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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-10-17 22:55:23 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00673
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameLinoleic acid
DescriptionLinoleic acid is a doubly unsaturated fatty acid, also known as an omega-6 fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. In this particular polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), the first double bond is located between the sixth and seventh carbon atom from the methyl end of the fatty acid (n-6). Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid in human nutrition because it cannot be synthesized by humans. It is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (via arachidonic acid) and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(9Z,12Z)-Octadecadienoic acidChEBI
(Z,Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acidChEBI
9-cis,12-cis-Octadecadienoic acidChEBI
9Z,12Z-Octadecadienoic acidChEBI
Acide cis-linoleiqueChEBI
Acide linoleiqueChEBI
acido LinoleicoChEBI
all-cis-9,12-Octadecadienoic acidChEBI
C18:2 9C, 12C Omega6 todos cis-9,12-octadienoicoChEBI
C18:2, N-6,9 all-cisChEBI
cis,cis-9,12-Octadecadienoic acidChEBI
cis,cis-Linoleic acidChEBI
cis-Delta(9,12)-Octadecadienoic acidChEBI
LAChEBI
Linolic acidChEBI
(9Z,12Z)-OctadecadienoateGenerator
(9Z,12Z)-Octadeca-9,12-dienoateGenerator
(Z,Z)-9,12-OctadecadienoateGenerator
9-cis,12-cis-OctadecadienoateGenerator
9Z,12Z-OctadecadienoateGenerator
all-cis-9,12-OctadecadienoateGenerator
cis,cis-9,12-OctadecadienoateGenerator
cis,cis-LinoleateGenerator
cis-delta(9,12)-OctadecadienoateGenerator
cis-δ(9,12)-octadecadienoateGenerator
cis-δ(9,12)-octadecadienoic acidGenerator
LinolateGenerator
(9Z,12Z)-9,12-OctadecadienoateHMDB
(9Z,12Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acidHMDB
9-cis,12-cis-LinoleateHMDB
9-cis,12-cis-Linoleic acidHMDB
9Z,12Z-LinoleateHMDB
9Z,12Z-Linoleic acidHMDB
cis-9,cis-12-OctadecadienoateHMDB
cis-9,cis-12-Octadecadienoic acidHMDB
cis-D9,12-OctadecadienoateHMDB
cis-D9,12-Octadecadienoic acidHMDB
Emersol 315HMDB
Extra linoleic 90HMDB
LinoleateHMDB
Polylin 515HMDB
Unifac 6550HMDB
Chemical FormulaC18H32O2
Average Molecular Weight280.4455
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight280.240230268
IUPAC Name(9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid
Traditional Namelinoleic
CAS Registry Number60-33-3
SMILES
CCCCC\C=C/C\C=C/CCCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C18H32O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18(19)20/h6-7,9-10H,2-5,8,11-17H2,1H3,(H,19,20)/b7-6-,10-9-
InChI KeyInChIKey=OYHQOLUKZRVURQ-HZJYTTRNSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as lineolic acids and derivatives. These are derivatives of lineolic acid. Lineolic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 18 carbon long fatty acid, with two CC double bonds at the 9- and 12-positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassLineolic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentLineolic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Octadecanoid
  • Long-chain fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Essential fatty acid
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-8.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP7.05SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000154 mg/mLALOGPS
logP7.06ALOGPS
logP6.42ChemAxon
logS-6.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity88.52 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.86 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-000t-7900000000-b6ee03c4800464c37471View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-00vi-9300000000-c92dac639ced59eb5dbeView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-003s-9700000000-77e67d7b1a161e6ecfa6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0f89-0190000000-2be9501b1d4a9fcbd1c0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0uk9-0790000000-7f6e35a591f977bc488eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-0090000000-c56edc2bbf9d6752aec5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - FAB-EBEB (JMS-HX/HX 110A, JEOL) , Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-baf4579e26c6b393d391View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-815c1682b2c59ba96f10View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-3406b2b2d5756807e1cdView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-2fb4975278fa4d118f43View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a6r-9380000000-37f833673c248405c8efView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9200000000-7d34ed5900a17ffe3f9bView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-015a-9200000000-a193c27810bedf93c498View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Alpha Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid MetabolismSMP00018map00592
