Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Cobalt (HMDB00608)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2006-08-16 02:41:04 -0600
Update Date 2013-05-29 13:27:58 -0600
HMDB ID HMDB00608
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Cobalt
Description Cobalt has a molecular weight of 58.9 and an atomic number of 27. In the Periodic Table, close to other transition metals, it is situated in group 8, together with rhodium and iridium and it can occur in four oxidation states (0, +2, +3 and +4). The +2 and the ground state are the most common. Cobalt occurs in the minerals cobaltite (Co, Fe) AsS, smaltite (CoAs2), and erythrite Co3(AsO4)2.8H2O, and is often associated with nickel, silver, lead, copper, and iron ores, from which it is most frequently obtained as a by-product. Depending on the considered species, cobalt has multiple industrial applications including the production of alloys and hard metal, diamond polishing, drying agents, pigments and catalysts. Hard metal or cemented carbide is a powder metallurgical product consisting of hard, wear-resistant carbide particles bound together (cemented) with a ductile metal binder (i.e. metallic Co) by liquid phase sintering. Tungsten carbide (WC) is produced by mixing tungsten powder with pure carbon powder at high temperature; hereafter WC is mixed with Co powder to which paraffin is added as a binder. Depending on specific requirements related to their use, hard metals might additionally contain small quantities of chromium, niobium, molybdenum, titanium, tantalum or vanadium carbides. Inhalation and skin contact are the main occupational exposure routes. Occupational exposure to cobalt may result in adverse health effects in different organs or tissues, including the respiratory tract, the skin, the hemapoietic tissues, the myocardium or the thyroid gland. In addition, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects have been observed in experimental systems and/or in humans. For the general population, the diet constitutes the main route of exposure to cobalt, since it is an essential component of Vitamin B12 (hydroxycolalamin). Cobalt functions as a co-factor in enzyme catalysed reactions and is involved in the production of erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates the formation of erythrocytes. This last property of cobalt was applied in the past as a therapy for anaemia. The carcinogenic potential of cobalt and its compounds was evaluated in 1991 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which concluded that there was inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity in humans (lung cancer) but sufficient evidence in experimental animal studies. In most experimental studies considered, the routes of exposure were, however, of questionable relevance for cancer risk assessment in humans for example, local sarcomas after intra-muscular injection. The general conclusion was that cobalt and its compounds are possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B). Since this evaluation, additional data have been accumulated which generally indicate that, depending on the considered cobalt species, different outcomes regarding toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity can be observed. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Co(II) ions are genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and carcinogenic in rodents. Co metal is genotoxic in vitro. Hard metal dust, of which occupational exposure is linked to an increased lung cancer risk, is proven to be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Possibly, production of active oxygen species and/or DNA repair inhibition are mechanisms involved. Given the recently provided proof for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential of hard metal dust, the mechanistic evidence of elevated production of active oxygen species and the epidemiological data on increased cancer risk, it may be advisable to consider the possibility of a new evaluation by IARC.(PMID: 14643417 Link_out).
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. Aquacat
  2. Co
  3. Cobalt-59
  4. Cobatope-57
  5. Kobalt
  6. Super cobalt
Chemical Formula Co
Average Molecular Weight 58.933195
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 58.933200194
IUPAC Name cobalt(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Name cobalt(2+)
CAS Registry Number 7440-48-4
SMILES [Co++]
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/Co/q+2
InChI Key XLJKHNWPARRRJB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Metal Compounds
Class Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub Class N/A
Other Descriptors
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • cobalt cation(ChEBI)
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct Parent Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Food
  • Plant
Biofunction
  • Component of Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Essential minerals
Application Not Available
Cellular locations Not Available
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 1495 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility Not Available Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
LogP 0.23 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 0 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 0 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 0 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 0 ChemAxon
Refractivity 0 ChemAxon
Polarizability 1.78 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 2 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 2 ChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations Not Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Skin
Pathways Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.0031 +/- 0.0017 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.00183 (0.00067 - 0.00460) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.01+/-0.005 (0.001-0.04) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.0014 (0.0001-0.014) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.00081 +/- 0.00053 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.0037 +/- 0.0017 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Multiple sclerosis
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.0019 +/- 0.0085 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Parkinson's disease
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.0019 +/- 0.0010 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Alzheimer's disease
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  • Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393 Link_out
      Multiple sclerosis
      • Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395 Link_out
          Parkinson's disease
          • Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392 Link_out
              Associated OMIM IDs
              DrugBank ID Not Available
              DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
              Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
              Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
              FoodDB ID FDB003581
              KNApSAcK ID Not Available
              Chemspider ID 94546 Link_out
              KEGG Compound ID C00175 Link_out
              BioCyc ID COBALT-FACTOR-III Link_out
              BiGG ID Not Available
              Wikipedia Link Cobalt Link_out
              NuGOwiki Link HMDB00608 Link_out
              Metagene Link HMDB00608 Link_out
              METLIN ID Not Available
              PubChem Compound 104729 Link_out
              PDB ID CO Link_out
              ChEBI ID 48828 Link_out
              References
              Synthesis Reference Not Available
              Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
              General References
              1. Larese Filon F, Maina G, Adami G, Venier M, Coceani N, Bussani R, Massiccio M, Barbieri P, Spinelli P: In vitro percutaneous absorption of cobalt. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2004 Feb;77(2):85-9. Epub 2003 Jun 19. Pubmed: 12819972 Link_out
              2. Liden C, Skare L, Lind B, Nise G, Vahter M: Assessment of skin exposure to nickel, chromium and cobalt by acid wipe sampling and ICP-MS. Contact Dermatitis. 2006 May;54(5):233-8. Pubmed: 16689805 Link_out
              3. Fisher JW: A quest for erythropoietin over nine decades. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1998;38:1-20. Pubmed: 9597146 Link_out
              4. Morales Concepcion JC, Cordies Jackson E, Sandin Hernandez N, Reno Cespedes J, Moreno Diaz ME: [Metachronous bilateral Wilms' tumor] Arch Esp Urol. 2000 Apr;53(3):245-7. Pubmed: 10851730 Link_out
              5. De Boeck M, Kirsch-Volders M, Lison D: Cobalt and antimony: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Mutat Res. 2003 Dec 10;533(1-2):135-52. Pubmed: 14643417 Link_out

              Enzymes
              Name: Methionine synthase
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: MTR
              Uniprot ID: Q99707 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ENPP2
              Uniprot ID: Q13822 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, mitochondrial
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: MUT
              Uniprot ID: P22033 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-2
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: MAT2A
              Uniprot ID: P31153 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-1
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: MAT1A
              Uniprot ID: Q00266 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Bis(5'-adenosyl)-triphosphatase
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: FHIT
              Uniprot ID: P49789 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: PDE5A
              Uniprot ID: O76074 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Chondroitin sulfate synthase 3
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: CHSY3
              Uniprot ID: Q70JA7 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Chondroitin sulfate synthase 2
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: CHPF
              Uniprot ID: Q8IZ52 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Chondroitin sulfate synthase 1
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: CHSY1
              Uniprot ID: Q86X52 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Glutamate carboxypeptidase 2
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: FOLH1
              Uniprot ID: Q04609 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: D2HGDH
              Uniprot ID: Q8N465 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Membrane-bound transcription factor site-1 protease
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: MBTPS1
              Uniprot ID: Q14703 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Mitochondrial intermediate peptidase
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: MIPEP
              Uniprot ID: Q99797 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Methionine aminopeptidase 1D, mitochondrial
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: MAP1D
              Uniprot ID: Q6UB28 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Methionine aminopeptidase 1
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: METAP1
              Uniprot ID: P53582 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Methionine aminopeptidase 2
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: METAP2
              Uniprot ID: P50579 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Carboxypeptidase M
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: CPM
              Uniprot ID: P14384 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: U8 snoRNA-decapping enzyme
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: NUDT16
              Uniprot ID: Q96DE0 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Xaa-Pro aminopeptidase 1
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: XPNPEP1
              Uniprot ID: Q9NQW7 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Xaa-Pro aminopeptidase 2
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: XPNPEP2
              Uniprot ID: O43895 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Probable Xaa-Pro aminopeptidase 3
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: XPNPEP3
              Uniprot ID: Q9NQH7 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C protein
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: MMACHC
              Uniprot ID: Q9Y4U1 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Transporters
              Name: Transcobalamin-2
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: TCN2
              Uniprot ID: P20062 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Transcobalamin-1
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: TCN1
              Uniprot ID: P20061 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Gastric intrinsic factor
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: GIF
              Uniprot ID: P27352 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Cubilin
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: CUBN
              Uniprot ID: O60494 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA