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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-02-27 23:40:34 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0001657
  • HMDB00620
  • HMDB01657
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlutaconic acid
DescriptionGlutaconic acid is related to the fully saturated glutaric acid and belongs to the class of compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups. Glutaconic acid is soluble (in water) and a weakly acidic compound (based on its pKa). Glutaconic acid has been detected in the urine of individuals with inborn errors of metabolism. When present in sufficiently high levels, glutaconic acid can act as an acidogen, a neurotoxin, and a metabotoxin. An acidogen is an acidic compound that induces acidosis, which has multiple adverse effects on many organ systems. A neurotoxin is a compound that is toxic to neural tissues and cells. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of glutaconic acid are associated with glutaric aciduria type I (glutaric acidemia type I, glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, GA1, or GAT1). GA1 is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to completely break down the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine and tryptophan. Excessive levels of their intermediate breakdown products (e.g. glutaric acid, glutaryl-CoA, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutaconic acid) can accumulate and cause damage to the brain (and also other organs). Babies with glutaric acidemia type I are often born with unusually large heads (macrocephaly). Macrocephaly is amongst the earliest signs of GA1. GA1 also causes secondary carnitine deficiency because glutaconic acid, like other organic acids, is detoxified by carnitine. Abnormally high levels of organic acids in the blood (organic acidemia), urine (organic aciduria), the brain, and other tissues lead to general metabolic acidosis. Acidosis typically occurs when arterial pH falls below 7.35. In infants with acidosis, the initial symptoms include poor feeding, vomiting, loss of appetite, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and lack of energy (lethargy). These can progress to heart, liver, and kidney abnormalities, seizures, coma, and possibly death. These are also the characteristic symptoms of untreated glutaric aciduria. Many affected children with organic acidemias experience intellectual disability or delayed development. In adults, acidosis or acidemia is characterized by headaches, confusion, feeling tired, tremors, sleepiness, and seizures. Glutaconic acid's neurotoxicity is thought to be partially caused by an excitotoxic mechanism in which glutaconic acid overactivates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Accumulating trans-glutaconic (TG) acids have been proposed to be involved in the development of the striatal degeneration seen in children with glutaric acidemia type I via an excitotoxic mechanism.
trans-Glutaconic acidChEBI
(e)-Glutaconic acidGenerator
(e)-2-Pentenedioic acidHMDB
1,3-Propenedicarboxylic acidHMDB
1-Propene-1,3-dicarboxylic acidHMDB
Pentenedioic acidHMDB
Glutaconic acid, ion(2-)MeSH
Glutaconic acid, copper saltMeSH
Glutaconic acid, (e)-isomerMeSH
Chemical FormulaC5H6O4
Average Molecular Weight130.0987
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight130.02660868
IUPAC Name(2E)-pent-2-enedioic acid
Traditional Nameglutaconic acid
CAS Registry Number1724-02-3
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Health condition:

    Metabolism and nutrition disorders:


Biological location:

  Cell and elements:


  Biofluid and excreta:



Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Cellular process:


Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point133 - 135 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility17.6 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.69ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity29.23 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.36 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-3930000000-d1b6e04bed9f3de84afaView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-3910000000-02c8fdec1f78bd5117e2View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001r-9100000000-42f59aea4f8e6bb8ab57View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05g0-8920000000-733f5a9f839df29bff69View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-6fb6cc9ab31410b273f1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000f-9000000000-b9c27f4002ce9f12f916View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000f-9100000000-d627e3ddfe858b1b331dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03e9-3900000000-f982ee0bd6ebcaf33bbeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01q0-9500000000-90dd8c522781e5da5ebbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00n0-9000000000-e56400244a361d348a1fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-1900000000-ad86855e24f296413178View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01t9-4900000000-30e4a1adead132f7de92View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9000000000-47a3aa8cf8913cc4d70eView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
UrineDetected and Quantified3.1 (1.2-3.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
    • BC Children's Hos...
Abnormal Concentrations
UrineDetected and Quantified1.0 (0.0-2.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothGlutaric aciduria type 1
    • MetaGene: Metabol...
UrineDetected and Quantified180.0 (0.00-360.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothGlutaric aciduria I
    • MetaGene: Metabol...
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Glutaric aciduria I
  1. G.Frauendienst-Egger, Friedrich K. Trefz (2017). MetaGene: Metabolic & Genetic Information Center (MIC: METAGENE consortium.
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022146
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4444138
KEGG Compound IDC02214
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGlutaconic_acid
PubChem Compound5280498
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15670
Synthesis ReferenceSchwarz, Siegfried; Bohn, Helmut; Schmidt, Dieter; Kulpa, Manfred; Spakowski, Horst; Becker, Manfred. Glutaconic acid. Ger. (East) (1967), 2 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Podebrad F, Heil M, Beck T, Mosandl A, Sewell AC, Bohles H: Stereodifferentiation of 3-hydroxyisobutyric- and 3-aminoisobutyric acid in human urine by enantioselective multidimensional capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clin Chim Acta. 2000 Feb 25;292(1-2):93-105. [PubMed:10686279 ]
  2. Osaka H, Kimura S, Nezu A, Yamazaki S, Saitoh K, Yamaguchi S: Chronic subdural hematoma, as an initial manifestation of glutaric aciduria type-1. Brain Dev. 1993 Mar-Apr;15(2):125-7. [PubMed:8214331 ]