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified23.39 +/- 2.75 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified110 (42-370) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified83.8 +/- 38 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified193.7 +/- 72.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified264 +/- 17.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified183.7 +/- 69.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified207.9 +/- 73.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified17.7 +/- 4.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified14.733 +/- 4.331 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified15.2 +/- 0.437 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified11.0 +/- 3.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.05 +/- 0.05 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.19 +/- 0.61 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified22.61 +/- 2.80 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleGestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) details
BloodDetected and Quantified886.0 +/- 626.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Cirrhosis
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Oesophageal cancer
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Lung cancer
details
BloodDetected and Quantified175.9 +/- 65.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHypertension details
BloodDetected and Quantified159 +/- 12.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified167.0 +/- 63.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleEssential hypertension details
BloodDetected and Quantified195.2 +/- 64.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEssential hypertension details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Female
Breast cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothCCD details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothICD details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.18 +/- 0.45 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleThyroid cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Thyroid cancer
  1. Kim KM, Jung BH, Lho DS, Chung WY, Paeng KJ, Chung BC: Alteration of urinary profiles of endogenous steroids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in thyroid cancer. Cancer Lett. 2003 Dec 30;202(2):173-9. [14643447 ]
Cirrhosis
  1. Szebeni J, Eskelson C, Sampliner R, Hartmann B, Griffin J, Dormandy T, Watson RR: Plasma fatty acid pattern including diene-conjugated linoleic acid in ethanol users and patients with ethanol-related liver disease. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1986 Dec;10(6):647-50. [3101533 ]
Essential hypertension
  1. Wang S, Ma A, Song S, Quan Q, Zhao X, Zheng X: Fasting serum free fatty acid composition, waist/hip ratio and insulin activity in essential hypertensive patients. Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):623-32. [18633173 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Fukushima T, Iizuka H, Yokota A, Suzuki T, Ohno C, Kono Y, Nishikiori M, Seki A, Ichiba H, Watanabe Y, Hongo S, Utsunomiya M, Nakatani M, Sadamoto K, Yoshio T: Quantitative analyses of schizophrenia-associated metabolites in serum: serum D-lactate levels are negatively correlated with gamma-glutamylcysteine in medicated schizophrenia patients. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 8;9(7):e101652. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101652. eCollection 2014. [25004141 ]
  2. Xuan J, Pan G, Qiu Y, Yang L, Su M, Liu Y, Chen J, Feng G, Fang Y, Jia W, Xing Q, He L: Metabolomic profiling to identify potential serum biomarkers for schizophrenia and risperidone action. J Proteome Res. 2011 Dec 2;10(12):5433-43. doi: 10.1021/pr2006796. Epub 2011 Nov 8. [22007635 ]
Gestational diabetes
  1. Min Y, Ghebremeskel K, Lowy C, Thomas B, Crawford MA: Adverse effect of obesity on red cell membrane arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in gestational diabetes. Diabetologia. 2004 Jan;47(1):75-81. Epub 2003 Nov 22. [14634727 ]
Hypertension
  1. Wang S, Ma A, Song S, Quan Q, Zhao X, Zheng X: Fasting serum free fatty acid composition, waist/hip ratio and insulin activity in essential hypertensive patients. Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):623-32. [18633173 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012760
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4444105
KEGG Compound IDC01595
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID37956
Wikipedia LinkLinoleic acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00673
Metagene LinkHMDB00673
METLIN ID191
PubChem Compound5280450
PDB IDEIC
ChEBI ID17351
References
Synthesis ReferenceWalborsky, Harry M.; Davis, Robert H.; Howton, David R. A total synthesis of linoleic acid. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1951), 73 2590-4.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  2. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. [8412012 ]
  3. Schurer NY, Stremmel W, Grundmann JU, Schliep V, Kleinert H, Bass NM, Williams ML: Evidence for a novel keratinocyte fatty acid uptake mechanism with preference for linoleic acid: comparison of oleic and linoleic acid uptake by cultured human keratinocytes, fibroblasts and a human hepatoma cell line. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Feb 10;1211(1):51-60. [8123682 ]
