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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-16 08:41:04 UTC
Update Date2014-09-22 19:32:51 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00608
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCobalt
DescriptionCobalt has a molecular weight of 58.9 and an atomic number of 27. In the Periodic Table, close to other transition metals, it is situated in group 8, together with rhodium and iridium and it can occur in four oxidation states (0, +2, +3 and +4). The +2 and the ground state are the most common. Cobalt occurs in the minerals cobaltite (Co, Fe) AsS, smaltite (CoAs2), and erythrite Co3(AsO4)2.8H2O, and is often associated with nickel, silver, lead, copper, and iron ores, from which it is most frequently obtained as a by-product. Depending on the considered species, cobalt has multiple industrial applications including the production of alloys and hard metal, diamond polishing, drying agents, pigments and catalysts. Hard metal or cemented carbide is a powder metallurgical product consisting of hard, wear-resistant carbide particles bound together (cemented) with a ductile metal binder (i.e. metallic Co) by liquid phase sintering. Tungsten carbide (WC) is produced by mixing tungsten powder with pure carbon powder at high temperature; hereafter WC is mixed with Co powder to which paraffin is added as a binder. Depending on specific requirements related to their use, hard metals might additionally contain small quantities of chromium, niobium, molybdenum, titanium, tantalum or vanadium carbides. Inhalation and skin contact are the main occupational exposure routes. Occupational exposure to cobalt may result in adverse health effects in different organs or tissues, including the respiratory tract, the skin, the hemapoietic tissues, the myocardium or the thyroid gland. In addition, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects have been observed in experimental systems and/or in humans. For the general population, the diet constitutes the main route of exposure to cobalt, since it is an essential component of Vitamin B12 (hydroxycolalamin). Cobalt functions as a co-factor in enzyme catalysed reactions and is involved in the production of erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates the formation of erythrocytes. This last property of cobalt was applied in the past as a therapy for anaemia. The carcinogenic potential of cobalt and its compounds was evaluated in 1991 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which concluded that there was inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity in humans (lung cancer) but sufficient evidence in experimental animal studies. In most experimental studies considered, the routes of exposure were, however, of questionable relevance for cancer risk assessment in humans for example, local sarcomas after intra-muscular injection. The general conclusion was that cobalt and its compounds are possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B). Since this evaluation, additional data have been accumulated which generally indicate that, depending on the considered cobalt species, different outcomes regarding toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity can be observed. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Co(II) ions are genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and carcinogenic in rodents. Co metal is genotoxic in vitro. Hard metal dust, of which occupational exposure is linked to an increased lung cancer risk, is proven to be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Possibly, production of active oxygen species and/or DNA repair inhibition are mechanisms involved. Given the recently provided proof for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential of hard metal dust, the mechanistic evidence of elevated production of active oxygen species and the epidemiological data on increased cancer risk, it may be advisable to consider the possibility of a new evaluation by IARC.(PMID: 14643417 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Aquacat
  2. Co
  3. Cobalt-59
  4. Cobatope-57
  5. Kobalt
  6. Super cobalt
Chemical FormulaCo
Average Molecular Weight58.933195
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight58.933200194
IUPAC Namecobalt(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Namecobalt(2+)
CAS Registry Number7440-48-4
SMILES
[Co++]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Co/q+2
InChI KeyXLJKHNWPARRRJB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Metal Compounds
ClassHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • cobalt cation(ChEBI)
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Food
  • Plant
Biofunction
  • Component of Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Essential minerals
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point1495 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.23ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Skin
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0031 +/- 0.0017 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00183 (0.00067 - 0.00460) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.01+/-0.005 (0.001-0.04) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0014 (0.0001-0.014) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00081 +/- 0.00053 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.000712 (0.000671-0.000756) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00111 (0.00103-0.00119) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0037 +/- 0.0017 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0019 +/- 0.0085 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0019 +/- 0.0010 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395
