity. The carbonate radical has also been proposed to be responsible for the stimulatory effects of the bicarbonate-carbon dioxide pair on oxidations mediated by hydrogen peroxide/transition metal ions. The ultimate precursor of the carbonate radical anion being bicarbonate, carbon dioxide, peroxymonocarbonate or complexes of transition metal ions with bicarbonate-derived species remains a matter of debate. The carbonate radical mediates some of the pathogenic effects of peroxynitrite. The carbonate radical as the oxidant produced from superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1, SOD1) peroxidase activity. Peroxymonocarbonate is a biological oxidant, whose existence is in equilibrium with hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate. (PMID: 17505962 , 17215880 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Bicarbonate
  2. Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
  3. Bicarbonate anion
  4. Bicarbonate ion
  5. Bicarbonate ion (HCO31-)
  6. Bicarbonate ions
  7. Carbonate
  8. Carbonate (HCO31-)
  9. Carbonate ion (HCO31-)
  10. Carbonic acid
  11. Hydrocarbonate(1-)
  12. Hydrogen carbonate
  13. Hydrogen carbonate (HCO3-)
  14. Hydrogen carbonate anion
  15. Hydrogen carbonate ion
  16. Hydrogen carbonate ion (HCO3-)
  17. Hydrogencarbonate
  18. Hydrogentrioxocarbonate
  19. Monohydrogen carbonate
Chemical FormulaCHO3
Average Molecular Weight61.0168
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight60.992568898
IUPAC Namehydrogen carbonate
Traditional IUPAC Namebicarbonate
CAS Registry Number71-52-3
SMILES
OC([O-])=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/CH2O3/c2-1(3)4/h(H2,2,3,4)/p-1
InChI KeyBVKZGUZCCUSVTD-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassOrganic Carbonic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • an anion(Cyc)
  • carbon oxoanion(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentOrganic Carbonic Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point720 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility12.8 mg/mL (cold water)MERCK INDEX (1996)
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility732 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.2ALOGPS
logP0.25ChemAxon
logS0.97ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area60.36ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity20.34ChemAxon
Polarizability3.86ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Citric Acid CycleSMP00057map00020
Threonine and 2-Oxobutanoate DegradationSMP00452Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059map00330
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified24900.0 +/- 1790.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified24700.0 +/- 1200.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified23100.0 +/- 1500.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified20000.0 (15500.0-22500.0) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified25500.00 (24000.00-27000.00) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified11200 +/- 150 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified10000 +/- 1000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified7600 +/- 1600 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified13600.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDiabetic ketoacidosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified12000.00 (10000.00-14000.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothHawkinsinuria details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Hawkinsinuria
  1. MetaGene
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022134
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID749
KEGG Compound IDC00288
BioCyc IDHCO3
BiGG ID34509
Wikipedia LinkBicarbonate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00595
Metagene LinkHMDB00595
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound769
PDB IDBCT
ChEBI ID17544
References
Synthesis ReferenceNakajima, Fumiaki; Arima, Toshikazu; Kikuchi, Shintaro; Hirano, Hachiro. Production of alkaline hydrogen carbonate. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (2005), 15 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Medinas DB, Cerchiaro G, Trindade DF, Augusto O: The carbonate radical and related oxidants derived from bicarbonate buffer. IUBMB Life. 2007 Apr-May;59(4-5):255-62. Pubmed: 17505962
  2. Casey JR: Why bicarbonate? Biochem Cell Biol. 2006 Dec;84(6):930-9. Pubmed: 17215880

