Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-16 08:41:04 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:27:58 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00608
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCobalt
DescriptionCobalt has a molecular weight of 58.9 and an atomic number of 27. In the Periodic Table, close to other transition metals, it is situated in group 8, together with rhodium and iridium and it can occur in four oxidation states (0, +2, +3 and +4). The +2 and the ground state are the most common. Cobalt occurs in the minerals cobaltite (Co, Fe) AsS, smaltite (CoAs2), and erythrite Co3(AsO4)2.8H2O, and is often associated with nickel, silver, lead, copper, and iron ores, from which it is most frequently obtained as a by-product. Depending on the considered species, cobalt has multiple industrial applications including the production of alloys and hard metal, diamond polishing, drying agents, pigments and catalysts. Hard metal or cemented carbide is a powder metallurgical product consisting of hard, wear-resistant carbide particles bound together (cemented) with a ductile metal binder (i.e. metallic Co) by liquid phase sintering. Tungsten carbide (WC) is produced by mixing tungsten powder with pure carbon powder at high temperature; hereafter WC is mixed with Co powder to which paraffin is added as a binder. Depending on specific requirements related to their use, hard metals might additionally contain small quantities of chromium, niobium, molybdenum, titanium, tantalum or vanadium carbides. Inhalation and skin contact are the main occupational exposure routes. Occupational exposure to cobalt may result in adverse health effects in different organs or tissues, including the respiratory tract, the skin, the hemapoietic tissues, the myocardium or the thyroid gland. In addition, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects have been observed in experimental systems and/or in humans. For the general population, the diet constitutes the main route of exposure to cobalt, since it is an essential component of Vitamin B12 (hydroxycolalamin). Cobalt functions as a co-factor in enzyme catalysed reactions and is involved in the production of erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates the formation of erythrocytes. This last property of cobalt was applied in the past as a therapy for anaemia. The carcinogenic potential of cobalt and its compounds was evaluated in 1991 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which concluded that there was inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity in humans (lung cancer) but sufficient evidence in experimental animal studies. In most experimental studies considered, the routes of exposure were, however, of questionable relevance for cancer risk assessment in humans for example, local sarcomas after intra-muscular injection. The general conclusion was that cobalt and its compounds are possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B). Since this evaluation, additional data have been accumulated which generally indicate that, depending on the considered cobalt species, different outcomes regarding toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity can be observed. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Co(II) ions are genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and carcinogenic in rodents. Co metal is genotoxic in vitro. Hard metal dust, of which occupational exposure is linked to an increased lung cancer risk, is proven to be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Possibly, production of active oxygen species and/or DNA repair inhibition are mechanisms involved. Given the recently provided proof for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential of hard metal dust, the mechanistic evidence of elevated production of active oxygen species and the epidemiological data on increased cancer risk, it may be advisable to consider the possibility of a new evaluation by IARC.(PMID: 14643417 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Aquacat
  2. Co
  3. Cobalt-59
  4. Cobatope-57
  5. Kobalt
  6. Super cobalt
Chemical FormulaCo
Average Molecular Weight58.933195
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight58.933200194
IUPAC Namecobalt(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Namecobalt(2+)
CAS Registry Number7440-48-4
SMILES
[Co++]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Co/q+2
InChI KeyXLJKHNWPARRRJB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Metal Compounds
ClassHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • cobalt cation(ChEBI)
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Food
  • Plant
Biofunction
  • Component of Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Essential minerals
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point1495 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.23ChemAxon
physiological charge2ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity0ChemAxon
polarizability1.78ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Skin
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0031 +/- 0.0017 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00183 (0.00067 - 0.00460) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.01+/-0.005 (0.001-0.04) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0014 (0.0001-0.014) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00081 +/- 0.00053 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0037 +/- 0.0017 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0019 +/- 0.0085 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0019 +/- 0.0010 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  • Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393
Multiple sclerosis
  • Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395
Parkinson's disease
  • Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003581
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID94546
KEGG Compound IDC00175
BioCyc IDCOBALT-FACTOR-III
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCobalt
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00608
Metagene LinkHMDB00608
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound104729
PDB IDCO
ChEBI ID48828
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Liden C, Skare L, Lind B, Nise G, Vahter M: Assessment of skin exposure to nickel, chromium and cobalt by acid wipe sampling and ICP-MS. Contact Dermatitis. 2006 May;54(5):233-8. Pubmed: 16689805
  2. Larese Filon F, Maina G, Adami G, Venier M, Coceani N, Bussani R, Massiccio M, Barbieri P, Spinelli P: In vitro percutaneous absorption of cobalt. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2004 Feb;77(2):85-9. Epub 2003 Jun 19. Pubmed: 12819972
  3. Fisher JW: A quest for erythropoietin over nine decades. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1998;38:1-20. Pubmed: 9597146
  4. Morales Concepcion JC, Cordies Jackson E, Sandin Hernandez N, Reno Cespedes J, Moreno Diaz ME: [Metachronous bilateral Wilms' tumor] Arch Esp Urol. 2000 Apr;53(3):245-7. Pubmed: 10851730
  5. De Boeck M, Kirsch-Volders M, Lison D: Cobalt and antimony: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Mutat Res. 2003 Dec 10;533(1-2):135-52. Pubmed: 14643417

Enzymes

Gene Name:
MTR
Uniprot ID:
Q99707
Gene Name:
FHIT
Uniprot ID:
P49789
Gene Name:
CHSY3
Uniprot ID:
Q70JA7
Gene Name:
CHPF
Uniprot ID:
Q8IZ52
Gene Name:
CHSY1
Uniprot ID:
Q86X52
Gene Name:
FOLH1
Uniprot ID:
Q04609
Gene Name:
MIPEP
Uniprot ID:
Q99797
Gene Name:
METAP1
Uniprot ID:
P53582
Gene Name:
METAP2
Uniprot ID:
P50579
Gene Name:
CPM
Uniprot ID:
P14384
Gene Name:
NUDT16
Uniprot ID:
Q96DE0
Gene Name:
XPNPEP1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NQW7
Gene Name:
XPNPEP2
Uniprot ID:
O43895
Gene Name:
XPNPEP3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NQH7

Transporters

Gene Name:
TCN2
Uniprot ID:
P20062
Gene Name:
TCN1
Uniprot ID:
P20061
Gene Name:
GIF
Uniprot ID:
P27352
Gene Name:
CUBN
Uniprot ID:
O60494