Parkinson's disease
  1. Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003581
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID94546
KEGG Compound IDC00175
BioCyc IDCOBALT-FACTOR-III
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCobalt
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00608
Metagene LinkHMDB00608
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound104729
PDB IDCO
ChEBI ID48828
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Liden C, Skare L, Lind B, Nise G, Vahter M: Assessment of skin exposure to nickel, chromium and cobalt by acid wipe sampling and ICP-MS. Contact Dermatitis. 2006 May;54(5):233-8. Pubmed: 16689805
  2. Larese Filon F, Maina G, Adami G, Venier M, Coceani N, Bussani R, Massiccio M, Barbieri P, Spinelli P: In vitro percutaneous absorption of cobalt. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2004 Feb;77(2):85-9. Epub 2003 Jun 19. Pubmed: 12819972
  3. Fisher JW: A quest for erythropoietin over nine decades. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1998;38:1-20. Pubmed: 9597146
  4. Morales Concepcion JC, Cordies Jackson E, Sandin Hernandez N, Reno Cespedes J, Moreno Diaz ME: [Metachronous bilateral Wilms' tumor] Arch Esp Urol. 2000 Apr;53(3):245-7. Pubmed: 10851730
  5. De Boeck M, Kirsch-Volders M, Lison D: Cobalt and antimony: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Mutat Res. 2003 Dec 10;533(1-2):135-52. Pubmed: 14643417

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in cobalamin binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyl-cobalamin to homocysteine, yielding enzyme-bound cob(I)alamin and methionine. Subsequently, remethylates the cofactor using methyltetrahydrofolate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MTR
Uniprot ID:
Q99707
Molecular weight:
140525.91
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes lysophospholipids to produce lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in extracellular fluids. Major substrate is lysophosphatidylcholine. Also can act on sphingosylphosphphorylcholine producing sphingosine-1-phosphate, a modulator of cell motility. Can hydrolyze, in vitro, bis-pNPP, to some extent pNP-TMP, and barely ATP. Involved in several motility-related processes such as angiogenesis and neurite outgrowth. Acts as an angiogenic factor by stimulating migration of smooth muscle cells and microtubule formation. Stimulates migration of melanoma cells, probably via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. May have a role in induction of parturition. Possible involvement in cell proliferation and adipose tissue development. Tumor cell motility-stimulating factor.
Gene Name:
ENPP2
Uniprot ID:
Q13822
Molecular weight:
98992.78
General function:
Involved in isomerase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the degradation of several amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids and cholesterol via propionyl-CoA to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. MCM has different functions in other species.
Gene Name:
MUT
Uniprot ID:
P22033
Molecular weight:
83133.755
General function:
Involved in methionine adenosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP.
Gene Name:
MAT2A
Uniprot ID:
P31153
Molecular weight:
43660.37
General function:
Involved in methionine adenosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP.
Gene Name:
MAT1A
Uniprot ID:
Q00266
Molecular weight:
43647.6
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cleaves A-5'-PPP-5'A to yield AMP and ADP. Possible tumor suppressor for specific tissues.
Gene Name:
FHIT
Uniprot ID:
P49789
Molecular weight:
16858.11
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. This phosphodiesterase catalyzes the specific hydrolysis of cGMP to 5'-GMP.
Gene Name:
PDE5A
Uniprot ID:
O76074
Molecular weight:
99984.14
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Has both beta-1,3-glucuronic acid and beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosamine transferase activity. Transfers glucuronic acid (GlcUA) from UDP-GlcUA and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) from UDP-GalNAc to the non-reducing end of the elongating chondroitin polymer. Specific activity is much reduced compared to CHSY1.
Gene Name:
CHSY3
Uniprot ID:
Q70JA7
Molecular weight:
100283.535
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Has both beta-1,3-glucuronic acid and beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosamine transferase activity. Transfers glucuronic acid (GlcUA) from UDP-GlcUA and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) from UDP-GalNAc to the non-reducing end of the elongating chondroitin polymer.
Gene Name:
CHPF
Uniprot ID:
Q8IZ52
Molecular weight:
68367.94
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Has both beta-1,3-glucuronic acid and beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosamine transferase activity. Transfers glucuronic acid (GlcUA) from UDP-GlcUA and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) from UDP-GalNAc to the non-reducing end of the elongating chondroitin polymer. Involved in the negative control of osteogenesis likely through the modulation of NOTCH signaling.
Gene Name:
CHSY1
Uniprot ID:
Q86X52
Molecular weight:
91783.785
General function:
Involved in peptidase activity
Specific function:
Also exhibits a dipeptidyl-peptidase IV type activity. In vitro, cleaves Gly-Pro-AMC
Gene Name:
FOLH1
Uniprot ID:
Q04609
Molecular weight:
84330.0
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of D-2-hydroxyglutarate to alpha-ketoglutarate.