  4. Valianpour F, Wanders RJ, Overmars H, Vaz FM, Barth PG, van Gennip AH: Linoleic acid supplementation of Barth syndrome fibroblasts restores cardiolipin levels: implications for treatment. J Lipid Res. 2003 Mar;44(3):560-6. Epub 2002 Dec 16. [12562862 ]
  5. Horrobin DF: Essential fatty acid metabolism and its modification in atopic eczema. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):367S-72S. [10617999 ]
  6. Imokawa G, Yada Y, Higuchi K, Okuda M, Ohashi Y, Kawamata A: Pseudo-acylceramide with linoleic acid produces selective recovery of diminished cutaneous barrier function in essential fatty acid-deficient rats and has an inhibitory effect on epidermal hyperplasia. J Clin Invest. 1994 Jul;94(1):89-96. [8040295 ]
  7. Kawajiri H, Hsi LC, Kamitani H, Ikawa H, Geller M, Ward T, Eling TE, Glasgow WC: Arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolism in mouse intestinal tissue: evidence for novel lipoxygenase activity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002 Feb 1;398(1):51-60. [11811948 ]
  8. Iso H, Sato S, Umemura U, Kudo M, Koike K, Kitamura A, Imano H, Okamura T, Naito Y, Shimamoto T: Linoleic acid, other fatty acids, and the risk of stroke. Stroke. 2002 Aug;33(8):2086-93. [12154268 ]
  9. Seidel D, Heipertz R, Weisner B: Cerebrospinal fluid lipids in demyelinating disease. II. Linoleic acid as an index of impaired blood-CSF barrier. J Neurol. 1980 Jan;222(3):177-82. [6153705 ]
  10. Salo P, Seppanen-Laakso T, Laakso I, Seppanen R, Niinikoski H, Viikari J, Simell O: Low-saturated fat, low-cholesterol diet in 3-year-old children: effect on intake and composition of trans fatty acids and other fatty acids in serum phospholipid fraction-The STRIP study. Special Turku coronary Risk factor Intervention Project for children. J Pediatr. 2000 Jan;136(1):46-52. [10636973 ]
  11. Grimsgaard S, Bonaa KH, Jacobsen BK, Bjerve KS: Plasma saturated and linoleic fatty acids are independently associated with blood pressure. Hypertension. 1999 Sep;34(3):478-83. [10489397 ]

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 52 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. This isozyme hydrolyzes more efficiently L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine than L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylcholine, L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylethanolamine, or L-alpha-1-stearoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylinositol. May be involved in the production of lung surfactant, the remodeling or regulation of cardiac muscle.
Gene Name:
PLA2G5
Uniprot ID:
P39877
Molecular weight:
15674.065
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Hydrolyzes phosphatidylglycerol versus phosphatidylcholine with a 15-fold preference.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2F
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZM2
Molecular weight:
23256.29
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Selectively hydrolyzes arachidonyl phospholipids in the sn-2 position releasing arachidonic acid. Together with its lysophospholipid activity, it is implicated in the initiation of the inflammatory response.
Gene Name:
PLA2G4A
Uniprot ID:
P47712
Molecular weight:
85210.19
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
PLA2G1B
Uniprot ID:
P04054
Molecular weight:
16359.535
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
Not known; does not seem to have catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
PLA2G12B
Uniprot ID:
Q9BX93
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Has a powerful potency for releasing arachidonic acid from cell membrane phospholipids. Prefers phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine liposomes to those of phosphatidylserine.
Gene Name:
PLA2G10
Uniprot ID:
O15496
Molecular weight:
18153.04
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Has a preference for arachidonic-containing phospholipids.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2E
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZK7
Molecular weight:
15988.525
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Does not exhibit detectable activity toward sn-2-arachidonoyl- or linoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine or -phosphatidylethanolamine.
Gene Name:
PLA2G12A
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZM1
Molecular weight:
21066.99
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the release of fatty acids from phospholipids. It has been implicated in normal phospholipid remodeling, nitric oxide-induced or vasopressin-induced arachidonic acid release and in leukotriene and prostaglandin production. May participate in fas mediated apoptosis and in regulating transmembrane ion flux in glucose-stimulated B-cells. Has a role in cardiolipin (CL) deacylation. Required for both speed and directionality of monocyte MCP1/CCL2-induced chemotaxis through regulation of F-actin polymerization at the pseudopods. Isoform ankyrin-iPLA2-1 and isoform ankyrin-iPLA2-2, which lack the catalytic domain, are probably involved in the negative regulation of iPLA2 activity.