Enzymes

General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes fat and vitamin absorption. Acts in concert with pancreatic lipase and colipase for the complete digestion of dietary triglycerides.
Gene Name:
CEL
Uniprot ID:
P19835
Molecular weight:
79666.385
General function:
Involved in inositol or phosphatidylinositol phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Converts phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. Also converts inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate to inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. May function in lysosomal membrane trafficking by regulating the specific pool of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate that is associated with lysosomes. Involved in primary cilia assembly.
Gene Name:
OCRL
Uniprot ID:
Q01968
Molecular weight:
104203.78
General function:
Involved in ferric iron binding
Specific function:
The lactotransferrin transferrin-like domain 1 functions as a serine protease of the peptidase S60 family that cuts arginine rich regions. This function contributes to the antimicrobial activity
Gene Name:
LTF
Uniprot ID:
P02788
Molecular weight:
78181.2
General function:
Involved in ferric iron binding
Specific function:
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from sites of absorption and heme degradation to those of storage and utilization. Serum transferrin may also have a further role in stimulating cell proliferation
Gene Name:
TF
Uniprot ID:
P02787
Molecular weight:
77049.2
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Involved in the transport of chloride ions. May regulate bicarbonate secretion and salvage in epithelial cells by regulating the SLC4A7 transporter. Can inhibit the chloride channel activity of ANO1.
Gene Name:
CFTR
Uniprot ID:
P13569
Molecular weight:
168139.895
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Molecular weight:
35032.075
General function:
Involved in secondary active sulfate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Chloride/bicarbonate exchanger. Involved in absorbtion of in the colon. Helps mediate electrolyte and fluid absorption
Gene Name:
SLC26A3
Uniprot ID:
P40879
Molecular weight:
84504.0
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
Soluble adenylyl cyclase that has a critical role in mammalian spermatogenesis. Produces the cAMP which mediates in part the cAMP-responsive nuclear factors indispensable for maturation of sperm in the epididymis. Induces capacitation, the maturational process that sperm undergo prior to fertilization. May be the bicarbonate sensor. Involved in ciliary beat regulation.
Gene Name:
ADCY10
Uniprot ID:
Q96PN6
Molecular weight:
169748.45
General function:
Involved in secondary active sulfate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
DIDS- and thiosulfate- sensitive anion exchanger mediating chloride, sulfate and oxalate transport. Mediates chloride/bicarbonate exchange or chloride-independent bicarbonate extrusion thus assuring bicarbonate secretion. Inhibited by ammonium and thiosulfate
Gene Name:
SLC26A9
Uniprot ID:
Q7LBE3
Molecular weight:
86987.5
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Acts as a sodium-independent DIDS-sensitive anion exchanger mediating bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate and oxalate transport. May play a role in the maintenance of the electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis in the kidney, by acting as a distal excretory segment-specific anion exchanger. Plays a major role in gastric acid secretion
Gene Name:
SLC26A7
Uniprot ID:
Q8TE54
Molecular weight:
72212.2
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Forms calcium-sensitive chloride channels. Highly permeable to bicarbonate
Gene Name:
BEST1
Uniprot ID:
O76090
Molecular weight:
67683.1
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Forms calcium-sensitive chloride channels. Permeable to bicarbonate
Gene Name:
BEST2
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFU1
Molecular weight:
57138.4
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Forms calcium-sensitivechloride channels. Permeable to bicarbonate
Gene Name:
BEST3
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1M1
Molecular weight:
76106.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Forms calcium-sensitive chloride channels. Permeable to bicarbonate
Gene Name:
BEST4
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFU0
Molecular weight:
53496.7
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Chloride/bicarbonate exchanger
Gene Name:
SLC26A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8NG04
Molecular weight:
60058.5
General function:
Involved in secondary active sulfate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Motor protein that converts auditory stimuli to length changes in outer hair cells and mediates sound amplification in the mammalian hearing organ. Prestin is a bidirectional voltage- to-force converter, it can operate at microsecond rates. It uses cytoplasmic anions as extrinsic voltage sensors, probably chloride and bicarbonate. After binding to a site with millimolar affinity, these anions are translocated across the membrane in response to changes in the transmembrane voltage. They move towards the extracellular surface following hyperpolarization, and towards the cytoplasmic side in response to depolarization. As a consequence, this translocation triggers conformational changes in the protein that ultimately alter its surface area in the plane of the plasma membrane. The area decreases when the anion is near the cytoplasmic face of the membrane (short state), and increases when the ion has crossed the membrane to the outer surface (long state). So, it acts as an incomplete transporter. It swings anions across the membrane, but does not allow these anions to dissociate and escape to the extracellular space. Salicylate, an inhibitor of outer hair cell motility, acts as competitive antagonist at the prestin anion-binding site
Gene Name:
SLC26A5
Uniprot ID:
P58743
Molecular weight:
81263.0
General function:
Involved in solute:hydrogen antiporter activity
Specific function:
Sperm-specific sodium/hydrogen exchanger involved in intracellular pH regulation of spermatozoa. Required for sperm motility and fertility. Involved in sperm cell hyperactivation, a step needed for sperm motility which is essential late in the preparation of sperm for fertilization. Required for the expression and bicarbonate regulation of the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC)
Gene Name:
SLC9A10
Uniprot ID:
Q4G0N8
Molecular weight:
135204.6

Transporters

General function:
Involved in anion transport
Specific function:
Electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter with a Na(+):HCO3(-) stoichiometry varying from 1:2 to 1:3. May regulate bicarbonate influx/efflux at the basolateral membrane of cells and regulate intracellular pH
Gene Name:
SLC4A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6R1
Molecular weight:
121459.4
General function:
Involved in inorganic anion exchanger activity
Specific function:
Electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter in exchange for intracellular chloride. Plays an important role in regulating intracellular pH
Gene Name:
SLC4A10
Uniprot ID:
Q6U841
Molecular weight:
125945.1
General function:
Involved in anion transport
Specific function:
Electroneutral sodium- and bicarbonate-dependent cotransporter with a Na(+):HCO3(-) 1:1 stoichiometry. Regulates intracellular pH and may play a role in bicarbonate salvage in secretory epithelia. May also have an associated sodium channel activity.
Gene Name:
SLC4A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6M7
Molecular weight:
127358.16
General function:
Involved in anion transport
Specific function:
Mediates sodium- and bicarbonate-dependent electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransport, with a Na(+):HCO3(-) stoichiometry of 2:1. May have a housekeeping function in regulating the pH of tissues in which it is expressed. May play a role in mediating Na(+):HCO3(-) cotransport in hepatocytes and intrahepatic cholangiocytes. Also may be important in protecting the renal paranchyma from alterations in urine pH
Gene Name:
SLC4A5
Uniprot ID:
Q9BY07
Molecular weight:
126254.0