Gene Name:
D2HGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q8N465
Molecular weight:
56415.58
General function:
Involved in serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first step in the proteolytic activation of the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). Other known substrates are BDNF and ATF6. Cleaves after hydrophobic or small residues, provided that Arg or Lys is in position P4. Cleaves known substrates after Arg-Ser-Val-Leu (SERBP-2), Arg-His- Leu-Leu (ATF6), Arg-Gly-Leu-Thr (BDNF) and its own propeptide after Arg-Arg-Leu-Leu
Gene Name:
MBTPS1
Uniprot ID:
Q14703
Molecular weight:
117747.7
General function:
Involved in metalloendopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Cleaves proteins, imported into the mitochondrion, to their mature size
Gene Name:
MIPEP
Uniprot ID:
Q99797
Molecular weight:
80639.9
General function:
Involved in aminopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Removes the amino-terminal methionine from nascent proteins. May play a role in colon tumorigenesis
Gene Name:
MAP1D
Uniprot ID:
Q6UB28
Molecular weight:
37087.6
General function:
Involved in aminopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Removes the amino-terminal methionine from nascent proteins. Required for normal progression through the cell cycle
Gene Name:
METAP1
Uniprot ID:
P53582
Molecular weight:
43214.9
General function:
Involved in aminopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Removes the amino-terminal methionine from nascent proteins. The catalytic activity of human METAP2 toward Met-Val peptides is consistently two orders of magnitude higher than that of METAP1, suggesting that it is responsible for processing proteins containing N-terminal Met-Val and Met-Thr sequences in vivo
Gene Name:
METAP2
Uniprot ID:
P50579
Molecular weight:
52891.1
General function:
Involved in carboxypeptidase activity
Specific function:
Specifically removes C-terminal basic residues (Arg or Lys) from peptides and proteins. It is believed to play important roles in the control of peptide hormone and growth factor activity at the cell surface, and in the membrane-localized degradation of extracellular proteins
Gene Name:
CPM
Uniprot ID:
P14384
Molecular weight:
50513.5
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
RNA-decapping enzyme that binds specifically to U8 snoRNA. Part of the U8 snoRNP complex that is required for the accumulation of mature 5.8S and 28S rRNA. Has diphosphatase activity and removes m7G and m227G caps from U8 snoRNA. Has broad substrate specificity with manganese or cobalt as cofactor and can act on various RNA species (in vitro).
Gene Name:
NUDT16
Uniprot ID:
Q96DE0
Molecular weight:
21273.13
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Contributes to the degradation of bradykinin. Catalyzes the removal of a penultimate prolyl residue from the N-termini of peptides, such as Arg-Pro-Pro
Gene Name:
XPNPEP1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NQW7
Molecular weight:
69917.2
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
A metalloprotease that may play a role in the inflammatory process and other reactions produced in response to injury or infection. May also play a role in the metabolism of the vasodilator bradykinin
Gene Name:
XPNPEP2
Uniprot ID:
O43895
Molecular weight:
75624.2
General function:
Involved in cellular process
Specific function:
Release of any N-terminal amino acid, including proline, that is linked to proline, even from a dipeptide or tripeptide
Gene Name:
XPNPEP3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NQH7
Molecular weight:
57033.1
General function:
Involved in cobalamin binding
Specific function:
May be involved in the binding and intracellular trafficking of cobalamin (vitamin B12)
Gene Name:
MMACHC
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y4U1
Molecular weight:
31728.1

Transporters

General function:
Involved in cobalamin binding
Specific function:
Primary vitamin B12-binding and transport protein. Delivers cobalamin to cells
Gene Name:
TCN2
Uniprot ID:
P20062
Molecular weight:
47534.5
General function:
Involved in cobalamin binding
Specific function:
Vitamin B12-binding protein. Transports cobalamin into cells
Gene Name:
TCN1
Uniprot ID:
P20061
Molecular weight:
48206.3
General function:
Involved in cobalamin binding
Specific function:
Promotes absorption of the essential vitamin cobalamin (Cbl) in the ileum by specific receptor-mediated endocytosis
Gene Name:
GIF
Uniprot ID:
P27352
Molecular weight:
45415.7
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Cotransporter which plays a role in lipoprotein, vitamin and iron metabolism, by facilitating their uptake. Binds to ALB, MB, Kappa and lambda-light chains, TF, hemoglobin, GC, SCGB1A1, APOA1, high density lipoprotein, and the GIF-cobalamin complex. The binding of all ligands required calcium. Serves as important transporter in several absorptive epithelia, including intestine, renal proximal tubules and embryonic yolk sac. Interaction with LRP2 mediates its trafficking throughout vesicles and facilitates the uptake of specific ligands like GC, hemoglobin, ALB, TF and SCGB1A1. Interaction with AMN controls its trafficking to the plasma membrane and facilitates endocytosis of ligands. May play an important role in the development of the peri-implantation embryo through internalization of APOA1 and cholesterol. Binds to LGALS3 at the maternal-fetal interface
Gene Name:
CUBN
Uniprot ID:
O60494
Molecular weight:
398672.8