Gene Name:
PLA2G6
Uniprot ID:
O60733
Molecular weight:
84092.635
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
Thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes including eicosanoid biosynthesis. Catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2A
Uniprot ID:
P14555
Molecular weight:
16082.525
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine is more efficiently hydrolyzed than the other phospholipids examined.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2D
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNK4
Molecular weight:
16546.1
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Has a preference for arachidonic acid at the sn-2 position of phosphatidylcholine as compared with palmitic acid.
Gene Name:
PLA2G4C
Uniprot ID:
Q9UP65
Molecular weight:
60938.07
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Shows an 11-fold preference for phosphatidylglycerol over phosphatidylcholine (PC). Preferential cleavage: 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) > 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-PC > 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-PC > 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-PE. Plays a role in ciliogenesis.
Gene Name:
PLA2G3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZ20
Molecular weight:
57166.51
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in thiolester hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl-CoA thioester, either in peroxisomes (primary bile acids deriving from the cholesterol pathway), or cytoplasmic at the endoplasmic reticulum (secondary bile acids). May catalyze the conjugation of primary or secondary bile acids, or both. The conjugation increases the detergent properties of bile acids in the intestine, which facilitates lipid and fat-soluble vitamin absorption. In turn, bile acids are deconjugated by bacteria in the intestine and are recycled back to the liver for reconjugation (secondary bile acids). May also act as an acyl-CoA thioesterase that regulates intracellular levels of free fatty acids. In vitro, catalyzes the hydrolysis of long- and very long-chain saturated acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), and conjugates glycine to these acyl-CoAs.
Gene Name:
BAAT
Uniprot ID:
Q14032
Molecular weight:
46298.865
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes.
Gene Name:
ALOX5
Uniprot ID:
P09917
Molecular weight:
77982.595
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Converts arachidonic acid exclusively to 15S-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, while linoleic acid is less well metabolized.
Gene Name:
ALOX15B
Uniprot ID:
O15296
Molecular weight:
72522.25
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Converts arachidonic acid to 15S-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Also acts on C-12 of arachidonate as well as on linoleic acid.
Gene Name:
ALOX15
Uniprot ID:
P16050
Molecular weight:
74803.795
Reactions
Linoleic acid + Oxygen → 13-L-Hydroperoxylinoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA thioesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), providing the potential to regulate intracellular levels of acyl-CoAs, free fatty acids and CoASH. May play an important physiological function in brain. May play a regulatory role by modulating the cellular levels of fatty acyl-CoA ligands for certain transcription factors as well as the substrates for fatty acid metabolizing enzymes, contributing to lipid homeostasis. Has broad specificity, active towards fatty acyl-CoAs with chain-lengths of C8-C18. Has a maximal activity toward palmitoyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ACOT7
Uniprot ID:
O00154
Molecular weight:
40454.945
Reactions
Linoleoyl-CoA + Water → Coenzyme A + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in thiolester hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA thioesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), providing the potential to regulate intracellular levels of acyl-CoAs, free fatty acids and CoASH. Displays high levels of activity on medium- and long chain acyl CoAs.
Gene Name:
ACOT2
Uniprot ID:
P49753
Molecular weight:
53218.02
Reactions
Linoleoyl-CoA + Water → Coenzyme A + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in thiolester hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA thioesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), providing the potential to regulate intracellular levels of acyl-CoAs, free fatty acids and CoASH (By similarity). Succinyl-CoA thioesterase that also hydrolyzes long chain saturated and unsaturated monocarboxylic acyl-CoAs.
Gene Name:
ACOT4
Uniprot ID:
Q8N9L9
Molecular weight:
46326.09
Reactions
Linoleoyl-CoA + Water → Coenzyme A + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA thioesterase activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA thioesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), providing the potential to regulate intracellular levels of acyl-CoAs, free fatty acids and CoASH. May mediate Nef-induced down-regulation of CD4. Major thioesterase in peroxisomes. Competes with BAAT (Bile acid CoA: amino acid N-acyltransferase) for bile acid-CoA substrate (such as chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA). Shows a preference for medium-length fatty acyl-CoAs (By similarity). May be involved in the metabolic regulation of peroxisome proliferation.
