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Record Information
Creation Date2006-08-16 11:23:11 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:03:10 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameFluoride
DescriptionFluorine (Latin: fluere, meaning "to flow"), is the chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is a nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. Pure fluorine (F2) is a corrosive, poisonous, pale yellowish brown gas that is a powerful oxidizing agent. It is the most reactive and electronegative of all the elements (4.0), and readily forms compounds with most other elements. Fluorine even combines with the noble gases, krypton, xenon, and radon. Even in dark, cool conditions, fluorine reacts explosively with hydrogen. It is so reactive that glass, metals, and even water, as well as other substances, burn with a bright flame in a jet of fluorine gas. It is far too reactive to be found in elemental form and has such an affinity for most elements, including silicon, that it can neither be prepared nor be kept in ordinary glass vessels. Instead, it must be kept in specialized quartz tubes lined with a very thin layer of fluorocarbons. In moist air it reacts with water to form also-dangerous hydrofluoric acid. Elemental fluorine is a powerful oxidizer which can cause organic material, combustibles, or other flammable materials to ignite. Both elemental fluorine and fluoride ions are highly toxic and must be handled with great care and any contact with skin and eyes should be strictly avoided. Physiologically, fluorine. exists as an ion in the body. When it is a free element, fluorine has a characteristic pungent odor that is detectable in concentrations as low as 20 nL/L. Fluorine is used in dentistry as flouride (Fluorides) to prevent dental caries. Sodium and stannous salts of fluorine are commonly used in dentifrices. Contact of exposed skin with HF (hydrofluoric acid) solutions posses one of the most extreme and insidious industrial threats-- one which is exacerbated by the fact that HF damages nerves in such a way as to make such burns initially painless. The HF molecule is capable of rapidly migrating through lipid layers of cells which would ordinarily stop an ionized acid, and the burns are typically deep. HF may react with calcium, permanently damaging the bone. More seriously, reaction with the body's calcium can cause cardiac arrhythmias, followed by cardiac arrest brought on by sudden chemical changes within the body. These cannot always be prevented with local or intravenous injection of calcium salts. HF spills over just 2.5% of the body's surface area, despite copious immediate washing, have been fatal If the patient survives, HF burns typically produce open wounds of an especially slow-healing nature. Fluorine in the form of fluorspar (also called fluorite) (calcium fluoride) was described in 1530 by Georgius Agricola for its use as a flux , which is a substance that is used to promote the fusion of metals or minerals. In 1670 Schwanhard found that glass was etched when it was exposed to fluorspar that was treated with acid. Karl Scheele and many later researchers, including Humphry Davy, Gay-Lussac, Antoine Lavoisier, and Louis Thenard all would experiment with hydrofluoric acid, easily obtained by treating calcium fluoride (fluorspar) with concentrated sulfuric acid.
Fluorine anionChEBI
Chemical FormulaF
Average Molecular Weight18.9984
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight18.998403205
IUPAC Namefluoride
Traditional Namefluoride
CAS Registry Number7782-41-4
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as homogeneous halogens. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom is a nobel gas.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassInorganic compounds
ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
Sub ClassHomogeneous halogens
Direct ParentHomogeneous halogens
Alternative ParentsNot Available
  • Homogeneous halogen
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Drug
  • Drug metabolite
  • Food
  • Plant
  • Toxin/Pollutant
  • Essential minerals
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point-219.61 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.00169 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.17ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0.87 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability0.44 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Teeth
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified4.74 +/- 1.75 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
BloodDetected and Quantified6.58 +/- 2.14 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
SalivaDetected and Quantified160 +/- 480 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
SalivaDetected and Quantified40 +/- 140 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
SalivaDetected and Quantified40 +/- 130 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
SalivaDetected and Quantified130 +/- 310 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
SalivaDetected and Quantified130 +/- 420 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
SalivaDetected and Quantified80 +/- 220 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
SalivaDetected and Quantified90 +/- 240 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
UrineDetected and Quantified0.28 +/- 0.0 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.93 (0.17 - 2.43) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
UrineDetected and Quantified1.80 (1.05 - 2.96) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00504
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003770
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID26214
KEGG Compound IDC00742
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkFluoride
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00662
Metagene LinkHMDB00662
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound28179
ChEBI ID17051
Synthesis ReferenceLi, Rong. Electrolytic cell for manufacturing fluorine at intermediate temperature. Shiyong Xinxing Zhuanli Shuomingshu (2007), 13pp. CODEN: CNXXAR CN 2895439 Y 20070502 CAN 147:310009 AN 2007:902560
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Schaafsma A, de Vries PJ, Saris WH: Delay of natural bone loss by higher intakes of specific minerals and vitamins. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2001 May;41(4):225-49. [11401244 ]
  2. Taylor A: Detection and monitoring of disorders of essential trace elements. Ann Clin Biochem. 1996 Nov;33 ( Pt 6):486-510. [8937580 ]
  3. Schneider E, Bolo NR, Frederick B, Wilkinson S, Hirashima F, Nassar L, Lyoo IK, Koch P, Jones S, Hwang J, Sung Y, Villafuerte RA, Maier G, Hsu R, Hashoian R, Renshaw PF: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy for measuring the biodistribution and in situ in vivo pharmacokinetics of fluorinated compounds: validation using an investigation of liver and heart disposition of tecastemizole. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2006 Jun;31(3):261-73. [16789992 ]
  4. Thie JA, Smith GT, Hubner KF: 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography sensitivity to serum glucose: a survey and diagnostic applications. Mol Imaging Biol. 2005 Sep-Oct;7(5):361-8. [16228119 ]
  5. McGoron AJ, Mao X, Georgiou MF, Kuluz JW: Computer phantom study of brain PET glucose metabolism imaging using a rotating SPECT/PET camera. Comput Biol Med. 2005 Jul;35(6):511-31. [15780862 ]


General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Cysteine hydrolase. Can convert the prodrug olmesartan medoxomil into its pharmacologically active metabolite olmerstatan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, in liver and intestine. May also activate beta-lactam antibiotics faropenem medoxomil and lenampicillin.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Not Available
5-Fluoromuconolactone + Water → 2-Maleylacetate + Fluoridedetails
4-Fluoromuconolactone + Water → 2-Maleylacetate + Fluoridedetails