Gene Name:
ACOT8
Uniprot ID:
O14734
Molecular weight:
35914.02
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits low testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name:
CYP3A43
Uniprot ID:
Q9HB55
Molecular weight:
57756.285
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Participates in the metabolism of an as-yet-unknown biologically active molecule that is a participant in eye development.
Gene Name:
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q16678
Molecular weight:
60845.33
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID:
P33260
Molecular weight:
55710.075
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
May be involved in the metabolism of various pneumotoxicants including naphthalene. Is able to dealkylate ethoxycoumarin, propoxycoumarin, and pentoxyresorufin but possesses no activity toward ethoxyresorufin and only trace dearylation activity toward benzyloxyresorufin. Bioactivates 3-methylindole (3MI) by dehydrogenation to the putative electrophile 3-methylene-indolenine.
Gene Name:
CYP2F1
Uniprot ID:
P24903
Molecular weight:
55500.64
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP4X1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N118
Molecular weight:
58874.62
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Active in the metabolic activation of hexamethylphosphoramide, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2'-methoxyacetophenone, N-nitrosomethylphenylamine, and the tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Possesses phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A13
Uniprot ID:
Q16696
Molecular weight:
56687.095
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP4B1
Uniprot ID:
P13584
Molecular weight:
58990.64
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP4Z1
Uniprot ID:
Q86W10
Molecular weight:
59085.45
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular weight:
57882.48
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has a potential importance for extrahepatic xenobiotic metabolism.
Gene Name:
CYP2S1
Uniprot ID:
Q96SQ9
Molecular weight:
55816.205
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly via a NADPH-dependent olefin epoxidation to all four regioisomeric cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. One of the predominant enzymes responsible for the epoxidation of endogenous cardiac arachidonic acid pools.
Gene Name:
CYP2J2
Uniprot ID:
P51589
Molecular weight:
57610.165
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2A7
Uniprot ID:
P20853
Molecular weight:
56424.735
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular weight:
56517.005
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Membrane-associated phospholipase. Exhibits a calcium-independent broad substrate specificity including phospholipase A2/lysophospholipase activity. Preferential hydrolysis at the sn-2 position of diacylphospholipids and diacyglycerol, whereas it shows no positional specificity toward triacylglycerol. Exhibits also esterase activity toward p-nitrophenyl. May act on the brush border membrane to facilitate the absorption of digested lipids (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PLB1
Uniprot ID:
Q6P1J6
Molecular weight:
161711.9
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
A0N0X8
Molecular weight:
58164.8
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 that selectively hydrolyzes glycerophospholipids in the sn-2 position. Not arachidonic acid-specific but has linoleic acid-specific activity. May play a role in inflammation in psoriatic lesions.
Gene Name:
PLA2G4D
Uniprot ID:
Q86XP0
Molecular weight:
91951.405
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 that selectively hydrolyzes glycerophospholipids in the sn-2 position (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PLA2G4E
Uniprot ID:
Q3MJ16
Molecular weight:
99189.335
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 that selectively hydrolyzes glycerophospholipids in the sn-2 position. Has higher enzyme activity for phosphatidylethanolamine than phosphatidylcholine (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PLA2G4F
Uniprot ID:
Q68DD2
Molecular weight:
95081.5
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 that selectively hydrolyzes glycerophospholipids in the sn-2 position with a preference for arachidonoyl phospholipids. Has a much weaker activity than PLA2G4A. Isoform 3 has calcium-dependent activity against palmitoyl-arachidonyl-phosphatidylethanolamine and low level lysophospholipase activity but no activity against phosphatidylcholine. Isoform 5 does have activity against phosphatidylcholine.
Gene Name:
PLA2G4B
Uniprot ID:
P0C869
Molecular weight:
87977.02
Reactions
Phosphatidylcholine + Water → 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Linoleic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
Q6NWU0
Molecular weight:
55729.9

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 52 proteins in total.